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Article

Fidel Costa, Christina Widiwijayanti, Thin Zar Win Nang, Erickson Fajiculay, Tania Espinosa-Ortega and Christopher Newhall

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a comprehensive global database on volcanic unrest (WOVOdat) as a resource to improve eruption forecasts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a comprehensive global database on volcanic unrest (WOVOdat) as a resource to improve eruption forecasts, hazard evaluation and mitigation actions.

Design/methodology/approach

WOVOdat is a centralized database that hosts multi-parameter monitoring data sets from unrest and eruption episodes of volcanoes worldwide. Its online interface (https://wovodat.org/) allows interactive data analysis and comparison between volcanoes and eruption styles, which is needed during volcanic crises, as well as to perform basic research on pre-eruption processes, teaching and outreach.

Findings

WOVOdat aims to standardize and organize the myriad of monitoring data types at the global scale. Users can compare changes during a crisis to past unrest episodes, and estimate probabilities of outcomes using evidence-based statistics. WOVOdat will be to volcanology as an epidemiological database is to medicine.

Research limitations/implications

The success of eruption forecast relies on data completeness, and thus requires the willingness of observatories, governments and researchers to share data across the volcano community.

Practical implications

WOVOdat is a unique resource that can be studied to understand the causes of volcanic unrest and to improve eruption forecasting.

Originality/value

WOVOdat is the only compilation of standardized and multi-parameter volcano unrest data from around the world, and it is freely and easily accessible through an online interface.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Jessica Mercer and Ilan Kelman

The paper aims to further understand the contribution of indigenous knowledge to disaster risk reduction through reviewing the experiences of Baliau village situated on…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to further understand the contribution of indigenous knowledge to disaster risk reduction through reviewing the experiences of Baliau village situated on Manam Island in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.

Design/methodology/approach

Indigenous strategies for disaster risk reduction were identified through participatory group discussions with community members, including a strengths‐weaknesses‐opportunities‐threats analysis.

Findings

The paper outlines how indigenous knowledge was used for disaster risk reduction and to cope with enforced evacuation. It demonstrates the need for community consultation alongside the benefits of applying the sustainable livelihoods approach to better understand volcano‐related opportunities, rather than just focusing on the volcano's threats.

Practical implications

Indigenous knowledge has both relevance and applicability when applied to disaster risk reduction. Communities should be consulted at all stages of disaster risk reduction and disaster response in order to ensure the relevance and applicability of any strategy.

Originality/value

Through a new case study, this paper explores the contributions of indigenous knowledge to disaster risk reduction and outlines the disruption of evacuation upon indigenous communities. Lessons learnt for future evacuation and rehabilitation scenarios are outlined through application of the sustainable livelihoods approach.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Kevin R. Ronan, Douglas Paton, David M. Johnston and Bruce F. Houghton

This paper summarizes research involving a multidisciplinary team of volcanologists and social scientists. It describes collaboration in relation to social and physical…

Abstract

This paper summarizes research involving a multidisciplinary team of volcanologists and social scientists. It describes collaboration in relation to social and physical risk and vulnerability following the Mount Ruapehu eruptions of 1995‐1996. This work stresses a key role for such multidisciplinary teams in reducing the social impact of volcanic hazards through assisting communities, organizations, and individuals following an eruption and, importantly, during quiescent periods. We present an overview of a multidisciplinary approach and related research. In stressing the role of the physical science community in managing societal hazards and risk, the paper addresses how this role can be enhanced through collaboration with social scientists and others. The emphasis here is the facilitation of volcanological knowledge and expertise in threat communication, mitigation, community development, emergency planning, and response management. Our research has examined mechanisms for integration, multi‐disciplinary training, and preparing volcanologists for the social demands encountered in playing an active crisis management role. One area of overlap that can tie together disciplines and assist the public is the idea that volcanic activity and the related uncertainties are, at their essence, simply problems that with increasingly integrated efforts likewise have increasingly attainable solutions.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Mahmoud Mohieldin, G. Tomas M. Hult and Juan Velez-Ocampo

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and to discuss imperative engines for potential regional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region and to discuss imperative engines for potential regional recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conceptually discusses the effects of COVID-19 on the LAC region and highlights potential areas for recovery.

