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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2014

C. Engel Laura, Reich Michaela and Vilela Adriana

Against a broader global and regional shift toward “quality education for all,” the chapter explores education policy developments and trends related to teacher education…

Abstract

Against a broader global and regional shift toward “quality education for all,” the chapter explores education policy developments and trends related to teacher education and professional development in Latin America and the Caribbean. We examine how multilateral education policy circulation and regional horizontal cooperation has guided these education policy developments. The chapter is organized into three parts. It first provides a discussion of educational multilateralism and new forms of horizontal cooperation, as it relates to educational development efforts. We argue that these new forms of multilateralism and horizontal cooperation guide the development of policies that seek to enhance both educational equity and quality education, particularly through advancing teacher education and professional development. The second section explores several recent education policy trends that relate to teacher education and professional development in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the challenges that Ministries of Education face when designing and implementing programs of teacher education and professional development. Lastly, the chapter examines the role of regional organizations in promoting new forms of regional horizontal cooperation specific to teacher education and professional development, focusing on the example of Organization of American States’ (OAS) Inter-American Teacher Education Network (ITEN).

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2014
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-453-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

Adolfo Rodríguez Gallardo

The aim of this paper is to analyze the number of schools and programs of library science that have existed in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1985 to date. It was…

851

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze the number of schools and programs of library science that have existed in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1985 to date. It was written in order to understand the nature of library science teaching, and to provide a numerical analysis of the schools and programs identified.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on previous works that collected information on programs and institutions devoted to library science teaching. The main sources are the works of Fang (1985), Fang et al. (1995) and Maris and Giunti (1999). Differences between the Hispanic‐Portuguese and Anglo‐Saxon educational systems are described, as well as what they mean to library science teaching. With the purpose of standardizing the Anglo‐Saxon and Hispanic‐Portuguese systems, the various study programs were divided according to the classification used by Fang and Nauta.

Findings

It is evident that the number of schools and programs has been increasing and decreasing, and although the causes of this trend are not known, the data show that Latin American library science studies are continuously in motion. Regarding the creation of schools and programs, the data that have been gathered suggest an influence from European and American schools first and UNESCO programs later. Numerical data are provided per country on the number of schools and programs for training, technical studies, tertiary‐undergraduate studies, tertiary‐graduate studies and tertiary‐postgraduate studies.

Research limitations/implications

Because this study is based on previous works that collected information on programs and institutions, one has to admit that they do not provide information on all the schools that have existed in Latin America and the Caribbean and, thus, data are not fully accurate; however, there is enough information to provide a clear overview of the situation and the trends of library science in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the knowledge of library education in Latin America and the Caribbean. It points out the formation of human resources in reference to education levels and affirms the diversity of library education in those regions.

Details

New Library World, vol. 108 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Ketty Rodríguez

Jorge Sàbato, the Latin American scientist, predicted that ‘either Latin America dominates technology or through other countries technology will dominate Latin America

Abstract

Jorge Sàbato, the Latin American scientist, predicted that ‘either Latin America dominates technology or through other countries technology will dominate Latin America’ (Sagasti 1984). This prediction might serve to point toward one of the objectives to challenge our countries of the Caribbean and Latin America in the coming century. To understand how hard we will have to work to achieve that goal we might look at the barriers to information technology in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Khellon Quacy Roach and Raymond Mark Kirton

Accounting for over 90% of goods traded globally, Maritime Transport is undeniably the main mode of international transport for goods throughout the world. Despite the

