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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Rowaida Yawar, Muhammad Aqeel, Maryam Rafiq, Saher Navid, Nabiha Taufiq, Areesha Touqir and Moazma Imran

Fear of rejection is a feeling experienced by every human, which influences everyday life. It impacts an individual’s physical and mental health. But still there is no…

Abstract

Purpose

Fear of rejection is a feeling experienced by every human, which influences everyday life. It impacts an individual’s physical and mental health. But still there is no valid and reliable measure to assess prevalence of fear of rejection because of interpersonal relationships and social factors. This paper aims to serve the purpose of the establishment of psychometric properties of a scale that measures the fear of rejection.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered from focus groups to establish item pool and construct the instrument. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the data collected by administering fear of rejection scale (FRS) and it uncovered the structure of the developed scale. Principal component analysis method was conducted by using direct oblimin rotation.

Findings

A two-factor structure, which includes interpersonal relationships and social factors, was obtained as a result of EFA. The internal consistency of the scale is highly acceptable with a = 0.93, which indicated that the scale is highly reliable. High reliability of subscales was attained as a = 0.90 and 0.86, respectively.

Originality/value

This research paper is original, which aims to assess the fear of rejection in terms of social and interpersonal rejection. The data collected is valid and authentic. The FRS is constructed with highly reliable results and is a psychometrically sound instrument.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Alex Scrimpshire and Marcia Lensges

The purpose of this paper is to study how the interplay of the emotion of fear and the personality trait of resilience affect time to reemployment after job termination…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how the interplay of the emotion of fear and the personality trait of resilience affect time to reemployment after job termination. The authors carried out the research by extending affective events theory (AET) beyond the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a conceptual paper intended to lay the groundwork for future analysis in the areas of fear and resilience, specifically in the time after job termination.

Findings

The paper suggests that fear is a natural response to job termination, and there are two responses to fear: one of action to rid oneself of fear (“fight or flight”) and one of paralysis, in which an individual remains in a fear state. The authors put forth that one's level of resilience is a factor in determining time to reemployment.

Originality/value

While there are numerous studies on the role emotions play in the workplace and in particular, the role of fear about potentially getting fired, there are few, if any, studies on the role of fear after losing a job. The authors feel this is a warranted area of study as fear can have both positive and negative responses. The authors also contend that a major diver of these fear responses is an individual's level of resilience, and this can be a significant predictor of the individual's time to reemployment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Shamala Kumar, Pavithra Kailasapathy and Achira Sedari Mudiyanselage

Although the impostor phenomenon is attributed to childhood experiences, theory on achievement motivation indicates that achievement-related fears can also be elicited by…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the impostor phenomenon is attributed to childhood experiences, theory on achievement motivation indicates that achievement-related fears can also be elicited by the context. Using achievement goal theory as a base, the authors investigate the effect of context-dependent predictors, job-fit, career stage and organisational tenure, on impostor fears. The authors also examined gender and the achievement-related traits, self-efficacy and locus of control, as predictors of impostor fears to advance knowledge on antecedents to impostor fears.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted with 270 and 280 participants, each. In Study 1, a subset of 12 respondents participated in follow-up interviews.

Findings

Impostor fears tended to be predicted by organisational tenure and career stage in both studies and job-fit in Study 1. Self-efficacy and locus of control predicted impostor fears. Men and women reported similar levels of impostor fears.

Practical implications

The authors demonstrate the importance of context in eliciting impostor fears and partially support initial descriptions of antecedents to impostor fears. The findings contribute to the development of targeted managerial practices that can help with the development of interventions, such as orientation programmes, that will enhance socialisation processes and mitigate impostor fears.

Originality/value

The literature on imposter fears has not addressed their situational predictors, which the authors argue are important elements in the genesis and maintenance of impostor fears. The authors draw on achievement goal theory to explain the pattern of findings related to key situational characteristics and their influence on imposter fears. The findings for Sri Lanka, on personality predictors, are similar to those reported in studies focused on North America providing evidence of cross-cultural applicability of the concept.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Jongpil Park, Jai-Yeol Son and Kil-Soo Suh

Firms continue to struggle with end users who do not follow recommended actions for safeguarding information security. Thus, the authors utilize insights gained from…

Abstract

Purpose

Firms continue to struggle with end users who do not follow recommended actions for safeguarding information security. Thus, the authors utilize insights gained from studies on heuristic processing of risk information to design cues in fear appeal messages more effectively so as to more strongly engender fear among users, which can in turn lead them to take protective actions toward information security. Specifically, four types of fear appeal cues are identified: numeric risk communication, social distance and goal framing in verbal risk communication and visual risk communication.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from protection motivation theory, the authors hypothesize that these fear appeal cues can engender fear among users to a greater extent. In addition, the authors hypothesize that users will perceive a higher level of severity and susceptibility when they perceive a large amount of fear. The research hypotheses were tested employing data collected through a laboratory experiment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analyses were performed to analyze the data.

