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Article

Niina Meriläinen and Marita Vos

The purpose of this paper is to better understand agenda setting by international human rights organizations in the online environment and at the same time contribute to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand agenda setting by international human rights organizations in the online environment and at the same time contribute to agenda‐setting theory. The role of non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) in the area of human rights is clarified, and agenda setting and related concepts are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focuses on how attention is drawn to human rights issues in online communication by Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Amnesty International. A content analysis of online forums of HRW and Amnesty International was conducted by monitoring their web sites and Facebook and Twitter pages over a period of three months. In addition, two expert interviews with representatives of Amnesty Finland were conducted to better understand how the organization's online communication activities relate to its policies in drawing attention to human rights.

Findings

Based on this study, drawing attention to human rights issues is a goal that leads to active online communication. NGOs aim at attracting attention to their issues online by initiating a dialogue via online forums and motivating the public to participate in activities that may influence the media and the political agenda. The existing agenda‐setting research tends to emphasize the role of journalists in setting the public agenda, and mentions NGOs primarily as a source for journalists and as a political player. The online environment shows, however, that these NGOs mostly aim at setting the public agenda to create social change, while the media and political agenda are also not forgotten.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that the interdependence of the media, public and political agendas is more complex than has thus far been considered in agenda‐setting theory, especially in the current online environment. It investigates online agenda setting by two international NGOs, but does not discuss the role of the media or the public at large in their relationship with these NGOs. As this study has a limited time frame, a content analysis over a longer period and interviews with representatives of a wider variety of NGOs could be a next step. Future research could also compare the online communication of NGOs with that of profit organisations.

Practical implications

The findings show how agenda setting is supported by intricate multi‐platform activities in the present‐day online environment by the organizations studied in order to initiate a dialogue on societal issues. This suggests that in the online environment, the media, public and political agendas are becoming increasingly interrelated and within this triangle the public agenda seems to be gaining further in importance.

Originality/value

The impact that NGOs have on today's society is growing, and hence studying their online agenda setting is valuable from the perspective of corporate communication. International NGOs early on recognised the value of online communication.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Book part

Chris J. Vargo, Ekaterina Basilaia and Donald Lewis Shaw

An issue and event were tracked for 90 days on Twitter, cable television, and large newspapers. The mortgage and housing crisis was an ongoing issue, and the BP oil spill…

Abstract

An issue and event were tracked for 90 days on Twitter, cable television, and large newspapers. The mortgage and housing crisis was an ongoing issue, and the BP oil spill was an ongoing event. As expected, the results suggest media as a predictor of Twitter for the two issue agendas studied. However, this study shows that the agenda-setting effects on Twitter are not equal in regard to issues and events. The agenda-setting effect of the media appeared to be stronger for the issue observed here. Moreover, initial evidence is provided that agendas for the ongoing events were more volatile than ongoing issues. For ongoing events, it appears that agendas are most reflective of the real-world cues that initiate them. This suggests that when real-world cues are largely absent, the media are less salient, and the agenda is more stable and ongoing. Finally, increased temporality appears to better reveal agenda-setting effects for events. Relaxed temporal measures appear to reveal the agenda-setting effect of ongoing issues more effectively. Events are not all equal; neither are issues. As such, the media and Twitter behave differently. This distinction has not yet been made in the literature.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-454-2

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Article

Sabine Schührer

The purpose of this paper is to improve Kingdon’s (1984, 2011) concept of policy entrepreneurs (PE) with regard to the theoretical development of the definition and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve Kingdon’s (1984, 2011) concept of policy entrepreneurs (PE) with regard to the theoretical development of the definition and identification and level of agency by supplementing it with elements of Schmidt’s (2008, 2010, 2011, 2012) sentient agents. The improved concept of discursive policy entrepreneurs (DPEs) is then applied in an in-depth case study about the agenda setting process of micro and macro whole-of-government accounting in Australia in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the concept of DPEs, a series of operationalised characteristics and proxies are developed to identify them and describe their behaviour. These are then applied in the case study. The two main data sources are semi-structured in-depth interviews and archival documents.

Findings

The findings show that the focus on DPEs’ discursive and coordination activities is critical for identifying and investigating the key actors of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)/Government Finance Statistics (GFS) harmonisation agenda setting process. The study also finds that the two relevant decision-making bodies, the Financial Reporting Council and the Australian Accounting Standards Board, lost control over their agendas due to the actions of DPEs.

