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Sport, Gender and Mega-Events
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-937-6

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

John Nadeau, Norm O'Reilly and Louise A. Heslop

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country…

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2995

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has examined sponsorship within the context of mega‐event and related host images. This paper seeks to explore the relationships among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images through the evaluations formed of each entity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on data collected from 291 Canadian consumers two months after the Beijing Olympics, a SEM model examines the relationships among consumer evaluations of the host country, the country as a destination, the mega‐event itself and sponsors.

Findings

Results support the hypothesized model and present a paradoxical situation for the Olympics hosted by China. While the overall country evaluation was found to have a strong and positive effect on its evaluation as a tourist destination and the destination evaluation has a subsequent positive relationship with Olympic evaluations, a direct and negative relationship between the evaluation of the country and of the Olympic Games was also supported.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine the relationship among country, destination, mega‐event and sponsor images in other mega‐event and country contexts. In addition, the pattern of these relationships should be assessed longitudinally.

Practical implications

This study provides evidence to show that the Olympic Games image is resilient and can thrive in challenging contexts. Further, sponsors can be assured that they are receiving value from Olympic sponsorships.

Originality/value

These results extend previous literature on sponsorship evaluation into the large, global sponsor context. In addition, this study examines the role of the host country in understanding the influence of the mega‐event on sponsor images.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related…

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2362

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related legacies associated with sport mega-events for a host nation. However, none have explored this in relation to the strategic activities of nation brand stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The case of South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup was selected, as this host nation clearly stated its aim of using the sport mega-event to develop its brand. A qualitative study explored the insights of selected, definitive nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) that took place two to three years post the event.

Findings

A thematic analysis clustered the leveraging imperatives into seven key strategic focus areas, namely, the media, local citizens, stakeholder partnerships, the tourism experience, design, sustainable development and urban transformation and event hosting.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is not an audit of leveraging activities nor does it assess the costs of leveraging. The focus on a specific case has allowed for an in-depth analysis, although, for greater transferability of these findings, it is recommended that further comparative studies be conducted, especially in emerging nation contexts.

Practical implications

The paper identifies key strategic focus areas as well as examples of practical activities for leveraging mega-events to gain and sustain nation brand benefits. In particular, stakeholders are urged to plan and budget for leveraging before, during and especially post an event.

Social implications

In light of the critique of mega-events linked to their social impacts and costs, this paper recommends leveraging focus areas, and especially the mobilisation of citizen support, that can assist the realisation of positive social outcomes.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the emerging discourse of nation branding, highlighting opportunities derived through sport mega-events and assisting brand stakeholders to leverage such opportunities more effectively.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 10 March 2020

Carole B. Sox, Mary M. Sox and Jeffrey M. Campbell

Mega-events have been the topic of unprecedented consideration within recent research. Research on the residents' perspectives, however, is still in the infancy stage, yet…

Abstract

Purpose

Mega-events have been the topic of unprecedented consideration within recent research. Research on the residents' perspectives, however, is still in the infancy stage, yet a key contributor to the overall legacy planning considerations and process. This research investigates resident perceptions toward a mega-event to assist with planning/execution of such events in addition to advancing knowledge within this area.

Design/methodology/approach

For this research, an online survey was utilized to reach out to residents in the host city during the mega-event, Solar Eclipse Weekend. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the results.

Findings

Using exploratory factor analysis, 305 online surveys were analyzed. Using varimax rotation, factor analysis determined four significant factors: environment, local engagement, tourism support, and infrastructure. Cluster analysis was then conducted identifying three clusters of residents labeled neutralists, supporters and enthusiasts.

Practical implications

The practical implications should be of assistance to professional event planners, city governments and destination marketing organizations. Through utilization of the information provided, community participation should be sought after throughout the planning phase and into the management and execution of large events to best gain resident support.

Originality/value

This research further explored residents' perspectives of a mega-event. While this area of research has been noted in strategic approaches to planning, managing and executing mega-events, the research on stakeholders (such as residents') perspectives is still in the infancy stage. This research contributes to advancing industry planning approaches and strategic execution, in addition to advancing academic knowledge within this area.

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International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…

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4467

Abstract

Purpose

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.

Findings

Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.

Originality/value

While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2010

Leo Jago, Larry Dwyer, Geoffrey Lipman, Daneel van Lill and Shaun Vorster

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that mega‐events rarely realise their potential for host destinations and to suggest issues that need to be addressed…

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9349

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that mega‐events rarely realise their potential for host destinations and to suggest issues that need to be addressed in rectifying this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a synthesis of the literature as well as the substantial event‐related experience of the authors.

Findings

The key reason that mega‐events do not generate the expected benefits for the host destination is that event organisers and destination managers adopt a short‐term perspective rather than seeing mega‐events as part of a long‐term strategy for the destination. Even the planned legacies are often not realised as resource constraints in the lead up to the staging of the event often results in resources being shifted away from planning for legacies and being allocated to helping cover the more immediate needs of the event.