Findings

The study's results suggest that numeric and visual risk communication cues in security notices can significantly increase the amount of fear felt by users. In addition, social distance was found to marginally increase the amount of fear felt by users. However, unlike our expectation, goal framing was not found to increase the amount of fear when the other three types of fear appeal cues were also given in a security notice. It was also found that induced fear can increase the severity and susceptibility of threats as perceived by users.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on fear appeal cues designed to promote users' security protection behaviors. No prior study has designed security notices featuring the four different types of fear appeal cues and empirically tested the effectiveness of those cues in inducing fear among users. The findings suggest that the design of fear appeal cues can be improved by understanding individuals' heuristic processing of risk information, which can be subject to cognitive biases.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Ali Yavuz Polat, Ahmet Faruk Aysan, Hasan Tekin and Ahmet Semih Tunali

This study aims to investigate the effect of fear sentiment with a novel data set on Bitcoin’s (BTC) return, volatility and transaction volume. The authors divide the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of fear sentiment with a novel data set on Bitcoin’s (BTC) return, volatility and transaction volume. The authors divide the sample into two subperiods to capture the changing dynamics during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors retrieve the novel fear sentiment data from Thomson Reuters MarketPsych Indices (TRMI). The authors denote the subperiods as pre- and post-COVID-19 considering January 13, 2020, when the first COVID-19 confirmed case was reported outside China. The authors use bivariate vector autoregressive models given below with lag-length k, to investigate the dynamics between BTC variables and fear sentiment.

Findings

BTC market measures have dissimilar dynamics before and after the Coronavirus outbreak. The results reveal that due to the excessive uncertainty led by the outbreak, an increase in fear sentiment negatively affects the BTC returns more persistently and significantly. For the post-COVID-19 period, an increase in fear also results in more fluctuations in transaction volume while its initial and cumulative effects are both negative. Due to extreme uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, investors may trade more aggressively in the initial phases of the shock.

Practical implications

The authors are convinced that the results in this paper have more far-reaching implications for other markets regulated by the states. BTC provides a natural benchmark to understand how fear sentiment drives and impacts the markets isolated from any interventions. Hence, the results show that in the absence of regulatory frameworks, market dynamics are likely to be more volatile and the fear sentiment has more persistent impacts. The authors also highlight the importance of using micro, asset-specific sentiment measures to capture market dynamics better.

Originality/value

BTC is not associated with any regulatory authority and is not produced by the governments and central banks. COVID-19 as a natural experiment provides an opportunity to explore the pure effects of market sentiment on BTC considering its decentralized and unregulated features. The paper has two main contributions. First, the authors use BTC-specific fear sentiment novel data set of TRMI instead of more general market sentiments used in the existing studies. Next, this is the first study to examine the association between fear and BTC before and after COVID-19.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2011

Terence Laing and Michelle Davies

The current study investigated fear of crime and perceived risk of victimisation in a general population sample of gay and heterosexual men in the United Kingdom. 55 gay…

Abstract

The current study investigated fear of crime and perceived risk of victimisation in a general population sample of gay and heterosexual men in the United Kingdom. 55 gay and 57 heterosexual men were recruited via opportunity sampling, in Manchester, north‐west England. They were required to complete a questionnaire asking about their fear of becoming a victim of several different types of crime, their perceived risk of victimisation, types of avoidance behaviours in which they partake, and experiences of crime.Results indicated that gay men had higher levels of fear and perceived risk of victimisation than heterosexual men, for most crimes tested. Avoidance of crime, and personal experience of victimisation significantly related to both fear of crime and perceived risk of victimisation. Risk of victimisation, being gay, previously having been victimised and experience of incivilities were highlighted as key factors predicting levels of fear.In conclusion, methodological issues and future research are considered.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Tamara Gajić, Marko D. Petrović, Ivana Blešić, Milan M. Radovanović and Julia A. Syromiatnikova

During the pandemic, two types of fear were identified that occur significantly in all groups or profiles of people. The aim of this paper is to determine which of the two…

Abstract

Purpose

During the pandemic, two types of fear were identified that occur significantly in all groups or profiles of people. The aim of this paper is to determine which of the two types of fears exist in certain psychological groups, and which of the fears strongly influence the decision to travel.

Design/methodology/approach

The VALS 2 method and standardized questionnaire were used for the segmentation of the tourist market or for the determination of the psychographic profiles of the consumers, and three additional questions were joined to it as they were vital for the research of the type of fear and its impact on the decision for traveling. When the reliability of the questionnaire and the validity of the sample were determined, the data were further processed using a computer program package IMB AMOS SPSS 21.00, and then, based on the theoretical suppositions and hypotheses, the SEM structural model was created.

