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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2018

I.M. Jawahar, Bert Schreurs and Shawn J. Mohammed

In spite of the recent meta-analysis by Martin et al. (2016), we have very little insight about the theoretical mechanism explaining the leader–member…

Abstract

Purpose

In spite of the recent meta-analysis by Martin et al. (2016), we have very little insight about the theoretical mechanism explaining the leader–member exchange–counterproductive work behavior (LMX–CWB) relationship. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this paper is to test if occupational self-efficacy functions as a mediating mechanism to explain the relationship between LMX quality and counterproductive performance directed toward the supervisor. In addition, based on the conservation of resources theory, the paper investigates if supervisor–subordinate relationship tenure acted as a second-stage moderator of this mediated relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two-wave time-lagged data from a sample of 189 high-tech professionals to test the hypotheses, controlling for age, sex, and trust.

Findings

The results of this paper showed that occupational self-efficacy carried the effect of LMX quality on counterproductive performance, but only for workers who have longer supervisor–subordinate relationship tenure.

Originality/value

This paper is unique in proposing and testing a social cognitive mechanism to explain the relationship between LMX quality and counterproductive performance. As Johns (2017) advocated, the authors incorporated length of time, a contextual variable into this study by investigating supervisor–subordinate relationship tenure as moderating the proposed mediated relationship.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Birgit Schyns and Sabine Sczesny

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy in management students. It is assumed that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy in management students. It is assumed that leadership‐relevant attributes are related to high self‐efficacy beliefs.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study management students from three different countries, namely Germany, Australia, and India, described to what degree they possess task‐ and person‐oriented leadership attributes and indicate their occupational self‐efficacy for their future profession. Data were analysed using regression analyses.

Findings

As expected, leadership‐relevant attributes were related to occupational self‐efficacy. Some support was found for the assumption that ratings of the importance of relevant attributes moderates the relationship between reported leadership‐relevant attributes and occupational self‐efficacy but only for task‐oriented attributes.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small so that comparisons between subgroups were not possible. All data were self‐reported.

Practical implications

The results are relevant for career counselling. Looking at self‐description of individuals in terms of attributes relevant to their future job rather than working directly on their occupational self‐efficacy could be emphasised.

Originality/value

The study provides initial hints at the relationship between self‐description and occupational self‐efficacy in connection with future managers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Birgit Schyns and Karin Sanders

This study focuses on gender differences in the relationship between transformational leadership and leader's occupational self‐efficacy. The aim is to explain how female…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on gender differences in the relationship between transformational leadership and leader's occupational self‐efficacy. The aim is to explain how female and male leaders develop their self‐efficacy. This knowledge is important for leaders as well as organizations (e.g. human resources departments).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 58 leaders were asked to indicate their transformational leadership as well as their occupational self‐efficacy, and 113 followers to indicate these leaders' transformational leadership. Hypotheses were examined using regression analyses.

Findings

We found no significant relationship between self‐rated transformational leadership and occupational self‐efficacy for women, although we did find a positive relationship for men. No interaction effect with respect to leaders' occupational self‐efficacy could be found between leaders' gender and follower‐rated transformational leadership.

Research limitations/implications

Whereas the relationship between transformational leadership and occupational self‐efficacy was examined for men and women, we could not examine the processes that lead to the differences.

Practical implications

Knowing that female and male leaders differ in the relationship between transformational leadership and occupational self‐efficacy can help organizations to seek ways to build up their occupational self‐efficacy. This is especially important when considering that occupational self‐efficacy is related to performance in organizations.

Originality/value

The paper employs both leader and follower evaluations on leaders' transformational leadership to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and occupational self‐efficacy. The paper sheds light on the different processes involved in establishing occupational self‐efficacy.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Rosanne L. Hartman and Emily G. Barber

While women perform as well as their male counterparts at work, women are drastically underrepresented in the onboarding process to senior leadership. The link between…

Abstract

Purpose

While women perform as well as their male counterparts at work, women are drastically underrepresented in the onboarding process to senior leadership. The link between occupational self-efficacy and the role it may play in how men and women make decisions about work has not been done. The purpose of this study is to examine potential differences of occupational self-efficacy, career aspirations and work engagement between women and men.

