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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

David Lewis

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil…

Abstract

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil and fat are in the energy‐storing tissues. Normally, these stores are present as oils but may solidify on cooling. Hence animal fats which exist naturally at body temperatures tend to be solid at room temperatures, whilst vegetable and marine oils are often liquid at room temperature. Chemically, these differences are related to the chain length and degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid residues; shorter chain lengths and higher levels of unsaturation lead to lower melting points. Microscopically, solidification is seen as an increase in the amount of crystallinity in the fat and this can be detected by polarised light microscopy and by electron microscopy techniques. Differences in crystallinity can be found in fats from different animals — for example, beef fats are generally more crystalline than pork fats — and from different anatomical locations within a single animal — for example, exterior fats such as pork jowl fat are generally less crystalline than interior fats such as mesenteric fat.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Maiara Fonseca Dias, Angélica Sousa Guimarães, Augusto Aloísio Benevenuto Júnior, Vanessa Riani Olmi Silva, Paulo Rogério Fontes, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza Ramos and Eduardo Mendes Ramos

To meet the consumer demand for a healthier diet, this study emphasizes the feasibility of using vegetable oil gelled emulsions in low-fat industrialized burgers with high…

Abstract

Purpose

To meet the consumer demand for a healthier diet, this study emphasizes the feasibility of using vegetable oil gelled emulsions in low-fat industrialized burgers with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS). Commercial canola and olive oils have been tested as a relatively inexpensive source of PUFAS.

Design/methodology/approach

Beef burgers were reformulated by replacing (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) pork back-fat with two carrageenan gelled emulsions of vegetable oils (canola and olive oil). The technological characteristics, sensorial properties and the fatty acid profile of reformulated burgers were evaluated.

Findings

Moisture content and cooking loss increased and fat and protein contents reduced with higher replacements. Oxidative stability was not affected and replacements of up to 75% did not affect the burger's acceptance. A total fat content reduction of 40% was achieved in burgers with 100% back-fat replacement, improving its nutrient value by increasing the ω−6/ω−3 ratio and decreasing the saturated fatty acids content (in 47%) and the atherogenic (from 0.61 to 0.22) and thrombogenic (from 1.29 to 0.65) indexes. Replacing up to 75% with canola oil gelled emulsion is a promising approach in the design of healthier industrial low-fat burgers.

Originality/value

Due to the association of some diseases with the consumption of products rich in saturated fat, the industry looks for alternatives not only to reduce the fat content but also to modify the fatty acid profile in meat products. This study further confirms the possibility of using carrageenan gelled fat replacer in industrialized burgers formulated with meat and other ingredients/additives commonly used to provide economic benefit. Also, confirms the feasibility to use commercial vegetable oils with relatively cheap cost than ω−3 rich oils as the oil phase in the gelled emulsion.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

D.J. Mela

Fat consumption in the UK has remained stable at 40 per cent of energyintake for the past 25 years, despite widely publicized recommendationsfor reductions. Briefly…

Abstract

Fat consumption in the UK has remained stable at 40 per cent of energy intake for the past 25 years, despite widely publicized recommendations for reductions. Briefly reviews some of the possible reasons why fat intake is at this high level, and why consumers find it difficult to reduce intakes. First, there may be psychobiological effects of fats which serve to maintain liking for fat‐associated sensory characteristics. Second, consumers often have a poor conception of their own fat intake and the relative contributions of different food sources. Lastly, there is little known about the factors influencing long‐term dietary change. These are issues which research in nutrition and food science can and should address.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

A.R. Alina, A.S. Babji and S. Affandi

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisted of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 were used to replace chicken skin (control). Palm fat treatments resulted in a significant decrease of cholesterol content.

Design/methodology/approach

Four nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisting of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratio of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and a commercial shortening, Socfat 36 are studied. The same formulation using chicken skin as a control and a commercial brand of nugget is used as a comparison. Proximate analysis of raw and cooked palm fat nuggets showed a decrease in the protein content and an increase of the fat content. The cholesterol content were reduced up to 45.9 per cent through the addition of palm fat, when compared against the control treatment. Fatty acid composition of palm fats in the palm substituted formulations increased the level of C16:0 and decreased C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, compared with fat from chicken skin.

Findings

The cholesterol content was reduced by 45.9 per cent when chicken skin and fat were substituted with palm fats. The texture of chicken nugget increased when added with palm fats. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content increased while palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased in palm fat treated nuggets.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in showing how palm stearin and olein usage in chicken nuggets helps reduce the product's cholesterol content.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Claire E.A. Seaman, Maggie Woods and Dionne MacKenzie

Reports a recipe modification exercise which was undertaken to determine whether an acceptable sponge cake could be produced using low‐fat spreads in place of full‐fat

Abstract

Reports a recipe modification exercise which was undertaken to determine whether an acceptable sponge cake could be produced using low‐fat spreads in place of full‐fat margarine or butter. The textural and sensory qualities of the cakes were studied and a price analysis carried out to identify price differences between low‐fat and full‐fat spreads. Presents results which indicate that, as the fat content of cakes decreases, the sensory quality also decreases, although an acceptable product can be produced using a spread containing 65 per cent fat. Finds that low‐fat spreads are in many cases more expensive than their full‐fat equivalents. Highlights the need for further work to identify a fat replacer which can be used successfully in baking.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