Findings

The paper indicates the existence of established types of fears in humans, when it comes to pandemics and similar crisis situations. People are most afraid of infection during travel, and lack of funds and job loss during the critical period of the pandemic. The research conducted confirms that all groups of people, who are determined by the psychological technique VALS 2, react with a certain dose of fear and make decisions under the pressure of fears.

Research limitations/implications

The research had limitations in terms of contact with people and conducting live surveys. The measures during the pandemic, which were carried out by the state, included social distance and limited movement of people.

Practical implications

The work can contribute to the community, along with similar research. The results of the research will be available, and it will be possible to see the behavior of people during crisis situations, and the impact of fears on making decisions, both travel decisions and decisions related to other areas of life.

Originality/value

The paper provides research results on a large sample of respondents, and can serve as a basis for further research in the field of tourism, psychology and similar fields. It is crucial to consider the type of fears, and the strength of the impact of these fears on the decision to travel, during crisis situations.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

David J. Burns, Chris Manolis and William W. Keep

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of fear of crime on consumer shopping intentions at a secondary business district in the USA.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of fear of crime on consumer shopping intentions at a secondary business district in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methodologies are used to first develop factors associated with fear of crime. These factors are then tested quantitatively with a sample of residents from a community bordering an established secondary shopping district. The model, which also includes behavior and subjective social norms as explanatory variables, is tested using multiple ordinary least square regression.

Findings

Only a single factor associated with fear of crime (which includes measures of vagrancies, lighting, and cleanliness) is found to be significantly related to shopping intentions. The findings do not differ between males and females. The remaining five factors associated with fear of crime are not significantly related to shopping intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is limited to a single location and measures shopping intentions but not actual shopping activity. Future research can build in these two areas.

Practical implications

Retailers located in older shopping districts are challenged to renew interest among shoppers. This paper suggests that by focusing on a few key environmental characteristics, retailers can reduce the fear of crime and improve consumers' shopping intentions.

Originality/value

Given the many older, secondary shopping districts, this paper is one of a few to link specific shopping district characteristics to fear of crime and shopping intentions.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Bahadur Ali Soomro and Naimatullah Shah

In the present era, entrepreneurs’ well-being is considered a significant factor owing to its strong relationship with entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present era, entrepreneurs’ well-being is considered a significant factor owing to its strong relationship with entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship between fear of failure and entrepreneurs’ well-being through the mediating effect of procrastination.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is descriptive, with cross-sectional data obtained through a survey questionnaire distributed randomly in Pakistan. Overall, data from 346 valid cases were used to achieve suitable study outcomes.

Findings

This study’s empirical findings highlight the negative effect of fear of failure on subjective well-being. Fear of failure is found to have a significant positive effect on procrastination. Furthermore, procrastination has a negative effect on subjective well-being. Finally, procrastination has a negative role in mediating the relationship between fear of failure and subjective well-being.

Practical implications

The conceptualization of the fear of failure and procrastination (direct and indirect) in relation to subjective well-being may offer a novel contribution in terms of a framework, policymaking and practice. Policymakers, top management and the government may consider the hindering effects of procrastination and fear of failure on entrepreneurs’ well-being and ventures’ success. The study findings may also enrich views in the literature on entrepreneurship and management, particularly in the developing country context.

Originality/value

This study could be helpful in eradicating the traps of procrastination and fear of failure, raising entrepreneurs’ confidence and levels of activity.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Shide Sadat Hashemi, Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji, Mostafa Azari and Seyed Hossein Razavi Hajiagha

This paper aims to recognise and identify fears of failure in the international entrepreneurship ecosystem and find the effects of these fears on each other to reduce…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to recognise and identify fears of failure in the international entrepreneurship ecosystem and find the effects of these fears on each other to reduce these increasing effects and minimise the mental barriers for potential entrepreneurs. Therefore, this research is beneficial to strengthen international entrepreneurial personality and to reduce the shadows of fears on entrepreneurs’ minds. To address this purpose the international tourism industry has been investigated in the emerging economy of Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is organised based on experts' opinions, and then factors are identified by literature review and are finalised through the Delphi method with a panel of practical and academic experts. These fears are categorised using a questionnaire and factor analysis (FA) technique. The respondents were entrepreneurship students and tourism entrepreneurs. Subsequently, the effect and importance of fears of failure are scored and ranked by some experts. These fears were analysed through decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method. The results presented the effects of fears of failure in the international entrepreneurial in the tourism industry and the relationship amongst them.

Findings

The first two fears are respectively “fears of future” which are caused by the unclear situation; and “fear of losing credit” that is due to the importance of “personal relationships” in Iranians culture. As pointed out by results, “fear of future” is the most effective group of factors that may lead to other fears too. This fear seems important in the international entrepreneurial tourism industry because of future ambiguity.

Originality/value

This study indicates the relations between groups of fears and offers some practical and applicable solutions to reduce these effects. To the best knowledge of the authors, analysing the relationship between fears amongst the entrepreneurs has not been investigated previously.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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