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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2019

Jeremy Whaley, Jinha Lee and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether guests’ tipping motivations (i.e. server quality, social norm and food quality) and demographic characteristics (i.e…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether guests’ tipping motivations (i.e. server quality, social norm and food quality) and demographic characteristics (i.e. gender, age and income) influence loyalty to the server in a restaurant.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a national online survey consumer panel comprised of 468 participants, the authors utilized decision tree using R statistical software. Predictor variables were tipping motivations and demographic characteristics (age, gender and income). Target variable was loyalty to the server.

Findings

The findings suggest that social norm, food quality and income influence customers’ loyalty toward the same server on future visits. Social norm turned out to be the strongest predictor. If consumers did not have high social norm on tipping, their loyalty toward a particular server was affected by the combination of determinants such as server quality, social norm, income and food quality.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can identify or develop scales of tipping motivations with stronger reliabilities in the context of restaurants. Future research can also explore other demographic differences (e.g. ethnicity and sexual orientation) in tipping motivations and server loyalty.

Practical implications

Servers are indeed the primary contact point and they are in the most influential position with consumers. Overall, results of this study provide an interesting insight in that restaurant guests’ experience can be ruined by bad quality of food or can be mitigated by server quality. Thus, this research highlights a step-by-step process as to the actions that a server may perform and manage in order to enhance server loyalty.

Originality/value

Loyalty has been examined in the context of products, brands or service providers. This study focuses on loyalty toward a specific server, because the consideration of server–guest relationship provides both a compelling and timely area of study in that restaurants continue to look for unique ways to drive server–guest rapport and customer loyalty.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Faten Alshammari and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether visitors’ seeking and escaping motivations influence the cognitive evaluation of a non-traditional festival in Saudi…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether visitors’ seeking and escaping motivations influence the cognitive evaluation of a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia, which in turn leads to the sense of joy and subsequent word-of-mouth publicity. In Saudi Arabia, leisure and tourism opportunities are limited and many Saudis have a strong desire for new leisure experiences. Although the government and event organizers have made efforts to provide visitors with unconventional experiences at non-tradition-based festivals, these festivals have not attracted many Saudi Arabian visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology was used based on the on-site data collected from 458 visitors attending the Abha summer festival in Saudi Arabia. A structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among seeking motivations, escaping motivations, cognitive evaluation, sense of joy and word-of-mouth.

Findings

The result reveals that two seeking motivations (i.e. food and entertainment) and two escaping motivations (i.e. diversion and escape) influence cognitive evaluation, which in turn influences their sense of joy and ultimately word-of-mouth. However, novelty, a seeking motivation, does not influence cognitive evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

The authors limited the study of seeking and escaping motivations to one non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia. Further studies can use multiple festivals to increase generalizability to non-traditional festivals in Saudi Arabia. Another extension of this study would be to examine these motivations in both traditional and non-traditional festivals in Saudi Arabia to assess to what extent visitors’ seeking and escaping motivations are fulfilled in each type of festival.

Practical implications

Diversion motivation is the most important factor for non-traditional festival organizers to consider in developing strategies to attract more visitors in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This paper is the first that applies Iso-Ahola’s motivation theory and the cognitive appraisal theory of emotion in the non-traditional festival setting in Saudi Arabia.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Youn-Kyung Kim, Sejin Ha and Soo-Hee Park

The purpose of this paper is to identify men’s clothing market segments based on store types and generational cohorts and the retail attributes.

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1315

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify men’s clothing market segments based on store types and generational cohorts and the retail attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 2,808 US male consumer data from Predictive Analytics survey were analyzed with correspondence analysis (CA) (to identify segments based on store types and generations), general linear model (GLM) (to determine what retail attributes were important to target each segment) and a Rasch tree model (to test items of each factor in their relative importance).

