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Abstract

Economists and sociologists have proposed arguments for why there can exist wage penalties for work involving helping and caring for others, penalties borne disproportionately by women. Evidence on wage penalties is neither abundant nor compelling. We examine wage differentials associated with caring jobs using multiple years of Current Population Survey (CPS) earnings files matched to O*NET job descriptors that provide continuous measures of “assisting & caring” and “concern” for others across all occupations. This approach differs from prior studies that assume occupations either do or do not require a high level of caring. Cross-section and longitudinal analyses are used to examine wage differences associated with the level of caring, conditioned on worker, location, and job attributes. Wage level estimates suggest substantive caring penalties, particularly among men. Longitudinal estimates based on wage changes among job switchers indicate smaller wage penalties, our preferred estimate being a 2% wage penalty resulting from a one standard deviation increase in our caring index. We find little difference in caring wage gaps across the earnings distribution. Measuring mean levels of caring across the U.S. labor market over nearly thirty years, we find a steady upward trend, but overall changes are small and there is no evidence of convergence between women and men.

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Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Birgit Schyns and Sabine Sczesny

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy in management students. It is assumed that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy in management students. It is assumed that leadership‐relevant attributes are related to high self‐efficacy beliefs.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study management students from three different countries, namely Germany, Australia, and India, described to what degree they possess task‐ and person‐oriented leadership attributes and indicate their occupational self‐efficacy for their future profession. Data were analysed using regression analyses.

Findings

As expected, leadership‐relevant attributes were related to occupational self‐efficacy. Some support was found for the assumption that ratings of the importance of relevant attributes moderates the relationship between reported leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy but only for task‐oriented attributes.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small so that comparisons between subgroups were not possible. All data were self‐reported.

Practical implications

The results are relevant for career counselling. Looking at self‐description of individuals in terms of attributes relevant to their future job rather than working directly on their occupational self‐efficacy could be emphasised.

Originality/value

The study provides initial hints at the relationship between self‐description and occupational self‐efficacy in connection with future managers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Rita Mano‐Negrin

Occupational preferences and subsequent turnover behaviour are part of a complex relationship between employees and their occupational and organizational labour markets…

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1579

Abstract

Occupational preferences and subsequent turnover behaviour are part of a complex relationship between employees and their occupational and organizational labour markets. Both markets contribute to matching skills and jobs. Differences in individual and occupational attributes can predict the direction and intensity of preferences for alternative organizations, occupations and job locations. Occupational preferences, which reflect the attractiveness of alternative positions within and outside the employing organization, are examined as central antecedents of occupation‐specific turnover behaviour. The results of a logistic regression analysis, based on a cross‐sectional occupational representative data set of 700 medical sector employees and a follow‐up sample of 81 “quitters”, suggest that turnover behaviour is influenced by organizational and occupational employment opportunities and occupational preferences.

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Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Julie L. Hotchkiss and Anil Rupasingha

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the importance of individual social capital characteristics in determining wages, both directly through their valuation by…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to assess the importance of individual social capital characteristics in determining wages, both directly through their valuation by employers and indirectly through their impact on individual occupational choice. We find that a person’s level of sociability and care for others works through both channels to explain wage differences between social and nonsocial occupations. Additionally, expected wages in each occupation type are found to be at least as important as a person’s level of social capital in choosing a social occupation. We make use of restricted 2000 Decennial Census and 2000 Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey.

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Jasmina Tomas, Darja Maslić Seršić and Hans De Witte

The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesized mediation model that specifies psychological climate dimensions as antecedents of job insecurity, while accounting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesized mediation model that specifies psychological climate dimensions as antecedents of job insecurity, while accounting for occupational self-efficacy. Stemming from the conservation of resources theory, the authors hypothesize that job challenge, role harmony, leader support and co-worker cooperation negatively relate to job insecurity due to its positive correlation with occupational self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a sample of 329 white-collar employees from the ICT sector who were employed full-time and for a period of at least six months in their current organization. All hypotheses were tested via structural equation modeling using the bootstrap method to test the significance of indirect effects.

