Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Juliano Anderson Pacheco, Dalton Francisco de Andrade and Antonio Cezar Bornia

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for benchmarking, which allows the construction of scales of competitiveness for the comparison of products using Item…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for benchmarking, which allows the construction of scales of competitiveness for the comparison of products using Item Response Theory (IRT).

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretically, the method combines classic benchmarking process steps with IRT steps and demonstrates through mathematical models how this technique can measure the competitiveness of products by means of a latent trait.

Findings

The IRT method uses the theories of psychometrics to measure the competitiveness of products through qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the tangible and intangible characteristics of those products. To demonstrate the application of the developed method, the items were constructed for teaching staff.

Research limitations/implications

The application of the developed method will increase the accuracy of assessments of the competitiveness of a product because this method uses a mathematical model of the IRT to evaluate the characteristics product that reflect market competitiveness. Items must be selected based on theories relevant to the product and/or expert opinion or customers.

Practical implications

The applicability of the method results in the construction of a scale in which items identify good practice with greater difficulty because they are represented in the same units that index competitiveness. Thus, managers of companies obtain knowledge about their products and the market, which allows them to assess their performance against their competitors and to make decisions regarding the continuous improvement of their production process and expansion of product characteristics.

Originality/value

This work presents a new method for benchmarking using a quantitative technique that enables measurement of the latent trait of “competitiveness” through robust mathematical models.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2022

Syeda Nimra Batool, Khawar Razzaq and Hassan Imam

Earlier studies have shown that individuals with business education and the personality traits listed in the big-five model are more inclined to pursue entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

Earlier studies have shown that individuals with business education and the personality traits listed in the big-five model are more inclined to pursue entrepreneurial activities. The Big-Five Model of personality is one of the prominent taxonomies, which highlights five fundamental human's traits. However, the big-five model does not cover all baseline personality features essential for pursuing an entrepreneurial career. Drawing on the trait-factor theory of career choice, this study discusses action-oriented traits as a driving force for individuals to pursue entrepreneurship as a foremost career choice in the context of developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of 599 recent graduates, who just completed their university degrees and about to join the job market, were collected through surveys and analyzed after achieving the model-fit.

Findings

Results highlighted that three action-oriented traits (innovativeness, risk-taking and competitiveness) aspire individuals to pursue entrepreneurial careers. In addition, a multi-group analysis of business vs. non-business educational backgrounds revealed that business related education is not the only strong precursor leading to the pursuit of an entrepreneurial career.

Originality/value

This study draws attention to the belief of higher educational consultants, institutes and policymakers that investment in certain trait development can increase the number of new entrepreneurs in an economy.

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Alexander Serenko and Chun Wei Choo

This study empirically tests the impact of the Dark Triad personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and co-worker competitiveness on knowledge sabotage.

1004

Abstract

Purpose

This study empirically tests the impact of the Dark Triad personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and co-worker competitiveness on knowledge sabotage.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was constructed and tested by means of Partial Least Squares with data from 150 participants recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk.

Findings

The individual personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy are significant predictors of individual knowledge sabotage behavior, whereas co-worker Machiavellianism and psychopathy trigger co-worker knowledge sabotage. Out of the three Dark Triad traits, individual and co-worker psychopathy emerged as the strongest knowledge sabotage predictor. Co-worker competitiveness has a positive effect on co-workers’ knowledge sabotage behavior. There is a relatively strong relationship between co-worker and individual knowledge sabotage which suggests that knowledge sabotage is a form of contagious workplace behavior. Individuals underestimate their negative behavior and traits and/or overestimate those of their fellow co-workers.

Practical implications

Managers should realize that the Dark Triad personality traits could predispose certain individuals to engage in extremely harmful counterproductive knowledge behavior. They need to ensure that individuals with these traits are not hired or are identified during their probation periods. It is recommended that organizations include knowledge sabotage measures in their periodic employee surveys. Organizations should help their employees objectively re-evaluate their own traits and knowledge behavior as well as those of their colleagues to ensure that their reciprocating knowledge behavior is more aligned with the reality in their organization.