Abstract

Accounting for over 90% of goods traded globally, Maritime Transport is undeniably the main mode of international transport for goods throughout the world. Despite the global financial crisis in 2008, growth in international seaborne trade continued, albeit at a slower rate of 3.6% in 2008 as compared with 4.5% in 2007. The volume of global sea‐borne trade for 2008 totaled 8.17 billion tons as estimated by UNCTAD (2009). Maritime transport is more critical to the development of the small Caribbean states than for most other regions because they exist as islands in the Caribbean Sea, and consequently are heavily reliant on foreign trade. However, despite the advancement in the area of maritime transport globally, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) continue to be plagued with high transport costs, inadequate port and transport infrastructure and a lack of coordinated maritime transport policies among others. It can, therefore, be widely appreciated that in order for LAC to achieve sustained economic development there is need for improved maritime transport cooperation in the region. This paper seeks to use the examples of Trinidad and Tobago from the Caribbean and Venezuela from Latin America to examine the ways in which Maritime Transport Cooperation can be enhanced in order to encourage development and growth in the Greater Caribbean region

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2020

Jane Lucia Silva Santos, Andrea Valéria Steil and David Joaquin Delgado-Hernández

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main methods and themes used on organizational learning (OL) and learning organization (LO) research in Latin American and the

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main methods and themes used on organizational learning (OL) and learning organization (LO) research in Latin American and the Caribbean.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted by means of a broad and systematic strategy to locating, selecting and analyzing papers on OL/LO, written in different languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish). Systematic searches were carried out at the two databases (Web of Science’s Social Sciences Citation Index and Scopus), and 15 specific Latin American and Caribbean journals were identified as data sources for the review. A thematic analysis was carried out using NVivo and cluster analysis.

Findings

In all 79 papers published between 2000 and 2017 were included in the synthesis and results: 18 are theoretical papers and literature reviews and 61 are empirical papers (30 qualitative, 24 quantitative and 7 multiple methods). These empirical papers revealed the study of the OL/LO concepts in organizations located mainly in Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Costa Rica. Five topics represent the main themes addressed on OL/LO studies in Latin America and the Caribbean and are avenues for future research in the field: (i) knowledge and KM (i.e. knowledge management), (ii) culture and leadership, (iii) innovation and improvement, (iv) learning (for example, learning process, learning styles), and (v) entrepreneurship and sustainability.

Originality/value

This paper provides a summary of the research methods and themes used in the OL/LO field in Latin America and the Caribbean, suggesting insights for future research.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Giovanni E. Reyes and Alejandro J. Useche

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance and the relationship between competitiveness, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth and human development in 20…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance and the relationship between competitiveness, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth and human development in 20 countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region during the 2006-2015 period. The main argument to uphold here is that – from the perspective of virtuous circle – countries with better conditions of competitiveness are those with better economic performance and with better conditions for human development.

Design/methodology/approach

Time series data were organized at three levels: individual countries, groups of nations and Latin America and Caribbean as a whole. Indicators used were: index of competitiveness, rates of change in real GDP and Human Development Index. Cluster analysis tests were performed: data ranges were determined and quintiles were established. Countries were ranked in five categories and comparative position matrices were determined for each variable. Linear correlations between indexes were calculated. Linear correlation coefficients were determined in terms of groups of countries and considering Latin America and Caribbean as a whole.

Findings

Findings revealed that decreasing conditions in competitiveness and economic growth indicators are the representative situation since 2009. The most competitive country in the region is Chile, and the weakest is Venezuela. Nevertheless, all Latin American and Caribbean countries analyzed seem to have made progress in terms of human, economic and social development. Regarding correlations, Dominican Republic showed an inverse relationship between competitiveness and economic growth, while Jamaica and Venezuela showed inverse relationships between competitiveness and human development. At the individual country level, no statistically significant relationship between economic growth and human development was detected.

Research limitations/implications

Findings highlight the necessity of future research that result in a deeper understanding of the transmission mechanisms between economic and social performance in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Particular reasons at the micro level that explain improvements or deteriorations in competitiveness and human development must also be analyzed. Based on the degrees of freedom, time series could have included more years, but a lack of information was found for some countries. It would also be necessary to observe each particular case considering the type of economy, production characteristics and export/import composition.

Practical implications

Results complement the existing literature by exploring competitiveness and its relationship with economic and social variables in developing countries. The authors also believe that this paper is relevant for macroeconomic and social policy debates involving competitiveness and human well-being in this region of the world.