Research limitations/implications

The improved concepts of DPEs will allow researchers to better identify the main agents of policy change and differentiate them from other supporters of policy ideas. Due to the qualitative nature of the study, the findings are not necessarily generalisable.

Practical implications

The findings from this study can help participants of agenda setting processes to gain a better understanding of the actions and behaviours of DPEs. This might allow standard setting bodies to mitigate against undue influences by DPEs.

Originality/value

This study is the first study that uses Schmidt’s concept of the sentient agent to address the limitations of Kingdon’s concept of PE and develops and applies characteristics to identify PEs and their actions. It is also the only study to date that investigates the GAAP/GFS harmonisation agenda setting process.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part

Amalia Triantafillidou, Prodromos Yannas and Anastasia Kani

The purpose of this chapter is to shed light on the interrelationships that exist between politicians' Twitter agendas, news websites agendas and public agendas at the…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to shed light on the interrelationships that exist between politicians' Twitter agendas, news websites agendas and public agendas at the first level during the 2019 Greek Parliamentary elections for the two front-runners of the elections, Kyriakos Mitsotakis and Alexis Tsipras. Three researches were conducted to assess the issues agendas of candidates' tweets, news websites coverage as well as the issue importance of the public for an 18-day period prior to the elections. At the issue level, although Twitter and media agendas align more, they are distinct from public agenda. Overall, Twitter proved to be an ineffective tool for influencing the news websites and public agendas during the 2019 Greek Parliamentary elections with online media agendas being slightly more powerful. Moreover, the public agenda did play a role in shaping Twitter as well as media content but in a counterbalancing manner. In addition, this study confirmed that agenda building and setting dynamics at both levels vary based on the issue and candidate being analysed.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Digital Media in Greece
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-401-2

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Article

Shaun Watson

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the voluntary annual report disclosures, relating to conflict diamonds, for four of the largest diamond mining companies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the voluntary annual report disclosures, relating to conflict diamonds, for four of the largest diamond mining companies operating in South Africa can be explained through applying legitimacy theory and media agenda‐setting theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying legitimacy theory under the assumption of media agenda‐setting theory, the study draws a comparison between the volume of disclosure relating to conflict diamonds made in the annual reports of four of the largest diamond mining companies operating in South Africa and the volume of South African media publications addressing conflict diamonds.

Findings

The results of the study suggest that changes in the degree of media attention relating to the issue of conflict diamonds are largely mirrored by the annual report disclosure by one firm, but not by the other firms in the sample. Hence, legitimation motives lend support for only one of the four firms.

Research limitations/implications

It should be noted that in relying upon legitimacy theory to examine variations in voluntary annual report disclosures regarding conflict diamonds, the study does not invalidate the likelihood that other theories, such as stakeholder theory or political economy theory, for example, may also hold explanatory power.

Originality/value

No prior research combining legitimacy theory and media agenda theory to explain voluntary disclosure of conflict diamonds by South African diamond mining companies could be found.

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Article

Liang Chen, Jingyuan Shi, Yu Guo, Pianpian Wang and Yiwei Li

The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare haze-related content between traditional and social media in China by applying agenda-setting theory and the extended…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare haze-related content between traditional and social media in China by applying agenda-setting theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Specifically, this paper examines the correlation between the two forms of media in terms of the ranking of the attributes of haze (i.e. the EPPM components) and the interrelationships among the attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis and semantic network analysis were employed to address the research aims.

Findings

The results revealed that more than half of the total messages on both types of media reflected the EPPM components, either threat or efficacy information. However, the imbalance between the threat and efficacy information was more prominent in the haze-related content presented in the People’s Daily than it was on Weibo. In addition, the results from a Spearman’s rank-order correlation and a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) indicated that there was no significant correlation between the People’s Daily and Weibo in terms of the rankings of the attributes of haze (i.e. the EPPM components) or the interrelationships among the attributes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to apply a theoretical approach to examine and compare the nature of haze-related messages on traditional and social media.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Phil Harris, Ioannis Kolovos and Andrew Lock

News media have been shown to have a significant influence in the selection and perception of issues in political campaigns. This has become known as “agenda‐setting”. The…

