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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Gyles Glover, Anna Christie and Chris Hatton

The purpose of this paper is to present information from the Joint Health and Social Care Self-Assessment Framework (JHSCSAF) on reported rates of cervical cancer, breast…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present information from the Joint Health and Social Care Self-Assessment Framework (JHSCSAF) on reported rates of cervical cancer, breast cancer and bowel cancer screening for eligible people with learning disabilities in England in 2012/2013 compared to screening rates for the general population.

Design/methodology/approach

Between 94 and 101 Learning Disability Partnership Boards, as part of the JHSCSAF, provided information to allow the calculation of rates of cervical cancer, breast cancer and bowel cancer screening in their locality, for eligible people with learning disabilities and for the population as a whole.

Findings

At a national level, reported cancer screening coverage for eligible people with learning disabilities was substantially lower than for the population as a whole (cervical cancer screening 27.6 per cent of people with learning disabilities vs 70 per cent of total population; breast cancer screening 36.8 per cent of people with learning disabilities vs 57.8 per cent of total population; bowel cancer screening 28.1 per cent of people with learning disabilities vs 40.5 per cent of the general population). There were considerable geographical variations in reported coverage for all three screening programmes.

Originality/value

Consistent with previous research, localities in England report cancer screening rates for eligible people with learning disabilities considerably below those of the general population. There is an urgent need to address data availability and quality issues, as well as reasonable adjustments to cancer screening programmes to ensure uniformly high rates of cancer screening for people with learning disabilities across England.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Brenda Leese, Phil Heywood, Victoria Allgar, Reg Walker, Aamra Darr and Ikhlaq Din

Primary care cancer lead clinicians (PCCLs) act strategically in primary care trusts (PCTs) in England to improve communication and understanding of cancer across primary…

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493

Abstract

Purpose

Primary care cancer lead clinicians (PCCLs) act strategically in primary care trusts (PCTs) in England to improve communication and understanding of cancer across primary and secondary care and provide a link between Cancer Networks and primary care. The aim is to evaluate the first three years of the initiative.

Design/methodology/approach

A postal questionnaire was sent to all PCT chief executives in all PCTs in England and some were passed on to other PCT managers for completion. The response rate was 61 per cent. PCT directors of public health were the largest group of respondents (29 per cent). Most (74 per cent) PCCLs were GPs and 22 per cent were nurses.

Findings

PCCLs were most likely to focus on palliative care and preventive services. Key achievements were identified as raising awareness of cancer, developing relationships and promoting primary care. The personal skills of the PCCLs were important as was support of colleagues at all levels. Lack of time was a major barrier to achievement, as was a lack of understanding of the role from others. Links with the Cancer Networks were being developed. About 85 per cent of managers wanted the role to continue.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that PCCLs are at the forefront of improving cancer services in primary care. They are particularly important in view of the priority of reducing premature deaths and promotion of healthy lifestyles.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Willa J. Thomas

To gain a better understanding of the importance of the control of cancer, one must first know and understand certain basic facts about the disease. Cancer is the…

Abstract

To gain a better understanding of the importance of the control of cancer, one must first know and understand certain basic facts about the disease. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells. Cancer detection tests determine whether neoplasms (new, abnormal cells) are benign (non‐cancerous) units, or malignant, health‐threatening growths. Of the hundreds of known cancers, there are four types principally affecting humans: sarcoma, cancer of connective tissue and muscles; carcinoma, cancer of lining tissues; leukemia, cancer of blood‐forming tissue; and lymphoma, cancer of lymphatic tissue. Detailed scientific and medical information on cancer can be found in texts written by authorities such as Ruddon (1981).

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Marianne Cirone

The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions regarding how cancer resource center directors, staff and volunteers may encourage men battling cancer, as well as male…

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175

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide suggestions regarding how cancer resource center directors, staff and volunteers may encourage men battling cancer, as well as male cancer survivors, to patronize cancer resource centers and to participate in center services.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a personal viewpoint based on research and on the author’s managerial experiences with cancer resource center services, including planning services and programming.