Findings

Among the four work environment domains, only job challenge had a significant contribution in explaining job insecurity variance. This relationship was fully mediated by occupational self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional research design limits the ability to make causality inferences, while the convenience sampling method limits the generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

The study results indicate that well-designed (i.e. challenging, autonomous and important) job tasks may be advantageous in organizational interventions aimed at reducing job insecurity due to their potential to strengthen employees’ efficacy beliefs.

Originality/value

The study results contribute to current knowledge regarding the relative importance of work environment antecedents of job insecurity, as well as the prominent role played by occupational self-efficacy in explaining some of these relationships.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Irene Chew and Albert Teo

A number of studies conducted in the 1970s observed that males andfemales differed in their job attribute preferences. This studyrevisited the issue of gender differences…

Abstract

A number of studies conducted in the 1970s observed that males and females differed in their job attribute preferences. This study revisited the issue of gender differences in attribute preferences. Final‐year undergraduates (n= 270) were asked to rate 17 job attributes in terms of how important each was to them in choosing a job/employer. Results indicated that the effect of gender on job attribute preferences was generally weak. Other variables such as age, ethnicity, professional training area, and prior work experience also did not have a significant impact on undergraduates′ preferences.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Emer Smyth and Stephanie Steinmetz

This chapter seeks to provide insights into a hitherto neglected topic – that of gender segregation among those who have taken part in vocational education and training…

Abstract

This chapter seeks to provide insights into a hitherto neglected topic – that of gender segregation among those who have taken part in vocational education and training (VET). In spite of a growing body of work on the link between educational and occupational segregation by gender, relatively little attention has been given to the specific role played by VET in facilitating gender-specific occupational segregation. Using the European Social Survey (ESS) for 20 European countries and comparable macro data from different European sources, the study examines the extent to which cross-national differences in the gender-typical or atypical occupational allocation of vocational graduates aged 20–34 can be attributed to VET-specific institutional differences.

The findings are consistent with earlier research showing the protective role played by VET in reducing non-employment levels. The findings in relation to the gender-typing of work are somewhat surprising, as they indicate that VET system characteristics make relatively little difference to occupational outcomes among women, whether or not they have a VET qualification. Slightly stronger, but still modest, relationships are found between VET system characteristics and occupational outcomes for men. Male VET graduates are more likely to be in a male-typed job in systems with a higher proportion enrolled on vocational courses. In tracked systems, however, they also tend to be more likely to enter female-typed jobs. In systems where VET prepares people for a wider range of occupations, a VET qualification can act as a protective factor against non-employment, at least for men.

Details

Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Bastian Ravesteijn, Hans van Kippersluis and Eddy van Doorslaer

Health is distributed unequally by occupation. Workers on a lower rung of the occupational ladder report worse health, have a higher probability of disability and die…

Abstract

Health is distributed unequally by occupation. Workers on a lower rung of the occupational ladder report worse health, have a higher probability of disability and die earlier than workers higher up the occupational hierarchy. Using a theoretical framework that unveils some of the potential mechanisms underlying these disparities, three core insights emerge: (i) there is selection into occupation on the basis of initial wealth, education and health, (ii) there will be behavioural responses to adverse working conditions, which can have compensating or reinforcing effects on health and (iii) workplace conditions increase health inequalities if workers with initially low socio-economic status choose harmful occupations and don’t offset detrimental health effects. We provide empirical illustrations of these insights using data for the Netherlands and assess the evidence available in the economics literature.

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Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2003

Walter C Borman, Jerry W Hedge, Kerri L Ferstl, Jennifer D Kaufman, William L Farmer and Ronald M Bearden

This chapter provides a contemporary view of state-of-the science research and thinking done in the areas of selection and classification. It takes as a starting point the…

Abstract

This chapter provides a contemporary view of state-of-the science research and thinking done in the areas of selection and classification. It takes as a starting point the observation that the world of work is undergoing important changes that are likely to result in different occupational and organizational structures. In this context, we review recent research on criteria, especially models of job performance, followed by sections on predictors, including ability, personality, vocational interests, biodata, and situational judgment tests. The paper also discusses person-organization fit models, as alternatives or complements to the traditional person-job fit paradigm.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-174-3

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