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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Veera Kristiina Salomaa and Ihab Tewfik

Purpose: Evidence of adverse health effects of artificial trans fatty acids (TFAs) have accumulated since 1990s, yet TFAs are widely used by several food manufacturers…

Abstract

Purpose: Evidence of adverse health effects of artificial trans fatty acids (TFAs) have accumulated since 1990s, yet TFAs are widely used by several food manufacturers around the world. This review aimed to: ascertain the available evidence of the known unfavourable biochemical properties of artificial TFAs, their metabolic functions and health consequences; estimate their average intake levels and trends in different countries in order to critically evaluate whether more action is required to eliminate them from the diet. Methodology: The published evidence was searched by employing: Medline, Pubmed, InterScience, BioMed Central and Annual Reviews. Findings: With reference to human health, evidences from epidemiological, retrospective and observational studies revealed that the consumption of TFAs could outweigh the health risks posed by saturated fat consumption. The main health concerns included unfavourably altered blood cholesterol concentrations, insulin resistance, foetal brain and neural disturbances, proinflammatory and carcinogenic responses. Great variation exists in the global trends of industrial TFAs intake, being low in Mediterranean region, Japan and Scandinavia and high in parts of United States of America and Iceland. Besides the intense use of TFAs by food manufacturers and in eateries, the use of TFAs in food products is often poorly regulated and ill‐informed to consumers. Value: Since competitive alternatives to TFAs have made them non‐mandatory a broad public health intervention at government level to regulate or completely eliminate them from the national diet is warranted.

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World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Yu-Mi Lee, Na-Young Lee, Myung-Sub Chung, Sang-Do Ha and Dong-Ho Bae

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks to develop an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks to develop an appropriate food safety management system for children.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 322 ready-to-eat food samples categorized into 17 types were collected from nine Korean amusement parks and their fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents were assessed.

Findings

Fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents were relatively high in flour-based products. On the basis of the Korea Food and Drug Administration classification, the samples in 12 categories were classified as high-fat foods. The samples in nine categories were classified as high-saturated fatty acid foods. Most samples also contained non-negligible levels of trans fatty acids. The fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents of samples even in the same category varied markedly.

Social implications

This research will inform the necessity of an appropriate safety management system for ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement.

Originality/value

Although the fat contents of foods distributed around school area were often observed, the potential risk of those in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks have rarely been assessed. As patterns of food intakes vary world-widely, a periodic monitoring data like this study may be useful for international organizations and researchers.

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British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Lars Ovesen and Torben Leth

Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes inmargarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals.Concern that high intake of trans

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Abstract

Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes in margarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals. Concern that high intake of trans fatty acids may increase the risk of coronary heart disease has been strengthened by recent studies. Further, there is evidence that trans fatty acids may adversely affect foetal and neonatal growth and development. Therefore, a reduced intake of trans fatty acids seems prudent. Certain foods, particularly stick margarines, shortenings and hydrogenated frying fats, contain large amounts of trans fatty acids, and are the main reason for the rather high intake of trans fatty acids in the USA and northern European countries, including Denmark. Therefore, the National Food Agency is presently working on a legal provision to reduce the level of trans fatty acids in these products.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Priyanka Rastogi, Beena Mathur, Shweta Rastogi, V.P. Gupta and Rajeev Gupta

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian…

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2877

Abstract

Purpose

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils through an experimental study.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in chemical properties of various edible oils [Indian ghee (clarified butter), hydrogenated oil, coconut oil, mustard‐rapeseed oil, groundnut oil, soyabean oil, cottonseed oil and sunflower oil] were studied. Oils were subjected to various cooking methods (shallow frying, sautéing, single deep frying and multiple deep fryings) using an inert substance. Peroxide content was estimated as index of fattyacid oxidation, free fatty acids, iodine value for determination of fattyacid unsaturation and transfatty acids at baseline and after cooking using colorimetric and gas‐liquid chromatography methods. Three samples were analyzed for each process (n = 144). Significance of change was determined using t‐test.