T.A.B. Sanders

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in HumanNutrition”. Outlines the…

Abstract

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the 1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in Human Nutrition”. Outlines the role of fat in meeting energy requirements; in the absorption and provision of fat‐soluble vitamins; in enhancing food palatability; and in the provision of essential fatty acids. Looks at the association of types of fat with coronary heart disease and cancer, and outlines the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Consultation report. Concludes that fat is a desirable and essential nutrient and that the need for fat changes according to life cycle and lifestyle.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Michael Gordon

Fat provides a major contribution to the palatability of food. It has a lubricating effect and improves the texture of many food products, and it also acts as a heat…

Abstract

Fat provides a major contribution to the palatability of food. It has a lubricating effect and improves the texture of many food products, and it also acts as a heat transfer medium in the frying of food. Fat is also a carrier of fat soluble flavour compounds which make some high fat products such as butter very attractive to consumers. As a consequence of these characteristics, fat in the diet has risen to 42.6% of calories according to the National Food Survey of 1980. The fat content of the diet in western countries shows a considerable increase during this century, and it also contrasts with developing countries where the fat intake is considerably less. A UN report estimates that fats provide about 14 per cent of total calories in developing countries. This has stimulated considerable research into the metabolism of fat and the relationship between the high intake of fat and diseases prevalent in western countries.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 84 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

B. Pajin, I. Radujko, Z. Šereš, D. Šoronja Simović, J. Gyura and M. Sakač

Investigated milk fat fraction differs in physical attributes, first of all in melting point and solid fat content and its influence on crystallization process of cocoa…

Abstract

Purpose

Investigated milk fat fraction differs in physical attributes, first of all in melting point and solid fat content and its influence on crystallization process of cocoa butter i.e. chocolate mass. It means that this fraction slows down crystallization rate, decreases melting point of mixture with cocoa butter and causes chocolate softness. It is very important for quality of chocolate especially chocolate with nuts or sunflower kernel. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of low‐melting (26°C) milk fat fraction on crystallization processes in chocolate mass and define the optimal concentration of this fraction with suitable precrystallization temperature time regime. Solid fat content of chocolate which designates the influence of precrystallization changes in chocolate mass with addition of milk fat fractions was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The precrystallization was performed in a laboratory crystallizer that is in a modified Brabender pharinograph, which measures the rheological characteristics as indirect parameter of crystallization properties of chocolate mass depending on milk fat fraction concentration and precrystallization temperature. The experiments were performed according to the factorial plan 32 (two factors on three levels) and the results are statistically treated.

Findings

The results showed that the optimal conditions for achieving the satisfactory tempering rate (optimal concentration of crystals in chocolate mass) are addition of 3 per cent low‐melting milk fat fraction and precrystallization temperature of 25°C.

Originality/value

The addition of high‐melting milk fat fraction slows down the chocolate mass crystallization more then low‐melting milk fat fraction. Investigated fraction influenced decreasing in solid fat content of chocolate regardless of precrystallization temperature.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Claire E.A. Seaman, Alan H. Hughes, Charles E. Hinks, E.A. Hunter and Doreen A. Parry

The fat content of beef is of considerable importance, bothnutritionally and in terms of its perceived effects on eating qualities.Several methods of evaluating the fat

Abstract

The fat content of beef is of considerable importance, both nutritionally and in terms of its perceived effects on eating qualities. Several methods of evaluating the fat content of beef carcasses and beef longissimus dorsi were compared, including chemical assay of the fat content of beef L.dorsi, carcass measurements made in the slaughterhouse and the dissection of a sample rib joint. The reliability of techniques used to measure fat content is very important and it is critical that different techniques which are thought to estimate the same parameter, i.e. total fat content, should in fact produce comparable results. The results from this study indicate, however, that the measurements of carcass fat made at slaughter and dissection agree well, although much lower levels of agreement were achieved between the carcass fat measurements and the chemical determination of the fat content in the L.dorsi. Discusses possible reasons for this.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Sheela Reddy, David Kilcast, Christopher Thane and Nick Church

Assesses the effect of fat substitutes on satiety and subsequent food intake in men; 50 per cent of fat in pork sausages was replaced by natural fat substitutes ‐ Avicel…

Abstract

Assesses the effect of fat substitutes on satiety and subsequent food intake in men; 50 per cent of fat in pork sausages was replaced by natural fat substitutes ‐ Avicel, Tapiocaline and Simplesse. Results showed that high‐energy fat breakfasts comprising full‐fat sausages led to delayed satiety compared with high‐energy CHO breakfasts. There were no differences between hunger and satiety ratings nor energy and fat intakes following different fatsubstituted breakfasts on the test day and the following day. The deficit in energy between high‐energy and reduced‐energy breakfasts was maintained throughout the test day. Consumption of one reduced‐fat meal resulted in a significant reduction of energy intake, which was not compensated for on the test day or on the following day.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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