Findings

This paper offers cancer resource center directors suggestions regarding how they can attract male cancer patients to their organizations and encourage their participation in center services.

Research limitations/implications

No limitations were identified.

Practical implications

This paper provides possible strategies for overcoming barriers to access to cancer resource centers in the male cancer-survivor population.

Social implications

Given the medical costs associated with cancer care, encouraging men with cancer to actively participate in cancer resource center programming, which profoundly influences their physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being, can yield many societal benefits.

Originality/value

Cancer resource centers desire to be inclusive of all cancer patients, regardless of gender; however, these centers tend to be disproportionally patronized by women with cancer. This viewpoint addresses how this problem may be addressed via service enhancement, service programming and service design to encourage greater usage by men.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

King Kam and Brian H. Kleiner

Worldwide, there are over six million new cancer cases and more than four million cancer deaths each year. Today, millions of people in the workforce have a history of…

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235

Abstract

Worldwide, there are over six million new cancer cases and more than four million cancer deaths each year. Today, millions of people in the workforce have a history of cancer. Therefore, employers are seeing incidents of cancer among their employees. Many cancer survivors experience discrimination because of their cancer history. How to protect employees with cancer and what are their legal rights become very important to both employees and employers.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Emmanuel Ehiwe, Paula McGee, Mike Filby and Kate Thomson

Cancer discussion is perceived as a taboo subject among different cultures and societies including Africans. This perception has caused limited knowledge about the disease…

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260

Abstract

Purpose

Cancer discussion is perceived as a taboo subject among different cultures and societies including Africans. This perception has caused limited knowledge about the disease and prevented some from seeking early diagnosis and treatment. With West Africans now living in western societies where cancer is openly discussed, this study aims to explore how black Africans perceive the disease and the implications for healthcare.

Design/methodology/approach

Five focus groups of 53 persons from Ghanaian and Nigerian migrant communities in Luton participated in this study.

Findings

Perceptions of fear, shame and denial were identified as key elements of how people perceive and react to cancer among the study population.

Originality/value

Secrecy and apprehension were identified as major barriers and have prevented some from adequately accessing and utilizing cancer facilities in the country. The feelings of fear, secrecy and stigma associated with the disease across different ethnic groups, cultures and nations also exist among the study population. These outcomes are similar and chime with published findings of limited cancer perception research among other ethnic groups and races here in the UK and across the globe.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Becky Chandler

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health…

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4194

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health recommendations can help prevent cancer.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature searches were conducted to find the most up‐to‐date and relevant literature on diet, obesity and cancer to be included in this paper.

Findings

The World Cancer Report predicts that worldwide new cases of cancer will increase by 50 per cent by 2020 and will present a huge challenge for health and cancer support services. However, it is estimated that eating healthily, staying physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight could reduce cancer risk by 30–40 per cent. Evidence suggests that a plant‐based diet including fibre rich foods and a wide range of vitamins and minerals may offer cancer protection, while obesity and low levels of physical activity may increase cancer risk. In 1997 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) produced a pioneering international report: Food Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. The report drew attention to several links between diet and cancer prevention, and made diet and health recommendations to guide health policy and help reduce cancer risk. Adhering to these guidelines has now been shown to predict risk of and mortality from cancer. WCRF/AICR are compiling a second report which will systematically review published research on food, nutrition (including obesity), physical activity and cancer prevention. Also included will be the new and emerging area of nutrition and lifestyle factors for cancer survivors.

Originality/value

Information is presented to give non‐experts a general, up‐to‐date overview on the links between diet, obesity and cancer prevention.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Wynnie Chan

Outlines the main proven dietary links for various forms of cancer – breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, bladder, gastric, cervical and ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic…

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1484

Abstract

Outlines the main proven dietary links for various forms of cancer – breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, bladder, gastric, cervical and ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, oesophageal, laryngeal, oral and pharyngeal, testicular and melanoma. Provides some practical dietary advice in line with the UK Government’s recommendations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Swetha Parvatha Reddy Chandrasekhara, Mohan G. Kabadi and Srivinay