Findings

The LAC region have a history of facing structural development challenges – due to digital inequality, environmental degradation, erosion of democracy and financial debt – which have led to a profound discontent among people in the LAC region and this dissatisfaction has been intensified by the crises stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. LAC region can increase its resilience and recover its path to sustainable development by consolidating impact-based regional value chains, attracting sustainability-themed foreign direct investment and nurturing structural development to facilitate LAC companies to expand into international markets (“multilatinas”).

Research limitations/implications

There are some preliminary studies on the economic and social impact of COVID-19 on the LAC region, however, the strategies that emerging and developing economies might pursue to promptly recover are still a matter of discussion. The uncertainty and heterogeneity of the developing and emerging economies and the multidimensional needed actions require local adaptations and adjustments.

Originality/value

The LAC COVID-19 crisis recovery requires shared responsibility, global solidarity, urgent and immediate cooperation and structural transformations to enable deeper regional integration. This integration should focus on impact-based value chains to be resiliently adaptable to changing global realities and arduous local contexts. This paper provides integrative avenues for potential regional recovery within the region.

Objetivo

el propósito de este manuscrito es examinar el impacto de COVID-19 en la región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe (LAC) y discutir los motores imperativos para una posible recuperación regional.

Metodología

Este estudio analiza conceptualmente los efectos del COVID-19 en la región de LAC y destaca áreas potenciales de recuperación.

Resultados

la región de LAC tiene un historial de enfrentar desafíos de desarrollo estructural debido a la desigualdad digital, la degradación ambiental, la erosión de la democracia y la deuda financiera, que han llevado a un profundo descontento entre las personas de LAC, y esta insatisfacción se ha visto intensificada por las crisis derivadas de la pandemia de COVID-19. La región de LAC puede aumentar su resiliencia y recuperar su camino hacia el desarrollo sostenible mediante la consolidación de más cortas cadenas de valor regionales basadas en el impacto, la atracción de Inversión Extranjera Directa (IED) con temas de sostenibilidad y el fomento del desarrollo estructural para facilitar la expansión de las empresas de LAC en los mercados internacionales (“multilatinas”).

Originalidad/valor

la recuperación de la crisis del COVID-19 en LAC requiere de responsabilidad compartida, solidaridad global, cooperación urgente e inmediata y transformaciones estructurales que permitan una integración regional más profunda. Esta integración debe centrarse en las más cortas cadenas de valor basadas en el impacto para que se adapten con resiliencia a las cambiantes realidades globales y los arduos contextos locales. Este manuscrito proporciona vías integradoras para una posible recuperación regional dentro de la región.

Implicaciones/limitaciones de la investigación

Existen algunos estudios preliminares sobre el impacto económico y social del COVID-19 en la región de LAC, sin embargo, las estrategias que las economías emergentes y en desarrollo podrían seguir para recuperarse rápidamente son aún un tema de discusión. La incertidumbre y heterogeneidad de las economías en desarrollo y emergentes y las acciones multidimensionales necesarias requieren adaptaciones y ajustes locales.

Objetivo

o objetivo deste manuscrito é examinar o impacto do COVID-19 na região da América Latina e do Caribe e discutir mecanismos imperativos para uma potencial recuperação regional.

Metodologia

este estudo discute conceitualmente os efeitos do COVID-19 na região da América Latina e do Caribe e destaca áreas potenciais para recuperação.

Resultados

a região da América Latina e do Caribe (LAC) tem um histórico de desafios estruturais de desenvolvimento – devido à desigualdade digital, degradação ambiental, erosão da democracia e dívida financeira – que levaram a um profundo descontentamento entre as pessoas na região da LAC, e essa insatisfação foi intensificada pelas crises decorrentes da pandemia COVID-19. A região da LAC pode aumentar sua resiliência e recuperar seu caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável consolidando cadeias de valor regionais com impacto econômico e social, atraindo Investimento Estrangeiro Direto (IED) com foco em sustentabilidade e fomentando o desenvolvimento estrutural para facilitar a expansão das empresas da LAC para mercados internacionais (“multilatinas”)

Originalidade

a recuperação da crise LAC COVID-19 requer responsabilidade compartilhada, solidariedade global, cooperação urgente e imediata e transformações estruturais para permitir uma integração regional mais profunda. Essa integração deve se concentrar em cadeias de valor baseadas em impacto para serem resilientemente adaptáveis às mudanças nas realidades globais e nos contextos locais árduos. Este manuscrito oferece caminhos integrativos para uma potencial recuperação regional.