Findings

The CA produced three segments: Segment 1 (Gen Y male consumers who frequently shop at specialty stores), Segment 2 (Gen X males who frequently shop at discount stores and online stores) and Segment 3 (Baby Boomers and Seniors who frequently shop at department stores). GLM shows that fundamentals were important to all segments; experiential was most important to Segment 1, while promotion was most important to Segment 3. Rasch tree analysis provided specific information on retail attributes for each store type and each generation.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could employ both the importance and performance of retail attributes that are measured on a rating scale to understand consumers’ attitudes toward each retail format.

Practical implications

This study provided men’s clothing retailers with current insights into the male consumer segments based upon generational cohorts and store types from which they can better develop appropriate positioning strategies to satisfy the needs of each segment.

Originality/value

This study addressed the men’s clothing market, a growing but largely ignored market in the clothing industry and the retail literature.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Seeun Kim, Tae Hyun Baek, Youn-Kyung Kim and Kyunga Yoo

The purpose of this study is to investigate user perceptions of mobile app characteristics and interrelationships among identified mobile app characteristics, perceived…

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3469

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate user perceptions of mobile app characteristics and interrelationships among identified mobile app characteristics, perceived benefits and post-adoption behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a self-administered online survey (n = 503) drawn from a consumer panel of US smartphone users, this study tests the proposed model that explains why stickiness and word of mouth (WOM) are enhanced during the post-adoption stage.

Findings

The results indicate that user perceptions of mobile app characteristics, perceived ubiquity, perceived informativeness and perceived personalization are positively associated with mobile app usefulness, thereby leading to increased stickiness and positive WOM intentions. Furthermore, perceived personalization is found to become the strongest predictor of usefulness and playful engagement with the mobile app.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are derived from a one-shot correlational study. There is no guarantee that the proposed model establishes causal directions among the latent constructs. Therefore, future research should test the conceptual model in an experimental setting by manipulating the degree and types of ubiquity, informativeness and personalization.

Practical implications

The findings of this research provide managerial guidelines for developing effective mobile app strategies involving utilitarian and hedonic benefits, thereby enhancing user stickiness and WOM intentions.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to develop a conceptual framework that integrates user perceptions of mobile app characteristics into the underlying process of post-adoption behaviors. It empirically demonstrates the importance of ubiquity, informativeness and personalization in building and sustaining loyal relationships with mobile app users.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Chungwha Ki, Kangbok Lee and Youn-Kyung Kim

This paper aims to examine, building upon affect balance theory, whether the two modes of luxury consumption, conspicuous consumption (CC) and style consumption (SC)…

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3830

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine, building upon affect balance theory, whether the two modes of luxury consumption, conspicuous consumption (CC) and style consumption (SC), trigger consumers’ mixed emotions of pleasure and guilt and whether the mixed emotions interactively as well as independently influence consumer loyalty to repurchase luxury.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an online survey and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) analysis, the authors test the hypotheses and assess the parallel (double) mediation effects of pleasure and guilt on the relationships between luxury consumption and repurchase intention.

Findings

The authors confirm the relationships between CC and pleasure (+), between SC and pleasure (+), between CC and guilt (+) and between SC and guilt (−); the independent effects of pleasure (+) and guilt (−) on repurchase intention (RI); and the interaction effect of pleasure and guilt on RI (+). The authors further demonstrate that both pleasure and guilt mediate the relationship between CC and RI, whereas only pleasure mediates the relationship between SC and RI.

Research limitations/implications

Future researchers may consider possible mixed emotions other than pleasure and guilt and further explore the dynamics between mixed consumer emotions and consumer loyalty in diverse consumption contexts.

Practical implications

The authors suggest luxury marketers to reduce consumer guilt by promoting SC and by maximizing consumer pleasure, which will lead to greater repurchase intention.