Design/methodology/approach

Online surveys were created and sent out as emails and on social network sites including Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

Findings

Findings indicate that occupational self-efficacy has positive effect on career aspirations of women in the workplace. Further, there was no statistically significant difference between occupational self-efficacy and work engagement between men and women. However, men were found to have statistically significantly higher career aspirations than women do.

Research limitations/implications

While men and women do not differ in occupational self-efficacy or work engagement, men do have higher career aspirations than women do. Although women may believe they can accomplish challenging tasks in the workplace, it does not mean this belief is acted upon.

Practical implications

The study highlights the importance of occupational self-efficacy and its relation to career aspirations. Individuals who are high in occupational self-efficacy may set their own path in advancing within their career. However, individuals who are low or moderate in occupational self-efficacy may require further encouragement and development using additional resources as a catalyst for advancement guidance. While no differences were found between men and women in occupational self-efficacy, human resource practitioners should develop those individuals who are low or moderate in occupational self-efficacy with coaching, training and/or mentoring to build leadership capacity, increase self-efficacy and career-planning acumen.

Social implications

Men and women behave differently when seeking career advancement and in their career aspirations. For men, advancement is linked to performance whereas women use a multi-pronged approach focusing on preparing for career success and building role competency. Differences in strategy for advancement mean men will actively engage in behaviors to advance even when they do not have the knowledge or experience to perform in the new role. Conversely, women seek to feel competent in a work role prior to seeking it out. Finding ways to mentor women toward higher self-efficacy for their next career advancement will benefit organizations overall.

Originality/value

Research examining the role of occupational self-efficacy and its relation to career aspirations does not exist in comparing men and women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Rita Chiesa, Stefano Toderi, Paola Dordoni, Kene Henkens, Elena Maria Fiabane and Ilaria Setti

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy. First, the authors intend to test the measurement invariance of Henkens’s (2005) age stereotypes scale across two age group, respectively, under 50 and 50 years and older. Then, the moderator role of age groups in the relationship between age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey involved a large sample of 4,667 Italian bank sector’s employees.

Findings

The results show the invariance of the three dimensional structure of organizational stereotypes towards older workers scale: productivity, reliability and adaptability. Furthermore, the moderation is confirmed: the relationship between organizational age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy is significant only for older respondents.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should aim to replicate the findings with longitudinal designs.

Practical implications

The study suggests the importance to emphasize the positive characteristics of older workers and to reduce the presence of negative age stereotypes in the workplace, especially in order to foster the occupational self-efficacy of older workers.

Originality/value

The findings are especially relevant in view of the lack of evidence about the relationship between age stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Tracy F.H. Chang

This study develops a social psychological model to account for women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility. The model delineates that occupational gender composition…

Abstract

This study develops a social psychological model to account for women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility. The model delineates that occupational gender composition affects women’s psychological experience (experience of sex discrimination, self‐efficacy, and gender role ideology), and that this psychological experience, in turn, contributes to their mobility between male‐dominated and female‐dominated occupations. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Young Women data, the study finds that occupational gender composition affects women’s report of experience of sex discrimination but not self‐efficacy or gender role ideology. Self‐efficacy contributes to women’s gender‐typed occupational mobility, but experience of sex discrimination and gender role ideology do not. The direction for future research is discussed.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Farzaneh Yazdani, Tore Bonsaksen, Dave Roberts, Ka Yan Hess and Samaneh Karamali Esmaili

The purpose of this paper is to investigate psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self (SETUS) scales, a questionnaire based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Use of Self (SETUS) scales, a questionnaire based on the Intentional Relationship model, and to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the English version of three-part SETUS questionnaire in occupational therapy students.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of this cross-sectional study included 155 students with age range 18–30 years, of which 95% were women. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the questionnaire scales, including the Self-Efficacy for Therapeutic Mode Use (SETMU), Self-Efficacy for Recognizing Interpersonal Characteristics (SERIC) and Self-Efficacy for Managing Interpersonal Events (SEMIE). The internal consistencies were calculated. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the strength of correlation among the scales.