Implicações/limitações da pesquisa

existem alguns estudos preliminares sobre o impacto econômico e social do COVID-19 na região da LAC; no entanto, as estratégias que as economias emergentes e em desenvolvimento podem seguir para se recuperar prontamente ainda estão em discussão. A incerteza e a heterogeneidade das economias em desenvolvimento e emergentes, assim como as ações multidimensionais necessárias requerem adaptações e ajustes locais.

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Book part

Jørgen Goul Andersen

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle…

Abstract

This chapter analyses the recovery of the Danish economy from the crisis of the 1980s, its elevation to a bit of an ‘economic miracle’ or at least an ‘employment miracle’ from 1995 to 2005 and its subsequent decline during the financial crisis, which revealed more long-standing problems that precluded a quick recovery. The solution of Denmark's structural balance of payment problems in the early 1990s paved the way for long-term prosperity, and Denmark managed the challenges of globalisation and deindustrialisation almost without social costs. However, an accumulation of short-term policy failures and credit liberalisation facilitated a credit and housing bubble, a consumption-driven boom and declining competitiveness. In broad terms, the explanation is political; this includes not only vote- and office-seeking strategies of the incumbent government but also ideational factors such as agenda setting of economic policy. Somewhat unnoticed – partly because of preoccupation with long-term challenges of ageing and shortage of labour – productivity and economic growth rates had slowed down over several years. The Danish decline in GDP 2008–2009 was larger than in the 1930s, and after the bubble burst, there were few drivers of economic growth. Households consolidated and were reluctant to consume; public consumption had to be cut as well; exports increased rather slowly; and in this climate, there was little room for private investments. Financially, the Danish economy remained healthy, though. Current accounts revealed record-high surpluses after the financial crisis; state debt remained moderate, and if one were to include the enormous retained taxes in private pension funds, net state debt would de facto be positive. Still, around 2010–2011 there were few short-term drivers of economic growth, and rather unexpectedly, it turned out that unemployment problems were likely to prevail for several years.

Details

The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-778-0

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Book part

Lucy Benge and Andreas Neef

Bali’s tourism sector has seen a dramatic expansion over the past two decades, despite temporary security concerns following the 2002 and 2005 terrorist attacks. The…

Abstract

Bali’s tourism sector has seen a dramatic expansion over the past two decades, despite temporary security concerns following the 2002 and 2005 terrorist attacks. The growing influx of foreign and domestic tourists has put increasing strain on the island’s natural resources, including its freshwater sources and marine environment. This review chapter addresses conflicts within the tourism–environment–security nexus as a consequence of the increasing resource scarcity associated with the unfettered growth of tourism. This involves a fundamental conflict between economic growth and environmental preservation and – more specifically – between the promotion of the tourism industry and the protection of traditional wet-rice agriculture and cultural heritage. The ongoing transformations of Bali’s communal water management (subak) system and the threat to coastal and marine environments by the controversial Benoa Bay Reclamation Project are particularly highlighted. The authors explore conflicting views over the value of natural resources through a discussion of different approaches to achieving a balance between economic, ecological and socio-cultural goals. This includes investigation of rights-based and polycentric approaches to resource governance as well as attempts to foster qualitative growth through the promotion of ecotourism and other niche markets.