Research limitations/implications

If the mega‐event knowledge portal that is proposed in this paper to help improve the overall contribution that mega‐events make to host destinations is developed, it will prove to be a fertile source of data for longitudinal research in the field of mega‐events.

Originality/value

As so many mega‐events fail to deliver the expected benefits for the host destination, this paper provides some useful insights into the key issues that need to be addressed in order to help overcome this problem.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Ying-Wen Liang, Chih-Hung Wang, Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur, Chang-Hua Yen and Jin-Hua Tu

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact indicators of the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition from the perspective of residents and to investigate the…

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3196

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact indicators of the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition from the perspective of residents and to investigate the effects of these impacts on the urban sustainability through the perceptions of Taipei residents after the exposition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a literature review and consulted experts to identify the impact indicators of the exposition. This process resulted in 17 indicators of economic impact, 12 indicators of environmental impact, and 13 indicators of social impact, and the authors developed a 12-dimension/42-indicator mega-event impact measurement scale. Using a survey of 1,628 host residents after the exposition, the authors performed regression analysis to investigate the effects of these impacts on the urban sustainability.

Findings

The results indicated that economic, environmental, and social impacts exerted significant positive effects on urban sustainability. All positive dimensions of economic, environmental, and social impact exerted significant positive effects on urban sustainability, and all negative dimensions exerted nonsignificant effects on urban sustainability.

Originality/value

This study identified the impact indicators of the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition and investigated the effects of these impacts on the urban sustainability. The findings of this study indicated that economic, environmental, and social impacts of the exposition exerted significant positive effects on urban sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sport, Gender and Mega-Events
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-937-6

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Jose T. Marin-Aguilar and Natalia Vila-López

The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent emotional experiences lived in mega-events and ecological orientation of citizens could act as direct antecedents of…

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1748

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent emotional experiences lived in mega-events and ecological orientation of citizens could act as direct antecedents of city brand attitude improvements. In addition, it addresses the effect in terms of a perceived quality of life that a city brand consolidation would be able to bring the citizens of a particular place. Cities must manage and administer their geographical territories as if they were brands, seeking to increase the benefits to society.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was performed by collecting information from 398 residents of Aguascalientes (Mexico) during the National Fair of San Marcos in 2011.

Findings

Results show how in order to increase city brand attitudes, both the focus on mega-events and the ecological orientation are two successful ways. Moreover, improvements in city brand attitudes can bring significant benefits on the positive perception of quality of life among citizens.

Originality/value

This investigation has made progress in implementing the experiential marketing channeled through emotional experiences in mega-events and, particularly, in environmentally oriented mega-events, which is able to improve ecological orientation of citizens. To date, no evidence of empirical research referenced in mega-events of the features of the National Fair of San Marcos, Mexico, exists.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Luciana Brandão Ferreira and Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

This paper aimed to verify the most important factors (cognitive and affective dimensions) perceived in Rio de Janeiro’s image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to verify the most important factors (cognitive and affective dimensions) perceived in Rio de Janeiro’s image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games and to identify the factors that predict better the overall city image and its affective image dimension in this particular context of a sports mega-event.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs exploratory factor analysis to define intervening factors in each dimension of Rio de Janeiro’s image. By parting from the initial diagnostic analysis, multiple regression analysis was applied to measure how the intervening factors predicted the overall image of the host city, as well as to whether its cognitive dimension was able to predict the affective dimension. Data collection was conducted by applying structured questionnaires with a sample of international respondents (n = 274).

Findings

Rio’s image as a sports mega-event host city presented two intervening factors for each dimension. For image composition, the most important cognitive factor diagnosed was “Services and Attractions.” For the affective dimension, the most important factor diagnosed was “Positive Feelings.” The investigation concluded that the cognitive dimension was capable of predicting the affective dimension, as “Positive Feelings” was the factor that better predicted Rio’s overall image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games, while the “Services and Attractions” factor was not significant in predicting the host city’s image.

Research limitations/implications

The main focus of the investigation was the host city’s international image as presented by primary sources. The sample for investigation was therefore composed exclusively of foreign students, nonresidents in Brazil, who did not participate in said events. Although this approach provides a partial diagnostic of the host cityvs image, for an overall and accurate image diagnostic it is also relevant to investigate the national residents’ point of view, which is beyond the scope of this investigation.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that destination marketers would obtain better results investing in the affective dimension, employing actions that stimulate positive feelings about the host city, especially when relating to sports mega-event. Investment in general infrastructure is also presented as a relevant factor.

Social implications

The host city’s image can guide policies to improve local capacity to attract investments and new events that contribute to change in urban areas, as well as to reinforce positive aspects of that image. Investment in general infrastructure, again, is presented as a crucial issue.

Originality/value

The value and originality of the presented investigation lie in a lack of specific studies on Rio’s image as a travel destination, despite its being the most important touristic city in Brazil and the host for the 2016 Olympic Games. A separate analysis of individual image dimensions and the examination of intervening cognitive factors in the affective dimension are also not common in a sports mega-event context.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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