Search results

1 – 10 of over 10000
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1985

David Lewis

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil…

Abstract

SOURCES. Oils are essential constituents of animal and vegetable tissues and as such are found in a wide range of foodstuffs. The main sources of large quantities of oil and fat are in the energy‐storing tissues. Normally, these stores are present as oils but may solidify on cooling. Hence animal fats which exist naturally at body temperatures tend to be solid at room temperatures, whilst vegetable and marine oils are often liquid at room temperature. Chemically, these differences are related to the chain length and degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid residues; shorter chain lengths and higher levels of unsaturation lead to lower melting points. Microscopically, solidification is seen as an increase in the amount of crystallinity in the fat and this can be detected by polarised light microscopy and by electron microscopy techniques. Differences in crystallinity can be found in fats from different animals — for example, beef fats are generally more crystalline than pork fats — and from different anatomical locations within a single animal — for example, exterior fats such as pork jowl fat are generally less crystalline than interior fats such as mesenteric fat.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

D.J. Mela

Fat consumption in the UK has remained stable at 40 per cent of energyintake for the past 25 years, despite widely publicized recommendationsfor reductions. Briefly…

572

Abstract

Fat consumption in the UK has remained stable at 40 per cent of energy intake for the past 25 years, despite widely publicized recommendations for reductions. Briefly reviews some of the possible reasons why fat intake is at this high level, and why consumers find it difficult to reduce intakes. First, there may be psychobiological effects of fats which serve to maintain liking for fat‐associated sensory characteristics. Second, consumers often have a poor conception of their own fat intake and the relative contributions of different food sources. Lastly, there is little known about the factors influencing long‐term dietary change. These are issues which research in nutrition and food science can and should address.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

A.R. Alina, A.S. Babji and S. Affandi

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with…

665

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the nutritional value of chicken nuggets by partial substitution of animal fat with palm stearin. Three nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisted of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 were used to replace chicken skin (control). Palm fat treatments resulted in a significant decrease of cholesterol content.

Design/methodology/approach

Four nugget formulations with the fat level of 10.3 per cent palm fats consisting of blends from Olein: Stearin at ratio of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and a commercial shortening, Socfat 36 are studied. The same formulation using chicken skin as a control and a commercial brand of nugget is used as a comparison. Proximate analysis of raw and cooked palm fat nuggets showed a decrease in the protein content and an increase of the fat content. The cholesterol content were reduced up to 45.9 per cent through the addition of palm fat, when compared against the control treatment. Fatty acid composition of palm fats in the palm substituted formulations increased the level of C16:0 and decreased C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, compared with fat from chicken skin.

Findings

The cholesterol content was reduced by 45.9 per cent when chicken skin and fat were substituted with palm fats. The texture of chicken nugget increased when added with palm fats. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content increased while palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) decreased in palm fat treated nuggets.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in showing how palm stearin and olein usage in chicken nuggets helps reduce the product's cholesterol content.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Claire E.A. Seaman, Maggie Woods and Dionne MacKenzie

Reports a recipe modification exercise which was undertaken to determine whether an acceptable sponge cake could be produced using low‐fat spreads in place of full‐fat

1157

Abstract

Reports a recipe modification exercise which was undertaken to determine whether an acceptable sponge cake could be produced using low‐fat spreads in place of full‐fat margarine or butter. The textural and sensory qualities of the cakes were studied and a price analysis carried out to identify price differences between low‐fat and full‐fat spreads. Presents results which indicate that, as the fat content of cakes decreases, the sensory quality also decreases, although an acceptable product can be produced using a spread containing 65 per cent fat. Finds that low‐fat spreads are in many cases more expensive than their full‐fat equivalents. Highlights the need for further work to identify a fat replacer which can be used successfully in baking.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

T.A.B. Sanders

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in HumanNutrition”. Outlines the…

772

Abstract

Reviews the latest thinking regarding fat and health in the light of the 1993 FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on “The Role of Oils and Fats in Human Nutrition”. Outlines the role of fat in meeting energy requirements; in the absorption and provision of fat‐soluble vitamins; in enhancing food palatability; and in the provision of essential fatty acids. Looks at the association of types of fat with coronary heart disease and cancer, and outlines the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Consultation report. Concludes that fat is a desirable and essential nutrient and that the need for fat changes according to life cycle and lifestyle.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Michael Gordon

Fat provides a major contribution to the palatability of food. It has a lubricating effect and improves the texture of many food products, and it also acts as a heat…