Details

The Tourism–Disaster–Conflict Nexus
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-100-3

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-373-1

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Article

Lino Pascal Briguglio

The purpose of this paper is to revise, update and extend the economic vulnerability and economic resilience indices, where economic vulnerability is associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revise, update and extend the economic vulnerability and economic resilience indices, where economic vulnerability is associated with inherent exposure to external shocks and economic resilience with policies that enable a country to minimize or withstand the negative effects of such shocks. This study also proposes a revised vulnerability/resilience framework to assess the risk of a country being harmed by external economic shocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the study involves defining economic vulnerability in terms of inherent features of an economy and defining economic resilience in terms of policy-induced changes, and then devising measureable indices to measure such vulnerability and resilience across countries. The exercise required the examination of various global indices to assess their suitability, in terms of relevance and country coverage, for measuring the vulnerability index and the resilience index and the components of the two indices.

Findings

The main finding of the study is that a number highly vulnerable states, including economically successful small island economies, emerged with high resilience scores, suggesting that they adopt policies that enable them to withstand the harmful effects of external shocks. This possibly explains why these states register relatively high GDP per capita, in spite of their high exposure to shocks. On the other hand, a number of countries, mostly large and poor developing countries, that are not highly exposed to external shocks due to their limited dependence on external trade, emerged with a low degree of policy-induced economic resilience.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilized global indicators which sometimes had missing data and these had to be filled in using approximations based on assumptions, and alternative assumption could have produced a different approximations. In addition the classification of countries in terms of the vulnerability and resilience nexus depended highly on many underpinning assumptions, including the definitions and the measurement of the components, the weighting schemes and the thresholds used. It is likely that alternative assumptions would yield alternative classifications.

Practical implications

An important practical implication of this study is that highly economically vulnerable states can reduce the harmful effects of external economic shocks if they adopt policies that lead to resilience building. On the other hand, countries that are not highly exposed to external shocks, can render themselves economically unstable due to their weak economic, social and environmental governance.

Social implications

This study considers social development and cohesion as one of the pillars of resilience building. The implication of this approach is that social governance, leading to improvements in the education and health of the population could reduce the harm arising from a country’s exposure to external shocks. This is because social governance affects the extent to which relations within a society are properly developed, enabling an effective functioning of the economic apparatus without the hindrance of civil unrest.

Originality/value

This study has extended previous work on the vulnerability and resilience framework, to include almost all countries of the world, using updated data, and has revised the resilience index to include environmental governance. It has also redefined market flexibility to allow for the downsides of excessive financial riskiness. The revision of vulnerability and resilience indices in the light of new data and their interaction showed more convincingly that economies that are highly economically vulnerable could still register economic success as a result of resilience-conducive policies associated with good economic, political, social and environmental governance.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Allan Metz

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to…

Abstract

Historically, Panama has always been “a place of transit.” While technically the isthmus formed part of Colombia in the nineteenth century, it was linked geopolitically to the United States soon after the California gold rush, beginning in the late 1840s. The first attempt at building a canal ended in failure in 1893 when disease and poor management forced Ferdinand de Lesseps to abandon the project. The U.S. undertaking to build the canal could only begin after Panama declared itself free and broke away from Colombia in 1903, with the support of the United States.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part

Jeannine M. Love and Margaret Stout

Public administration has struggled to develop effective practices for fostering just and sustainable responses to social, economic, and environmental crises. In this…

Abstract

Public administration has struggled to develop effective practices for fostering just and sustainable responses to social, economic, and environmental crises. In this chapter, we argue that radically democratic social movements demonstrate the potential the ideal-type of Integrative Governance holds for achieving the collaborative advantage that has remained elusive to those who study and utilize traditional governance networks. Drawing from myriad studies of social movements, we demonstrate how particular social movements prefigure the philosophy and practices of this approach. Herein we focus on movements’ ethical stance of Stewardship, politics of Radical Democracy, epistemological use of Integral Knowing, and administrative practice of Facilitative Coordination, emphasizing how they use information communication technology and one-to-one organizing tactics. These practices enable social movements to integrate across the domains of sustainability and translate radically democratic modes of association from micro- to macro-scale. Thus, they shift attention from network structures, the main focus of the governance literature, to power dynamics. These movements constitute an interconnected global phenomenon, fostering solidarity across difference and prefiguring a transformation of the global political economy. Therefore, they are nascent exemplars of Integrative Governance, a more just and effective approach to global governance.

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