Originality/value

This paper supports an important argument: human well-being and national development must be the ultimate goal of competitiveness. Traditional literature focuses on levels and determinants of competitiveness in developed countries, but it usually does not take into account social and human aspects of the process in developing countries. Little attention has been paid to analyze the relationship between competitiveness and socioeconomic variables in developing countries. Methods and findings of this paper complement the existing literature by studying the relationships among competitiveness, real GDP growth and human development in Latin American and Caribbean countries, using correlation analysis.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Donn J. Tilson and Doug Newsom

The contiguous Americas offer a conceptual image of a unified and major economic marketplace. A campaign to solidify this image should be developed and implemented to…

Abstract

The contiguous Americas offer a conceptual image of a unified and major economic marketplace. A campaign to solidify this image should be developed and implemented to improve political relations and the balance of power between and among the nations involved. Not campaigning for a united marketplace of the Americas risks fractionalization of economic power in smaller markets. The cultures are no more diverse than those in the other two global market areas—Asia and Europe—and the languages less so. Additionally, certain confederations and associations already exist to help structurally unify the Americas as a single marketplace.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Mahmoud Mohieldin, Diana Piedrahita-Carvajal, Juan Velez-Ocampo and Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

Development pathways for Latin American and the Caribbean countries have been the subject of debates, analyses and controversies. For several decades, countries in this…

Abstract

Development pathways for Latin American and the Caribbean countries have been the subject of debates, analyses and controversies. For several decades, countries in this region have struggled with structural barriers to development associated with social inequalities, political turmoil, colonialism, corruption and a dependence on exploiting natural resources, among others. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened some of those obstacles, which when added to the global climate crisis and its environmental impact, leaves the region in a highly stressed situation, with many of its countries on the edge of a deep economic depression. This chapter discusses some of the socioeconomic challenges that Latin America and the Caribbean currently face; the roles of COVID-19 and climate crises on these challenges and some opportunities for recovery.

Details

Regenerative and Sustainable Futures for Latin America and the Caribbean
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-864-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Shazeeda A. Ali

It is an undisputed fact that in the entangled web spun by money launderers no individual country or single region stands alone — each is connected by a trail of dirty dollars.

Abstract

It is an undisputed fact that in the entangled web spun by money launderers no individual country or single region stands alone — each is connected by a trail of dirty dollars.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Carlos Casanova, Le Xia and Romina Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to deploy an export dependency index to identify the sectors and countries in Latin America which are most exposed to fluctuations in Chinese…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deploy an export dependency index to identify the sectors and countries in Latin America which are most exposed to fluctuations in Chinese demand. Bilateral trade between China and Latin America has grown very quickly in the past decade. As a consequence, economic relationships with Latin America intensified tremendously, as growing demand for resources drove China into relatively unexplored frontiers.

Design/methodology/approach

The Index measures the relative exposure of Latin American exporters to shifts in demand from China and is scaled from 0 to 1 (the higher the score, the more exposed an exporter is to disruptions of trade with China). The authors undertook the analysis using six-digit trade figures from the United Nations COMTRADE database (Harmonized System 2007 nomenclature) to ensure granularity and consistency and contrasted their results across two points in time, 2008 and 2014. The analysis was very comprehensive, covering the products that accounted for 80 per cent or more of all exports to China in 2014, for all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Findings

According to our estimates, dependency on China increased overboard across Latin America for all countries and all sectors between 2008 and 2014. Absolute dependency levels were highest in Costa Rica, Colombia, Uruguay, Venezuela, Brazil, Panama, Peru, Chile, Guyana and Argentina. Of these, the largest exporters to China, namely, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia and Venezuela, featured high dependencies concentrated around just four commodities: soy in the form of soybeans and soybean oil; crude oil; copper in the form of copper ore, copper cathodes and unrefined copper; and iron ore. These four commodities accounted for 80 per cent of the regions’ total exports to China.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies that look into Latin America’s commodity export dependency on China at such granular level.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

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