Findings

There was a significant increase in peroxide content (mEq/L) of Indian ghee from 1.83±0.03 at baseline to 4.5–6.6 by different cooking methods, hydrogenated oil (0.45±0.07 to 1.7–8.5), coconut oil (1.01±0.01 to 3.2–9.2), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.90±0.01 to 2.1–5.3), groundnut oil (0.96±0.01 to 1.9–3.7), soyabean oil (0.86±0.02 to 1.9–3.4), cottonseed oil (0.71±0.01 to 2.9–6.4) and sunflower oil (1.09±0.01 to 2.3–10.2) (p<0.05). Free fatty acid content (g/100 g) was in undetectable amounts in all the fats at baseline and increased in Indian ghee (0.16–0.22), hydrogenated oil (0.09–0.23), coconut oil (0.09–1.39), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.07–0.19), groundnut oil (0.09–0.18), soyabean oil (0.06–0.12), cottonseed oil (0.09–0.22) and sunflower oil (0.08–0.13). Transfatty acids increased from 0.1% at baseline to 14.5% after sautéing and shallow frying and 15.8–16.8% after deep frying in hydrogenated oils (p<0.01). The iodine value decreased, indicating a decrease in unsaturated fats, insignificantly. The largest amount of oxidation was observed by shallow frying and free‐fattyacid formation by multiple deep frying. Hydrogenated, coconut and sunflower oils were the most susceptible to oxidation and soyabean oil the most resistant. Single deep frying caused the least changes in chemical composition of various fats and oils. Indian cooking practices significantly increase the peroxides, free fatty acids and transfatty acids in edible oils and fats. Single deep frying appears to be the least harmful method and soyabean oil the least susceptible to degradation.

Originality/value

The paper offers an experimental study to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Kathy M. Holley and Paul S. Phillips

Fats and oils contain triglycerides that are esters formed betweenthe alcohol glycerol and fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids containcarbon‐carbon double bonds. For such…

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Abstract

Fats and oils contain triglycerides that are esters formed between the alcohol glycerol and fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids contain carbon‐carbon double bonds. For such a double bond, cisand trans‐isomers are possible. The overwhelming majority of unsaturated fatty acids from plant oils are cis. In margarine manufacture, double bonds are hydrogenated so as to increase the melting points of the oil. A consequence of this is that a proportion of the double bonds remaining becomes trans. The proportion of transfatty acids in some margarines is around 20 per cent. Argues that the implications of this for human health are worrying. Transfatty acids have been implicated as the possible cause of a number of health problems. Recent research has identified that this isomer is the cause of an increased level of low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Darla Daniel‐O'Dwyer, Leslie Thompson, Brent Shriver, Chih‐kang Wu and Linda Hoover

The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stability of non‐hydrogenated cottonseed oil with that of the partially hydrogenated oils commonly used as a deep‐fat…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stability of non‐hydrogenated cottonseed oil with that of the partially hydrogenated oils commonly used as a deep‐fat frying medium by the restaurant industry when used to prepare French fries in order to reduce transfatty acids.

Design/methodology/approach

Stability characteristics of non‐hydrogenated cottonseed oil and two hydrogenated oils, canola and soybean, were evaluated in deep‐fat frying applications. French fries were analyzed for total polar compounds, and the oils were analyzed for iodine, peroxide, p‐anisidine and totox values, and free fatty acids.

Findings

Canola and soybean oil had significantly lower iodine values than cottonseed oil. Free fatty acid values were not significantly different among the oils (0.256 per cent oleic acid). Initially cottonseed oil had higher peroxide, p‐anisidine, and totox values compared with canola and soybean oil. However, as days of frying increased, values trended closer together. Total polar compounds were similar. All oil types were comparable in terms of their stability characteristics under the conditions used in this study.

Research limitations/implications

Research with additional food product and under more stressful conditions would be beneficial.

Practical implications

Hydrogenation increases transfatty acid content. Consumption of transfatty acids has been associated with increased risk of heart disease. Non‐hydrogenated cottonseed oil may be a viable alternative to popular hydrogenated oils currently used in the restaurant setting.

Originality/value

Restaurants are being pressured by health officials to choose healthier oil. This research article can help restaurants make an informed choice.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Vanessa Martins Hissanaga-Himelstein, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença and Jane Mara Block

The purpose of this paper is to compare the trans fatty acids (TFA) content in foods before and after the implementing of the method for controlling trans fatty acids in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the trans fatty acids (TFA) content in foods before and after the implementing of the method for controlling trans fatty acids in meals (MCTM) in a Brazilian restaurant.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis by gas chromatography was performed on 49 processed foods used as ingredients for culinary preparations (42 and seven samples before and after the implementation of the method, respectively) and 57 prepared foods (31 and 26 samples before and after the implementation of the method, respectively). In addition, the meal preparation process was monitored before the implementation of the MCTM method in order to identify the changes resulting from its application.

