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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2018

Abdullah Al Mamun, Rajennd A/L Muniady, Mohd Asrul Hery Bin Ibrahim and Noorshella Binti Che Nawi

This study aims to investigate the impact of economic vulnerability upon entrepreneurial competencies (i.e. commitment competency, conceptual competency, opportunity…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact of economic vulnerability upon entrepreneurial competencies (i.e. commitment competency, conceptual competency, opportunity recognition competency, organizing competency, relationship competency and strategic competency) among respondents from varied development initiatives established by the eKasih program (National Poverty Data Bank) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Upon adopting the cross-sectional design, data were randomly gathered from selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the list of development organizations available in the eKasih (National Poverty Data Bank), located at four states in Peninsular Malaysia. The quantitative data were gathered by performing structured interview sessions from September until November 2017.

Findings

The outcomes of the study displayed that economic vulnerability has a significantly negative effect upon commitment, opportunity recognition, organizing and strategic competency. On the other hand, the results showcased that economi c vulnerability has a significantly positive effect on competency, but insignificantly positive impact upon conceptual competency.

Originality/value

These study outcomes appear to extend the scope of the resource-based view, apart from enriching the existing entrepreneurial competency literature, particularly within the Malaysian context. Hence, it is recommended that the government of Malaysia and development organizations should focus on maximizing the level of competency among micro-entrepreneurs as a viable approach to decrease the effect of economic vulnerability.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7812

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohd Asrul Hery Bin Ibrahim, Rajennd Muniady, Mohammad Bin Ismail, Noorshella Binti Che Nawi and Noorul Azwin Binti Md Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to improve the socio-economic condition of low-income households in Malaysia, many products and services are available, including access to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the socio-economic condition of low-income households in Malaysia, many products and services are available, including access to working capital and enterprise development training programs. This study examined the impact of access to working capital and micro-enterprise development training programs on household income and economic vulnerability among participants of development initiatives in the eKasih (national poverty data bank) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a cross-sectional design, the authors collected data randomly from the selected 300 micro-entrepreneurs from the list of development organizations available in the eKasih (national poverty data bank) located in four states of Peninsular Malaysia. Quantitative data were collected through structured interviews with the respondents from October to November 2017.

Findings

Both the length of participation and total amount of economic loan were found to increase the household income. However, there was no positive and significant impact of total number of training hours on household income. Interestingly, length of participation was found to reduce the level of economic vulnerability, except total amount of economic loan, and total number of training hours.

Originality/value

Despite the overwhelming empirical evidence, the findings indicated that the impact of enterprise development training programs was inconclusive. The effect of total amount of loan on economic vulnerability was also inconclusive. Hence, both policy makers and development organizations should understand how their programs benefit the poor households that can be improved through new implementation strategies.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Lino Pascal Briguglio

The purpose of this paper is to revise, update and extend the economic vulnerability and economic resilience indices, where economic vulnerability is associated with…

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1731

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revise, update and extend the economic vulnerability and economic resilience indices, where economic vulnerability is associated with inherent exposure to external shocks and economic resilience with policies that enable a country to minimize or withstand the negative effects of such shocks. This study also proposes a revised vulnerability/resilience framework to assess the risk of a country being harmed by external economic shocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the study involves defining economic vulnerability in terms of inherent features of an economy and defining economic resilience in terms of policy-induced changes, and then devising measureable indices to measure such vulnerability and resilience across countries. The exercise required the examination of various global indices to assess their suitability, in terms of relevance and country coverage, for measuring the vulnerability index and the resilience index and the components of the two indices.

Findings

The main finding of the study is that a number highly vulnerable states, including economically successful small island economies, emerged with high resilience scores, suggesting that they adopt policies that enable them to withstand the harmful effects of external shocks. This possibly explains why these states register relatively high GDP per capita, in spite of their high exposure to shocks. On the other hand, a number of countries, mostly large and poor developing countries, that are not highly exposed to external shocks due to their limited dependence on external trade, emerged with a low degree of policy-induced economic resilience.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilized global indicators which sometimes had missing data and these had to be filled in using approximations based on assumptions, and alternative assumption could have produced a different approximations. In addition the classification of countries in terms of the vulnerability and resilience nexus depended highly on many underpinning assumptions, including the definitions and the measurement of the components, the weighting schemes and the thresholds used. It is likely that alternative assumptions would yield alternative classifications.