Abstract

News media have been shown to have a significant influence in the selection and perception of issues in political campaigns. This has become known as “agenda‐setting”. The evolution of the agenda‐setting literature is traced and the links with political campaigning and political marketing are identified. Although the term is widely used in Australasia, Europe and North America, there is no previous empirical research on agenda‐setting in Greece. The article outlines a content analysis of press coverage over the period of the campaign for the European elections in Greece in 1999. The results are contrasted with an analysis of party manifestos and press releases and with public opinion prior to the campaign. Differences between the three agenda groups are identified.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 35 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Guojun Zeng, Frank Go and Christian Kolmer

This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign…

Abstract

This study aims to explain the impact of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008 on China's image in the international TV media. It applies agenda-setting theory to analyse foreign TV coverage of the Olympics in nine countries. Using Rivenburgh's national image richness construct, it attempts to make sense of the coverage before and after Beijing 2008, particularly its impact on the image of the host country. The study concludes that the breadth and attribution of China's image remained relatively stable, that these factors did not improve China's national image directly but that indirectly they raised awareness of China in the international media and framed the host country's image more clearly.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Steven Holiday, Mary S. Norman, R. Glenn Cummins, Terri N. Hernandez, Derrick Holland and Eric E. Rasmussen

This study aims to examine factors, beyond child requests, that influence parents’ perceptions of the most important gifts to give their children by assessing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine factors, beyond child requests, that influence parents’ perceptions of the most important gifts to give their children by assessing the influence of television advertising on children’s programming.

Design/methodology/approach

Using agenda-setting as a theoretical and methodological template, a content analysis of 7,860 commercials in children’s programming was compared using a questionnaire to 143 parents of 240 children to test the transfer of salience between advertising and parents’ perceptions. The study also examined the role of child purchase requests in this relationship.

Findings

The product categories that most prevalently advertised on children’s television had a significant relationship with the product categories that parents perceived to be the most important to give their children as gifts. Furthermore, the results indicate that this relationship was not contingent upon parental advertising mediation or child product requests.

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited to a single broadcast market during the Christmas season. Strategically, the research suggests that advertising through children’s television programming may be an effective way to directly inform parents’ gift-giving consideration sets, and this target and outlet should be strategically evaluated in subsequent campaign decisions about the marketing mix.

Originality/value

The findings add new insights to the gift-giving literature, indicating that advertising in children’s programming may be an alternative direct influence on parents’ perceptions. This research also extends research on advertising agenda setting into the new context of commercial advertising of consumer products.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Pouran Raeissi and Mehdi Jafari-Sirizi

Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) is known as the biggest and most comprehensive reform in Iran’s health system. One of the goals of HSEP is to reduce inequity in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) is known as the biggest and most comprehensive reform in Iran’s health system. One of the goals of HSEP is to reduce inequity in the healthcare financing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate HSEP agenda setting from the perspective of equity in healthcare financing (EHCF) using the multiple streams model.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study was conducted by 26 documents review and analysis, and 30 semi-structured interview with Iranian key informants in the field of HSEP that were selected based on purposeful and snowball sampling method. Data were collected using a researcher-made checklist based on the goals. All audio-taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Data management and analysis were performed using the framework analysis in MAXQDA software.

Findings

The framework analysis identified 12 complementary sub-themes totally. Problem stream included four sub-themes (high share of Out Of Pocket, high index of catastrophic health expenditures, low EHCF index, and inappropriate economic state and sanctions). Focus on EHCF in general policies of the Iran World Health Organization’s report in 2000, the Targeted Subsidies Law and emphasis on equalizing healthcare financing in the Fourth and Fifth Development Plan were considered as policy stream sub-themes. Finally, political stream showed four sub-themes including strong support from the Minister of Health for HSEP, mass media, the pressure of WHO and people’s request to reduce health costs.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the present study included paying attention to one package (evolution in the treatment sector) of three health packages to assess EHCF, as well as the lack of similar national and international evidence in implementation framework.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be used to analyze other health sector reforms around the word and can help the formulation and implementation of most practical reforms, especially in field of health system financing.

Social implications

This study gives a holistic view about health system policy setting that can be used for understanding policy-making streams to population.

Originality/value

This is the first study that has examined HSEP (the biggest health sector reform in Iran) from the perspective of agenda setting. In addition, using the popular and well-known Kingdon’s model to explain HSEP agenda setting is one of the strengths of this study. Furthermore, taking advantage of a wide range of related views by including highly informed people increased the strength of the results of the study. In addition, the short interval between the interview and reviewing the results on reforms reduced the recall bias of the participants in the study.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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