Originality/value

Prior research focused on either the positive or negative side of consumer emotion. The authors fill in the research void by examining whether mixed emotions coexist in luxury consumption and how they interplay and influence consumer loyalty.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

Faten Alshammari, Jeremy Whaley, Songyee Hur and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a within-gender analysis and between-gender differences in seeking (personal and interpersonal) and escaping (personal and…

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1384

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a within-gender analysis and between-gender differences in seeking (personal and interpersonal) and escaping (personal and interpersonal) motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were: to conduct a within-gender analysis in motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia; and to examine between-gender differences in motivations to attend a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data collected from 458 attendees at a non-traditional festival in Saudi Arabia, the authors employed network analysis for within-gender analysis and MANOVA and ANOVA for between-gender comparison. The network analysis served two purposes, in that it examined each item’s predictability for each gender, and analyzed the correlations among motivation items within each gender. In addition, the General Linear Model served to compare the male and female groups’ motivations to attend the non-traditional festival. The authors first performed MANOVA for each dimension and then ANOVA for each dimension’s individual items.

Findings

Within-gender analysis reveals that several sets of motivations were associated strongly for both genders. This suggests that Saudi Arabians seem to enjoy entertainment because it projects the festival mood; they want to escape both from home and work and attend the festival to relieve stress by changing their routine pace. However, gender differences were apparent in several other items, especially for the group of women. Between-group comparison analysis shows significant gender differences in several elements of motivation. Overall, personal seeking and escaping were greater for males than females. In contrast, interpersonal seeking was greater for females than males.

Research limitations/implications

Entertainment seems to be a key contributor to the festival mood because entertainment and the festival mood were related closely for both genders. In fact, personal and interpersonal escaping means were greater than personal interpersonal seeking means for both genders. Indeed, opportunities exist to develop non-traditional festivals in the country further. Gender differences were identified in several items of personal seeking and escaping, and interpersonal seeking. With respect to personal seeking, men tend to seek the entertainment, festival mood and the event’s uniqueness more than do women, a finding that their higher means in personal escaping supported. It is clear that men view the festival as a way to enjoy themselves to escape from their jobs and daily stress to a greater degree than do their female counterparts. Women are more likely to seek interpersonal experiences in that they are more likely to enjoy the festival because it offers the opportunity to meet new people and spend quality time with family and friends. This study has several limitations, leading to suggestions for future research. Because seeking and escaping motivations have been used relatively little in the festival setting, future researchers should develop a valid scale of personal and interpersonal seeking and escaping motivations specifically for festivals employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Second, while the data were collected at a single non-traditional festival, future research can use multiple sites to increase the ability to generalize the findings. Third, although this study was limited to Saudi Arabia, further research can apply seeking and escaping motivations, both at the personal and interpersonal levels, to other cultures to extend the applicability of the framework used in this study.

Practical implications

Non-traditional festival managers need to focus on an atmosphere that provides festivities, as many people in the Saudi Arabian culture appear to be escaping from their everyday lives to enjoy themselves and with family and friends. To appeal to male workers, festival organizers and managers need to advertise and market the events’ mood and liveliness overall with photos of workers leaving the office free of stress and looking forward to attending an event. To appeal to women who desire unique experiences that a variety of forms of entertainment provide, event managers must ensure that the entertainment is innovative and creative, and differs from what other festivals provide to attract more female attendees. Also, festival planners must focus on events that incorporate the family unit and promote the opportunity to meet new people to appeal to women in Saudi Arabia.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine gender differences in festival motivations in Saudi Arabia. The relaxation of the historically strict and conservative cultural values, coupled with the country’s desire to develop its tourism and event sector, provides an ideal opportunity for future research. The authors hope that this research will stimulate further interest in the country with the goal to develop and market its tourism sector and products on the world’s stage.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Chae Mi Lim and Youn-Kyung Kim

The purpose of this paper is to identify the emotional factors that affect older consumers’ satisfaction with TV shopping and examined the relationships among these factors.

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1450

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the emotional factors that affect older consumers’ satisfaction with TV shopping and examined the relationships among these factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 285 consumers aged 60 years and older who had watched a TV home shopping channel was used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined the relationships among emotional factors that affect satisfaction.