Practical implications

An important practical implication of this study is that highly economically vulnerable states can reduce the harmful effects of external economic shocks if they adopt policies that lead to resilience building. On the other hand, countries that are not highly exposed to external shocks, can render themselves economically unstable due to their weak economic, social and environmental governance.

Social implications

This study considers social development and cohesion as one of the pillars of resilience building. The implication of this approach is that social governance, leading to improvements in the education and health of the population could reduce the harm arising from a country’s exposure to external shocks. This is because social governance affects the extent to which relations within a society are properly developed, enabling an effective functioning of the economic apparatus without the hindrance of civil unrest.

Originality/value

This study has extended previous work on the vulnerability and resilience framework, to include almost all countries of the world, using updated data, and has revised the resilience index to include environmental governance. It has also redefined market flexibility to allow for the downsides of excessive financial riskiness. The revision of vulnerability and resilience indices in the light of new data and their interaction showed more convincingly that economies that are highly economically vulnerable could still register economic success as a result of resilience-conducive policies associated with good economic, political, social and environmental governance.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political…

Abstract

Several developing economies witnessed a large number of systemic financial and currency crises since the 1980s that resulted in severe economic, social, and political problems. The devastating impact of the 1982 and 1994–1995 Mexican crises, the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, the 1998 Russian crisis, and the ongoing financial crisis of 2008–2009 suggests that maintaining financial sector stability through reduction in vulnerability is highly crucial. The world is now witnessing an unprecedented systemic financial crisis originated from the USA in September 2008 together with a deep worldwide economic recession, particularly in developed countries of Europe and North America. This calls for devising and using on a regular basis an appropriate and effective monitoring and policy formulation system for detecting and addressing vulnerabilities leading to crisis. This chapter proposes a macroprudential/financial soundness monitoring, analysis, and remedial policy formulation system that can be used by most developing countries with or without crisis experience as well as with limited data. It also discusses a process for identifying and compiling a set of leading macroprudential/financial soundness indicators. An empirical illustration using Philippines data is presented. There is an urgent need for increased coordination, collaboration, and partnership among central banks, banking and financial market supervision agencies, and ministries of finance, economic, and planning for proper macroprudential monitoring. A high-level national financial stability committee under the auspices of the head of the state as well as a ‘‘regional financial stability board’’ needs to be established to complement and support the activities of an “international stability board.”

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Sining C. Cuevas

This research aims to develop a model that may be used to determine the effective adaptive measures to implement in a system affected by climate change.

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2629

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to develop a model that may be used to determine the effective adaptive measures to implement in a system affected by climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

The three primary dimensions of the model were individually investigated and then the linkages among them were developed. Specifically, the nature of climate change was examined and the issues emerging from the changes were analyzed. Next, an intensive study of system vulnerabilities was conducted, and the third factor in the model, risk, is then explored. Afterwards, the conceptual framework, which is the foundation of the climate change vulnerability risk model, was devised and the model created.

Findings

The model is a three‐dimensional matrix with the nature of climate change, vulnerabilities, and risks as its chief dimensions. It identifies the four natures of climate change, namely: variability, intensity, frequency, and quantity and the vulnerability types to be socio‐economic, biophysical, technological, and institutional. Meanwhile, risks are classified as income, biodiversity, health, mortality, and infrastructure risks.

Research limitations/implications

The research is the first phase of a three‐stage study on the linkages among climate change, vulnerability, and risks. It is the development stage of the framework that exemplifies the interrelationships among these variables and is the basis of the statistical and econometric analyses in the later stages.