Abstract

Fat provides a major contribution to the palatability of food. It has a lubricating effect and improves the texture of many food products, and it also acts as a heat transfer medium in the frying of food. Fat is also a carrier of fat soluble flavour compounds which make some high fat products such as butter very attractive to consumers. As a consequence of these characteristics, fat in the diet has risen to 42.6% of calories according to the National Food Survey of 1980. The fat content of the diet in western countries shows a considerable increase during this century, and it also contrasts with developing countries where the fat intake is considerably less. A UN report estimates that fats provide about 14 per cent of total calories in developing countries. This has stimulated considerable research into the metabolism of fat and the relationship between the high intake of fat and diseases prevalent in western countries.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 84 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

B. Pajin, I. Radujko, Z. Šereš, D. Šoronja Simović, J. Gyura and M. Sakač

Investigated milk fat fraction differs in physical attributes, first of all in melting point and solid fat content and its influence on crystallization process of cocoa…

Abstract

Purpose

Investigated milk fat fraction differs in physical attributes, first of all in melting point and solid fat content and its influence on crystallization process of cocoa butter i.e. chocolate mass. It means that this fraction slows down crystallization rate, decreases melting point of mixture with cocoa butter and causes chocolate softness. It is very important for quality of chocolate especially chocolate with nuts or sunflower kernel. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of low‐melting (26°C) milk fat fraction on crystallization processes in chocolate mass and define the optimal concentration of this fraction with suitable precrystallization temperature time regime. Solid fat content of chocolate which designates the influence of precrystallization changes in chocolate mass with addition of milk fat fractions was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The precrystallization was performed in a laboratory crystallizer that is in a modified Brabender pharinograph, which measures the rheological characteristics as indirect parameter of crystallization properties of chocolate mass depending on milk fat fraction concentration and precrystallization temperature. The experiments were performed according to the factorial plan 32 (two factors on three levels) and the results are statistically treated.

Findings

The results showed that the optimal conditions for achieving the satisfactory tempering rate (optimal concentration of crystals in chocolate mass) are addition of 3 per cent low‐melting milk fat fraction and precrystallization temperature of 25°C.

Originality/value

The addition of high‐melting milk fat fraction slows down the chocolate mass crystallization more then low‐melting milk fat fraction. Investigated fraction influenced decreasing in solid fat content of chocolate regardless of precrystallization temperature.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Claire E.A. Seaman, Alan H. Hughes, Charles E. Hinks, E.A. Hunter and Doreen A. Parry

The fat content of beef is of considerable importance, bothnutritionally and in terms of its perceived effects on eating qualities.Several methods of evaluating the fat

569

Abstract

The fat content of beef is of considerable importance, both nutritionally and in terms of its perceived effects on eating qualities. Several methods of evaluating the fat content of beef carcasses and beef longissimus dorsi were compared, including chemical assay of the fat content of beef L.dorsi, carcass measurements made in the slaughterhouse and the dissection of a sample rib joint. The reliability of techniques used to measure fat content is very important and it is critical that different techniques which are thought to estimate the same parameter, i.e. total fat content, should in fact produce comparable results. The results from this study indicate, however, that the measurements of carcass fat made at slaughter and dissection agree well, although much lower levels of agreement were achieved between the carcass fat measurements and the chemical determination of the fat content in the L.dorsi. Discusses possible reasons for this.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Sheela Reddy, David Kilcast, Christopher Thane and Nick Church

Assesses the effect of fat substitutes on satiety and subsequent food intake in men; 50 per cent of fat in pork sausages was replaced by natural fat substitutes ‐ Avicel…

409

Abstract

Assesses the effect of fat substitutes on satiety and subsequent food intake in men; 50 per cent of fat in pork sausages was replaced by natural fat substitutes ‐ Avicel, Tapiocaline and Simplesse. Results showed that high‐energy fat breakfasts comprising full‐fat sausages led to delayed satiety compared with high‐energy CHO breakfasts. There were no differences between hunger and satiety ratings nor energy and fat intakes following different fatsubstituted breakfasts on the test day and the following day. The deficit in energy between high‐energy and reduced‐energy breakfasts was maintained throughout the test day. Consumption of one reduced‐fat meal resulted in a significant reduction of energy intake, which was not compensated for on the test day or on the following day.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Jacqui R. Cotton and John E. Blundell

Excessive fat intake is a problem in the UK and other Europeancountries. Looks at the relationship between dietary fat and body fatand the body′s physiological responses…

1541

Abstract

Excessive fat intake is a problem in the UK and other European countries. Looks at the relationship between dietary fat and body fat and the body′s physiological responses to fatty food. Discusses experimental studies on fat and satiety and high fat hyperphagia.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000