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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Hanne Niss

Discusses the appropriateness of using national image for international marketing purposes, based on an empirical survey carried out among 100 Danish export firms, from…

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7413

Abstract

Discusses the appropriateness of using national image for international marketing purposes, based on an empirical survey carried out among 100 Danish export firms, from which the marketing strategies underlying the use of nationality in the promotion of Danish products abroad have been identified. Presents some general guidelines for the building of international brands and product images based on national image, and submits suggestions for further research. Finally, suggests that while a symbolic linkage between product and country of origin can be a useful positioning strategy in the beginning of a product’s life cycle, brand building through more abstract and emotional imagery becomes increasingly important in the later stages of the product life cycle.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Ana Brochado, Pedro Dionísio and Maria Carmo Leal

A key concern in sports sponsorship decisions is knowing under what conditions sponsorship can effectively act as a brand building tool. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

A key concern in sports sponsorship decisions is knowing under what conditions sponsorship can effectively act as a brand building tool. The purpose of this study is to list attributes to use when examining congruency in the sponsorship of national football teams. The second aim was to test whether being a client of the sponsor brand and being involved with the sponsee moderates the relationship between image congruence and sponsorship response.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected on four sponsors of the Portuguese national team, just before the 20th Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup. Analyses were conducted on a representative national sample of fans. The research design encompassed a two-step approach. First, qualitative analysis identified the main attributes that fans associate with the national team. In the second quantitative phase, moderated regression analysis was used to test the proposed model.

Findings

This study confirmed sponsor–sponsee congruence in seven attributes (i.e. national symbol, strength, strong emotions, happiness, optimism, connection and positive feelings) enhances positive brand image and fans’ involvement with the national team moderates this relationship. Positive sponsorship outcomes tend to be higher for sponsors when fans are currently clients of the sponsor brand.

Originality/value

This study adds to previous research by using mixed methods to study sponsor–sponsee congruence regarding national teams and by testing whether fans being clients of sponsors and being involved with sponsees moderate sponsor–sponsee congruence.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2013

Ram Herstein, Shaked Gilboa and Eyal Gamliel

The present study aims to investigate the role of brand store image in the context of private and national fashion brands. The study examines two issues: do private brand…

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3165

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to investigate the role of brand store image in the context of private and national fashion brands. The study examines two issues: do private brand consumers differ from national brand consumers in their perception of the attributes they value in their store image? And, do fashion consumers in general differ in their perception of the attributes they value in a store image?

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a field survey comprising 395 respondents: 195 private brand consumers and 200 national brand consumers.

Findings

Findings indicate that the two groups of consumers do not differ in their perception of store image. Cluster analysis reveals two groups of consumers: “Brand Store Image Enthusiasts” who are high in their perception of their brand store image attributes, and “Brand Store Image Indifferent” consumers who are low in their perception of their brand store image attributes. The first group was also found to have greater brand loyalty.

Practical implications

Different marketing strategies are offered to each fashion sector. In addition, distributors in the fashion industry should build a strategy for Brand Store Image Enthusiasts who are high in their perception of all three brand store attributes. It is essential to point out the psychological meaning of the brand when appealing them.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the consumer behavior literature by tying the well-established construct of brand store image to the fashion sector in the context of private and national labels.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Sang Soo Kim, Jin Yong Choi and Chulmo Koo

Among a wide array of information and communication technologies (ICTs) used to directly or indirectly support the mega events are reality boosting technologies and smart…

Abstract

Purpose

Among a wide array of information and communication technologies (ICTs) used to directly or indirectly support the mega events are reality boosting technologies and smart tourism technologies. Building upon the halo effect, this study aims to explain the connection between satisfaction with ICTs used in mega event, national image and event participants’ future behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The analyzed data included survey responses from 246 foreigners who visited PyeongChang as a visitor for the 2018 Winter Olympics.

Findings

The results showed that both reality boosting technologies and smart tourism technologies directly or indirectly influence overall experience satisfaction by way of transaction satisfaction. Furthermore, the two types of satisfaction were found to positively influence the national image of the host country, which consequently has a positive effect on visitors’ future behavior.

Originality/value

This study aimed to explore two different roles of ICTs in mega events by focusing more on the visitors who came to PyeongChang for the Olympics. The originality of this study lies in its attempt to examine the mechanisms in which visitors’ satisfaction from ICT-based experiences in mega events contributes to forming a positive image toward the host country.