Originality/value

The climate change vulnerability risk model was developed to act as an analytical guide in understanding the effects of climate change to systems. The model may be used to determine the effective adaptive measures to apply in the system, through a comparative analysis of the variables in the matrix.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Shafiqul Alam, Ziaul Haq Adnan, Mohammed Abdul Baten and Surajit Bag

Globally, a myriad of floating workers is in grave jeopardy due to the ceasing of employment opportunities that resulted from the mobility restriction during the Covid-19…

Abstract

Purpose

Globally, a myriad of floating workers is in grave jeopardy due to the ceasing of employment opportunities that resulted from the mobility restriction during the Covid-19. Despite the global concern, developing countries have been suffering disproportionately due to the dominance of informal workers in their labour market, posing the necessity to campaign for the immediate protection of this vulnerable population. This paper analyses various dimensions of the vulnerability of urban floating workers in the context of Covid-19 in Bangladesh. In reference to International Labour Organization's (ILO) “Decent Work” concept, this paper endeavours to examine floating workers' vulnerability using the insider-outsider framework in context to Covid-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, data were collected before the pandemic to assess the vulnerability of the informal floating workers. Later, we extended the study to the second phase during the Covid-19 pandemic to understand how pandemic affects the lives and livelihood of floating workers. In phase one, data were collected from a sample of 342 floating workers and analysed based on job security, wages, working environment, psychological wellbeing and education to understand the vulnerability of floating workers. In phase two, 20 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted, followed by thematic analysis to explore how the pandemic affects the existing vulnerability of floating workers.

Findings

Various social protection schemes were analysed to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing the vulnerability of floating workers facing socio-economic crises. The study has found that the pandemic has multiplied the existing vulnerability of the floating workers on many fronts that include job losses, food crisis, shelter insecurity, education, social, physical and mental wellbeing. In response to the pandemic, the Government stimulus packages and Non-government Covid-19 initiatives lack the appropriate system, magnitude, and focus on protecting the floating workers in Bangladesh.

Practical implications

This paper outlines various short-term interventions and long-term policy prescriptions to safeguard floating workers' lives and livelihood from the ongoing Corona pandemic and unforeseen uncertainties.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind that aims at understanding the vulnerability of this significant workforce in Bangladesh, taking the whole picture of Government and Non-government initiatives during Covid-19.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Thomas Ronan and Richard Teeuw

– The purpose of this paper is to explore fire risk and preparedness, with regard to water flow rates and building types in London, focusing on Southall district.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore fire risk and preparedness, with regard to water flow rates and building types in London, focusing on Southall district.

Design/methodology/approach

A land use survey was carried out to identify water requirements for firefighting across the study area. Local fire hydrant flow rates were analysed, using measurements taken during 2013 and archive data held by the London Fire Brigade (LFB). QGIS was used to explore relationships between fire hydrant flow rates, urban fire risk and socio-economic vulnerability data held by the LFB.

Findings

A new type of map, which includes data on water flow rates and building types, was created using QGIS and applied to Southall district, resulting in a map showing Combined Vulnerability to fires. Inadequate fire hydrant water supply was found across many parts of the borough.

Practical implications

This new approach to the evaluation and mapping of urban fire risk could be applied in other cities, to assess problems with water supply and the firefighting water flow requirements of various building types. The methodology can thus assist with adaptations to urban fire resource allocation, tactics, planning and preparedness.

Social implications

When socio-economic data are also available, this Geographical Information System-based methodology becomes very useful for assessing fire risk and developing strategies for preparedness and response.

Originality/value

This is the first time that London’s fire hydrant water pressures have been mapped and linked with socio-economic vulnerability maps, to produce a Combined Vulnerability map for assessing fire risk.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Sèna Kimm Gnangnon

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of structural economic vulnerability of developing countries on their public indebtedness.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of structural economic vulnerability of developing countries on their public indebtedness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform the analysis by the use of fixed effects technique where the standard errors are corrected by the Driscoll-Kraay (1998) method. The panel covers 96 developing countries over the period 1980-2008.

Findings

The results suggest evidence of a “U-shaped” relationship between the structural vulnerability and the total public debt in developing countries. More particularly in low-income countries (LICs), the structural vulnerability appears to be a strong determinant of the build-up of the total public debt.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to extend the research to small Island developing states. Indeed, the authors do not include this group of countries because of lack of data, especially on the variable “quality of governance” for almost all countries of this group. Accordingly, the research should be extended to such countries as well as these data are available.