Findings

The PCA confirmed that the items of each of the three proposed scales loaded strongly on one factor (self-efficacy for three factors of therapeutic mode use, recognizing interpersonal characteristics and managing interpersonal events). The Cronbach’s alpha for the SETMU, SERIC and SEMIE was 0.85, 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The three scales significantly inter-correlated strongly (r ranging 0.74–0.83, all p < 0.001).

Originality/value

The SETUS questionnaire comprises three valid and reliable scales. It can be used by occupational therapy supervisors as a means to reflect on students’ self-efficacy in components of therapeutic use of self.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Erez Yaakobi and Jacob Weisberg

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for predicting three facets of employee performance (quality, innovation and efficiency) based on the evaluation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for predicting three facets of employee performance (quality, innovation and efficiency) based on the evaluation of individual (self and occupational), group (collective) and organizational (means) efficacies.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 109 managers employed mainly in high-tech industries evaluated their employees’ quality, innovation and efficiency performance. The employees’ efficacies were also evaluated on three organizational levels.

Findings

Evaluation of employees’ self-efficacy accounted for most of the explained variance for all performance facets. Evaluation of group efficacy added incremental explained variance to the general performance as well as to the innovation performance and efficiency performance. Evaluation of means efficacy (provided to employees) added incremental explained variance to the general performance as well as to the innovation performance and the efficiency of performance. Male managers differed from female managers in their predictions of employees’ performance.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the concurrent effects of four types of efficacies, based on three organizational levels, in predicting performance. It also examines three facets of performance instead of only a general performance measure. It presents a model of the relative importance of these efficacies in predicting facets of performance.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Birgit Schyns, Nicole Torka and Tobias Gössling

“Turnover intention” is defined as an employee's intention to voluntarily change jobs or companies. The purpose of this paper is to set “turnover intention” in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

“Turnover intention” is defined as an employee's intention to voluntarily change jobs or companies. The purpose of this paper is to set “turnover intention” in relation to “preparedness for change”. The former relates to the change of jobs or companies, the latter to employees' willingness to change their current workplace. Both phenomena relate to employability, i.e. an employee's adaptability to changing internal (i.e. the current employer) and external labour market demands. The main aim of this paper is to compare both phenomena and identify antecedents of employability, namely, leader‐member exchange (LMX) and occupational self‐efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire study was conducted in two samples of German and Dutch employees.

Findings

Results indicate that the two concepts (turnover intention, preparedness for change) are, to some extent, related and show, to some extent, similar relationships to the antecedents.

Research limitations/implications

In both samples, self‐reported data were used as well as a cross‐sectional design.

Practical implications

The results highlight that the direct supervisor of employees may serve as an organization's agent, with a determining influence on the employees' attitudes and behaviours towards the respective organization.

Originality/value

For the first time, turnover intention and “preparedness for change” are considered in one study and the mutual relationship is investigated.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Hai-jiang Wang, Xiao Chen and Chang-qin Lu

Career dissatisfaction can be defined as an unpleasant or a negative emotional state that results from the appraisal of one’s career. This negative affective appraisal…

Abstract

Purpose

Career dissatisfaction can be defined as an unpleasant or a negative emotional state that results from the appraisal of one’s career. This negative affective appraisal might motivate an individual to take actions to improve the situation. This paper examines career dissatisfaction as a trigger for employee job crafting in terms of altering the task and the relational boundaries of the work.

Methodology/methodology/approach

The paper further theorizes that employee contextual resource (i.e., job social support) and personal resource (i.e., occupational self-efficacy) will interact with career dissatisfaction to result in job crafting. Two-wave data were collected from a sample of 246 Chinese employees.

Findings

As hypothesized, employees with career dissatisfaction exhibited the highest levels of task and relational job crafting when they received adequate support from coworkers and supervisors and were confident about their occupational abilities.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that under certain conditions employee career dissatisfaction could be transformed into proactive work behavior (i.e., job crafting).

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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