研究目的

现实促进技术和智能旅游技术在各种 ICT中被广泛应用来直接或间接支持大型活动的。基于光环效应, 这项研究解释了对大型活动中使用的 ICT 的满意度, 国家形象, 活动参与者未来行为之间的联系。

研究设计/方法/途径

分析的数据包括 246 位在2018 年冬季奥运会访问平昌的外国游客。

研究发现

结果表明, 现实促进技术和智慧旅游技术通过直接或者间接方式接通过交易满意度影响整体体验满意度。此外, 研究发现两种类型的满意度均对东道国的国家形象形成产生积极影响, 从而对吸引未来访客的有正面影响。

研究原创性/价值

通过聚焦来平昌参加奥运会的游客, 本研究旨在探索信息通信技术在大型活动中的两种不同作用。本研究的原创性在于试图检验游客在大型活动中基于 ICT 的体验满意度对形成对东道国正面的国家形象的机制。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Ming‐Huei Hsieh and Andrew Lindridge

Aims to explore the factorial structure of automobile brand image in the context of a cross‐national study. More specifically, we intend to answer two questions: whether…

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3886

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to explore the factorial structure of automobile brand image in the context of a cross‐national study. More specifically, we intend to answer two questions: whether the factor structure of brand image perception differ across countries, and whether these differences are owing to nation's culture and level of economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing data set, which consists of data collected from survey research, was employed. Data covering the top 20 automobile markets consisting of 4,320 eligible new car owners. Perception of and attitude towards automobile brand associations were measured using nominal scales.

Findings

Provides empirical evidence that supports the applicability of multiple brand image dimensions corresponding to the consumer's sensory, utilitarian, symbolic and economic needs at the global level. The study also suggested that factor structure of brand image differs across nations and these differences might be reflective to a nation's culture and its level of economic development.

Research limitations/implications

As with any empirical study, this research inevitably has its limitations, which presents opportunities for further research: extensions of the present framework to other product categories; extensions of the national factors; extensions of the brand associations; and measurement improvement.

Practical implications

Understanding the similarities or differences of the factor structure of brand image across the globe facilitates the formation of a successful global image strategy. First of all, by exploring brand image structure at the global level; and the specific interrelationships among the corresponding associations

Originality/value

The results derived from the 20 diverse nations in the present study not only enhance our understanding of brand image structure but also provide a strong test of the empirical generalizability of automobile brand image dimensionality and factor structure in a global context.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Jiaxun He, Cheng Lu Wang and Yi Wu

This paper aims to provide an integrative review on nation branding literature and to identify new avenues for future research on embedding nation equity into commercial brands.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an integrative review on nation branding literature and to identify new avenues for future research on embedding nation equity into commercial brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrative review and analysis with conceptual development and future research directions.

Findings

The authors firstly identify conceptualizations and measurements of nation brand as national identity and as national image. Consistently, three theoretical perspectives investigating nation branding were given: first, the macro view focusing on nation brand broadly as political and cultural identity; second, the micro view focusing on nation brand as a country image; and finally, the integrative view using the emerging construct of nation equity. Inspired by the last theoretical view, the authors discuss four research foci that examine nation equity in commercial brands for future research.

Originality/value

The paper provides an integrative understanding of nation branding and identifies novel research opportunities to study this research field – building the connection between nations and commercial brands through nation equity.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Victoria Rodner and Finola Kerrigan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by the visual arts in expressing and shaping the nation brand. In doing so, it establishes the centrality of visual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by the visual arts in expressing and shaping the nation brand. In doing so, it establishes the centrality of visual discourse in nation branding; illustrating that discursive strategies can directly alter the nation brand’s perception.

Design/methodology/approach

This single case study drawing on in-depth interviews, field observation and secondary/historical material, applies mediated discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis to capture a transitional period in the cultural policies and nation branding rhetoric across a time frame of 60 years.

Findings

This study establishes the visual arts as a significant carrier of meaning, thus reflecting changes in the national discourse. This analysis illustrates that publicly supported visual arts can articulate policy aspirations and provide insight into the power of competing national discourse which co-exists, thereby shaping the internal and external nation brand.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on the visual arts and the context of Venezuela. Future research could expand this to look at the visual arts in other national or regional contexts.