Practical implications

The implications of the study is that international institutions, including those of the Bretton Woods should take into account the structural vulnerability of developing countries when designing development policies, especially the ones related to debt sustainability in developing countries and particularly LICs.

Social implications

The fact of the international institutions to take into account the structural vulnerability in the design of international development policy, especially those related to debt issues will have major implications on the macroeconomic policy design by these developing countries as well as on poverty reduction.

Originality/value

The added value of this paper is to use recent data on structural vulnerability to analyse the effect of the latter on public indebtdeness of developing countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Sining Cuevas

This paper aims to illustrate how the climate change‐vulnerability‐risk model (CCVRM) can be used to analyze the changes in system vulnerabilities and risks, as a result…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to illustrate how the climate change‐vulnerability‐risk model (CCVRM) can be used to analyze the changes in system vulnerabilities and risks, as a result of implementing a community‐based early warning system (EWS).

Design/methodology/approach

The CCVRM is used to examine the community‐based EWS being implemented in the municipalities of Infanta and General Nakar in Quezon Province, Philippines. The levels of vulnerabilities and risks of the two localities are assessed through qualitative analysis using the CCVRM as framework. The model is also used to analyze the effects of the EWS in addressing the localities' vulnerabilities and risks.

Findings

Technological and institutional vulnerabilities of the Infanta and General Nakar systems have lessened when the EWS project was implemented. Technological and institutional vulnerabilities have direct correlations with mortality risk; thus, when the levels of the former decrease, so does the latter. Although the reduced technological and institutional vulnerabilities have an effect on the other type of risks present in the municipalities, the effects were not as significant as that of with mortality risk.

Research limitations/implications

Due to limited time and resources, only one adaptation program is analyzed, specifically, the community‐based EWS being implemented in the municipalities of Infanta and General Nakar, Philippines. An integrated analysis of different measures is not done. Although investigating a multi‐adaptation program is possible, this would require more time and resources to implement. Likewise, only a simple evaluation based on model definitions is conducted, instead of a more extensive risk and vulnerability assessment.

Originality/value

The CCVRM acts as an analytical guide in understanding the effects of climate change adaptive measures. Accordingly, this paper investigates the effects of an implemented adaptive measure. The study also shows how the CCVRM can be used to analyze planned measures and identify the types of risks and vulnerabilities that this type of adaptive measure can influence.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Huifang Sun, Liping Fang, Yaoguo Dang and Wenxin Mao

A core challenge of assessing regional agricultural drought vulnerability (RADV) is to reveal what vulnerability factors, under which kinds of synergistic combinations and…

Abstract

Purpose

A core challenge of assessing regional agricultural drought vulnerability (RADV) is to reveal what vulnerability factors, under which kinds of synergistic combinations and at what strengths, will lead to higher vulnerability: namely, the influence patterns of RADV.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-phased grey rough combined model is proposed to identify influence patterns of RADV from a new perspective of learning and mining historical cases. The grey entropy weight clustering with double base points is proposed to assess degrees of RADV. The simplest decision rules that reflect the complex synergistic relationships between RADV and its influencing factors are extracted using the rough set approach.

Findings

The results exemplified by China's Henan Province in the years 2008–2016 show higher degrees of RADV in the north and west regions of the province, in comparison with the south and east. In the patterns with higher RADV, the higher proportion of agricultural population appears in all decision rules as a core feature. A smaller quantity of water resources per unit of cultivated land area and a lower adaptive capacity, involving levels of irrigation technology and economic development, present a significant synergistic influence relationship that distinguishes the features of higher vulnerability from those of the lower.

Originality/value

The proposed grey rough combined model not only evaluates temporal dynamics and spatial differences of RADV but also extracts the decision rules between RADV and its influencing factors. The identified influence patterns inspire managerial implications for preventing and reducing agricultural drought through its historical evolution and formation mechanism.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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