Findings

This study found that loneliness was an antecedent of both gratification shopping motivation and telepresence and that telepresence positively affected consumer satisfaction with TV shopping.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study validate social-compensation motive of media consumption and deficiency paradigm in the context of TV shopping. The relationship between telepresence and satisfaction also supported transportation theory. However, the findings of the current study should be interpreted with caution due to the non-random sampling method. Constructs other than those employed in this study could be examined regarding outcomes of loneliness.

Practical implications

This study suggested that telepresence and shopping for self-gratification are effective ways to alleviate older consumers’ loneliness. In addition, the findings from relationships among emotional variables suggested potential marketing strategies for shaping positive consumer attitudes toward and satisfaction with TV shopping networks.

Originality/value

This study extended knowledge on loneliness by demonstrating how it related to attitudinal outcomes such as satisfaction and knowledge on telepresence by examining it in the context of TV shopping.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Youn‐Kyung Kim

Shopping malls and the Internet have become major competitors, providing multiple dimensions of consumer value ranging from economic or functional value to hedonic or…

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12257

Abstract

Shopping malls and the Internet have become major competitors, providing multiple dimensions of consumer value ranging from economic or functional value to hedonic or experiential value. The selection of the Internet versus the mall for shopping can vary for different consumers and in different situations, even for the same consumer. This study’s framework was based on Holbrook’s consumer value typology that includes four components: efficiency (extrinsic/active), excellence (extrinsic,reactive), play (instrinsic/active),and aesthetics (instrinsic/reactive). Based on the consumer value experienced by mall and Internet shopping, each retailer must implement strategies that will lead to consumers’ enhanced shopping experience.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

Youn‐Kyung Kim, Betty L. Feather and Martha R. McEnally

Catalogue sales have received increasing attention due to their phenomenal growth in the USA. Professional women, because of their need for convenience and their buying…

Abstract

Catalogue sales have received increasing attention due to their phenomenal growth in the USA. Professional women, because of their need for convenience and their buying power, are an important market for catalogue marketers. This study was designed to identify clothing categories which professional women tend to purchase through catalogues, compare professional women's involvement with professional clothing versus non‐professional clothing in relation to their catalogue usage and determine the variables that predict professional women's heavy catalogue usage for specific clothing categories. Data analyses were based on a mailed survey of a national sample of professional women catalogue shoppers (N=506). These consumers tended to purchase clothing in distinct categories rather than as one product class, and exhibited greater involvement with non‐professional clothing than with professional clothing. Profiles of frequent catalogue users for three clothing categories (street clothing, footwear and clothing for others) were identified, based on their involvement, lifestyle and demographic variables.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Seth Ketron, Rodney Runyan and M. Theodore Farris II

The current work reviews all retailing articles published in four prominent retailing journals – Journal of Retailing, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services

Abstract

Purpose

The current work reviews all retailing articles published in four prominent retailing journals – Journal of Retailing, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, and International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research – in the 2009-2015 period, picking up where Runyan and Hyun (2009) left off. The purpose of this paper is to identify leading authors and institutions in retailing research based on overall impact.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis/literature review/descriptive research.

Findings

In total, 1,392 articles were published during this time period, and through a procedure of weights and adjustments for author count, journal impact, journal quality, and journal publishing opportunity, the findings reveal that research collaboration is highly prevalent, as evidenced by the high number of multi-authored papers and cross-university/international partnerships. Additionally, some authors and institutions remain influential, while others have emerged as highly influential in the last seven years. This shows the dynamic nature of the field and the need to remain active in quality publishing.

Research limitations/implications

Scholars must understand that several factors influence impact judgments, which cannot be assessed using raw counts alone. Journal quality, impact, and publishing opportunity as well as author counts are important elements to consider.

Originality/value

These reviews are vital to the field in that they provide status updates on scholarship, so these reviews should be done periodically. Additionally, the findings in this paper provide a more holistic understanding of research impact and permit better assessment for scholars and administrators.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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