This study has mainly aimed to compare and contrast two completely different image processing algorithms that are very adaptive for detecting prostate cancer using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has mainly aimed to compare and contrast two completely different image processing algorithms that are very adaptive for detecting prostate cancer using wearable Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Cancer in these modern times is still considered as one of the most dreaded disease, which is continuously pestering the mankind over a past few decades. According to Indian Council of Medical Research, India alone registers about 11.5 lakh cancer related cases every year and closely up to 8 lakh people die with cancer related issues each year. Earlier the incidence of prostate cancer was commonly seen in men aged above 60 years, but a recent study has revealed that this type of cancer has been on rise even in men between the age groups of 35 and 60 years as well. These findings make it even more necessary to prioritize the research on diagnosing the prostate cancer at an early stage, so that the patients can be cured and can lead a normal life.

Design/methodology/approach

The research focuses on two types of feature extraction algorithms, namely, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) that are commonly used in medical image processing, in an attempt to discover and improve the gap present in the potential detection of prostate cancer in medical IoT. Later the results obtained by these two strategies are classified separately using a machine learning based classification model called multi-class support vector machine (SVM). Owing to the advantage of better tissue discrimination and contrast resolution, magnetic resonance imaging images have been considered for this study. The classification results obtained for both the SIFT as well as GLCM methods are then compared to check, which feature extraction strategy provides the most accurate results for diagnosing the prostate cancer.

Findings

The potential of both the models has been evaluated in terms of three aspects, namely, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Each model’s result was checked against diversified ranges of training and test data set. It was found that the SIFT-multiclass SVM model achieved a highest performance rate of 99.9451% accuracy, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity at 40:60 ratio of the training and testing data set.

Originality/value

The SIFT-multi SVM versus GLCM-multi SVM based comparison has been introduced for the first time to perceive the best model to be used for the accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer. The performance of the classification for each of the feature extraction strategies is enumerated in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Nageswara Rao Eluri, Gangadhara Rao Kancharla, Suresh Dara and Venkatesulu Dondeti

Gene selection is considered as the fundamental process in the bioinformatics field. The existing methodologies pertain to cancer classification are mostly clinical basis…

Abstract

Purpose

Gene selection is considered as the fundamental process in the bioinformatics field. The existing methodologies pertain to cancer classification are mostly clinical basis, and its diagnosis capability is limited. Nowadays, the significant problems of cancer diagnosis are solved by the utilization of gene expression data. The researchers have been introducing many possibilities to diagnose cancer appropriately and effectively. This paper aims to develop the cancer data classification using gene expression data.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed classification model involves three main phases: “(1) Feature extraction, (2) Optimal Feature Selection and (3) Classification”. Initially, five benchmark gene expression datasets are collected. From the collected gene expression data, the feature extraction is performed. To diminish the length of the feature vectors, optimal feature selection is performed, for which a new meta-heuristic algorithm termed as quantum-inspired immune clone optimization algorithm (QICO) is used. Once the relevant features are selected, the classification is performed by a deep learning model called recurrent neural network (RNN). Finally, the experimental analysis reveals that the proposed QICO-based feature selection model outperforms the other heuristic-based feature selection and optimized RNN outperforms the other machine learning methods.

Findings

The proposed QICO-RNN is acquiring the best outcomes at any learning percentage. On considering the learning percentage 85, the accuracy of the proposed QICO-RNN was 3.2% excellent than RNN, 4.3% excellent than RF, 3.8% excellent than NB and 2.1% excellent than KNN for Dataset 1. For Dataset 2, at learning percentage 35, the accuracy of the proposed QICO-RNN was 13.3% exclusive than RNN, 8.9% exclusive than RF and 14.8% exclusive than NB and KNN. Hence, the developed QICO algorithm is performing well in classifying the cancer data using gene expression data accurately.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new optimal feature selection model using QICO and QICO-based RNN for effective classification of cancer data using gene expression data. This is the first work that utilizes an optimal feature selection model using QICO and QICO-RNN for effective classification of cancer data using gene expression data.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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