Findings

As a result of the application of the method the processed foods whose labels reported the presence of ingredients potentially containing industrial trans fat acids (iTFA) were not purchased and used in food preparations; standard recipes prepared with processed foods free of iTFA were implemented; and also the restaurant’s staff were trained to control the frying process for preparing fried foods. The average content of TFA per 100 g of prepared food was 0.21 g less (p=0.038) after the implementation of the method.

Practical implications

The MCTM method showed to be a viable and effective tool for reducing TFA levels in the studied restaurant.

Originality/value

The developed method is original since no similar tool for controlling of TFA in food services has been found in the scientific literature. The fatty acid profile determination in the meals prepared after the MCTM implementation showed a reduction in TFA, indicating that the method was also viable and efficient.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2018

Mustafa Abdel-samie Sadek, Jehan Ragab Daoud, Hussein Youssef Ahmed and Gamal Mohamed Mosaad

This study aims to investigate the nutrient composition and cholesterol content of most popular fast foods sold in Qena city, Egypt with reference to their trans fatty

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the nutrient composition and cholesterol content of most popular fast foods sold in Qena city, Egypt with reference to their trans fatty acids contents.

Design/methodology/approach

Total 80 samples of fast foods were collected from various fast food restaurants in Qena city, Egypt. The samples were investigated for their nutritive quality by measuring moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and energy content as described by the association of analytical chemists. The cholesterol content was determined using a spectrophotometer, while trans fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography using standard methods.

Findings

The study revealed a wide variation in the composition and nutritive value. On a fresh weight basis, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash ranged from 45.9-55.0 (P < 0.001), 15.0-22.3 (P < 0.001), 13.1-15.7 (P = 0.034), 6.0-16.2 (P < 0.001) and 2.2-3.5 (P < 0.001), %w/w, respectively. The fast foods were very energy dense with calorie content varying from 236.5-281.1 (P < 0.001), Kcal/100 g. The mean values of cholesterol were between 15-17 mg/100 g (P = 0.398). The findings showed that fast foods had high total trans fatty acids content exceeding the Danish legal limit of 2 g/100 g of fat being in the range of 3.5 to 11.3 g per 100 g fat (P = 0.379). Elaidic acid is the predominant trans-isomer in industrially produced trans fatty acids. The concentrations of elaidic acid were high in all samples examined (P = 0.942).

Originality/value

This study has established the fact that fast foods are associated with high total energy intake, high intake of fat, trans fat and a higher proportion of calories being derived from total fat and trans-fat. Therefore, it is recommended to limit the intake of fast food.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Iraj Khodadadi, Ali Heshmati and Manoochehr Karami

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the development of CVDs. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of dietary feta cheese and butter on serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 24 Wistar rats (eight weeks old) were fed with balanced high fat diets (24 per cent fat) including canola (control group) and either cheese or butter (experimental groups) for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weights were determined, and the amount of food intake was calculated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride as well as serum fatty acid composition were determined.

Findings

Consumption of the butter-based diet resulted in a significant increase in serum triglycerides (p < 0.05), whereas no substantial changes were observed in rats that received a cheese-based diet. The butter-based diet significantly increased serum total cholesterol and LDL-C (p < 0.05), whereas remarkably reduced HDL-C level. In contrast, cheese-based diet resulted in a magnificent increase in HDL-C and a significant decrease in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.05). Serum saturated fatty acids increased and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased by the consumption of butter, whereas the intake of cheese caused relatively minor alterations in serum fatty acid composition.

Originality/value

Butter lowered HDL-C and increased LDL-C, whereas cheese strongly enhanced HDL-C. Therefore, it can be concluded that cheese is a beneficially healthier dairy product than butter.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

T.A.B. Sanders

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in HumanNutrition”. Outlines the…

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Abstract

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the 1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in Human Nutrition”. Outlines the role of fat in meeting energy requirements; in the absorption and provision of fat‐soluble vitamins; in enhancing food palatability; and in the provision of essential fatty acids. Looks at the association of types of fat with coronary heart disease and cancer, and outlines the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Consultation report. Concludes that fat is a desirable and essential nutrient and that the need for fat changes according to life cycle and lifestyle.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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