Practical implications

The paper establishes visual art as central to expressing national identity and policy, and a tool for examination of national identity and policy. More broadly, the paper establishes public support for the (visual) arts as central to nation-branding projects providing insight for those engaged in such campaigns to prioritize arts funding.

Originality/value

The authors’ study indicates the marketing relevance of visualization of the nation through the arts and establishes the visual arts as a central tenant of the nation brand.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Svetlana Stepchenkova, Andrei P. Kirilenko and Elena Shichkova

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of visitation intention, including demographic, psychographic (animosity, national attachment and consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of visitation intention, including demographic, psychographic (animosity, national attachment and consumer ethnocentrism) and image factors on tourist decision-making in a situation of bilateral conflict between the destination country and the source country, that is, the USA and Russia, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected at two different points in time from two different samples but analyzed with the same research question in mind. To increase the robustness and validity of findings, three analytical approaches from the repertoire of statistics and data mining techniques such as hierarchical linear regression, logistic regression and decision tree analysis were applied to two independent samples of tourists with different demographic profiles. This multiple methods research employs a complementary design, as methods used have equal importance and are applied concurrently.

Findings

The paper obtained generally consistent results across methods and samples: general animosity, destination image and country image are the most influential factors in the tourists’ decision-making to visit a destination country with which their own country has strained bilateral relations.

Practical implications

Destination image is highly important in all analyses and is more favorable than country image. It indicates some degree of separation of the two images in the respondents’ mind, which indicates that marketing a country as a tourist destination on a not-so-friendly tourism market may still be effective. Results also tentatively indicate that for young adults, patriotic feelings matter more in their decision-making, while for more mature tourists, ethnocentric tendencies play a more important role.

Originality/value

The paper examines the influence of general and situational animosity, national attachment, and consumer ethnocentrism on visitation intentions in a situation of conflict between the two nations and, thus, expands the empirical evidence accumulated to date on tourist behavior in conflict. The paper acts on the premise that if a connection between any two variables truly exists, it should be able to withstand variations in samples, timing of data collection and measurement, thus, leading to more robust findings.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Hee Youn Kim and Ji‐Hwan Yoon

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Korea tourism brand image in a popular tour guidebook, Lonely Planet Korea and to provide an objective insight for examining…

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2195

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Korea tourism brand image in a popular tour guidebook, Lonely Planet Korea and to provide an objective insight for examining destination image.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, this study used content analysis to analyze the Korea tourism brand image.

Findings

Overall, 200,435 words were selected. The frequency of words was highly related to transportation and famous attractions. Moreover, to evaluate the value of the Korea tourism brand image, only adjectives in context were extracted. In total, 2,716 adjectives in each category were examined. The Korea tourism brand image was positive in that “good” adjectives were the most frequently selected. Furthermore, value properties based on The Lasswell Value Dictionary were examined. The value of words also supported the results of the content analysis of adjectives. The results of correspondence analysis found that the “outdoor” category was separately positioned with “old” adjectives.

Practical implications

Based on the results of content analysis by category, selected adjectives reflected current Korean tourism and hospitality problems.

Originality/value

The paper suggests implications that can be used to improve the Korea tourism brand image.

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Nina Michaelidou, Milena Micevski, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, Tribikram Budhathoki and Siddhartha Sarkar

The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the…

Abstract

Purpose

The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the impetus for this exploratory research, where the purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptualization and dimensionality of non-profit brand image across national cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a quantitative research design, using multi-country samples from India, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the UK. The authors first examine the psychometric properties of the non-profit brand image scale via confirmatory factor analysis across countries, identifying the optimal model for invariance testing. Further, the authors use multi-group invariance analysis to evaluate whether non-profit brand image (using an 18-item scale and six factors) provides equivalent measurement across cultures.

Findings

The study shows that individuals in the three countries perceive non-profit brand image equally, and as consisting of perceptions of usefulness, efficiency, affect, dynamism, reliability and ethicality. However, the results also indicate that the means of the dimensions of non-profit brand image are not comparable across different cultures.

Originality/value

The study extends limited current literature on non-profit brand image in international contexts, deriving insightful suggestions for further theoretical approaches in this under-developed research domain. It also yields key implications for charities and other non-profit organizations operating internationally, as they can use non-profit brand image and its dimensions as actionable tools in their communication campaigns to shape their brand image.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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