Originality/value

This study offers a reliable and valid quantitative survey instrument to measure the presence of knowledge sabotage.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Bruce Kirkcaldy, Adrian Furnham and Terence Martin

Several hundred German parents completed a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards pocket money and economic socialisation. In addition trait competitiveness and…

2156

Abstract

Several hundred German parents completed a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards pocket money and economic socialisation. In addition trait competitiveness and occupational stress were measured. Demographic variables were less predictive of competitiveness compared to psychological/attitudinal factors. The more competitive oriented parents displayed a distinct monetary attitude profile: they were less liberal, more structured and budget‐oriented. They used money significantly more as a reinforcer for educational purposes, e.g. educational or scholarly success, and as an instrument to teach autonomy. Subjectively perceived occupational stress was determined by diverse socio‐demographic variables, although the stress‐demographic relationship was moderated by gender. Older fathers and men from a poor social‐economic background (as children) tended to show greater job‐related stress. Conversely, mothers from “superior” SES, with more siblings, and fewer children of their own, reported more occupational stress.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Clare D'Souza and Richard Tay

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of personality traits on the perception of key message characteristics in road safety advertising.

1616

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of personality traits on the perception of key message characteristics in road safety advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

The advertisement uses visual imagery and imagery methods to examine key message characteristics. An online survey questionnaire was used to obtain responses of 947 driver perceptions with various personality traits; and the data are explored using multiple linear-regressions.

Findings

The findings of the research indicate the importance of using key message characteristics based upon established scientific theory to developing messages, more particularly in road safety and other social marketing campaigns. The role of personality traits and its relevance also appear to be of primary importance and can be used to segment the market; guide message designs and development, as different personality traits are found to be significant for different message characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

This research varies from preceding efforts as it examines the influence of personality traits on drivers’ perceptions of messages using established scientific theory, and bridging the gap in the research between two main paths of research with reference to fear-based messages: the process that influences an individual response to key messages; and the influences of personality trait differences on message perceptions.

Originality/value

This study extends the knowledge in several essential areas and offers a set of recommendations to assist marketers in developing effective message strategies and segmentation based on personality traits. Besides advancing theory, this study enhances the understanding of how to develop more effective road safety messages that will save lives and prevent injuries.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Parisa Ghorbannejad and Ahmad Esakhani

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of individual differences in employees’ work engagement. More specifically, the paper explains how self-efficacy, proactive…

1304

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of individual differences in employees’ work engagement. More specifically, the paper explains how self-efficacy, proactive personality and conscientious traits determine work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was used. Data for this study were collected from a manufacturing company via questionnaires. Participants were selected by classified sampling method and 305 questionnaires distributed among participants. In total, 263 respondents completed the questionnaires.

Findings

The findings show that all individual traits influence employees’ work engagement. But, the extent of their influence is not equal. Results of this study showed that various individual differences have different capacities for engaging employees. People who have more general self-efficacy are more likely to experience and report work engagement. Employees with conscientiousness trait have capacity to be engaged as well but to a lesser extent.

Research limitations/implications

This study is a quantitative study. Data are collected from the automotive manufacturing industry. All respondents were technical experts with at least BA or BS degrees. This sample creates limitations in generalizing of the findings to broader and more representative populations. A more extensive study covering other industries and other traits is necessary to explore the relationships studied here.

Practical implications

This study identifies various management strategies that could be used to increase employee work engagement. These strategies could be useful for managers in other organizational settings as well.

Originality/value

There is an extensive body of literature in work engagement. Most of the research has been done in a framework of job demands-resources model. But this study was the first to study the effect of individual differences on work engagement in Iran.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Said Echchakoui

Drawing on socioanalytic theory, this paper aims to explore whether a moderation mediation model can describe the mechanism linking salesperson social reputation…

1850

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on socioanalytic theory, this paper aims to explore whether a moderation mediation model can describe the mechanism linking salesperson social reputation (perceived stability and plasticity) and performance (customer share of wallet) in relationship marketing. The mediator is the salesperson’s overall equity, and the moderator is the salesperson-customer congruence.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 233 customers, served by 44 personal finance advisors at five banking agencies in Canada.

Findings

A multilevel approach showed that both perceived stability and perceived plasticity predict salesperson equity and performance. In addition, the empirical results indicated that the relationship between perceived stability and salesperson performance is partially mediated by salesperson overall equity. However, equity fully mediated the relationship between perceived plasticity and salesperson performance. Finally, the salesperson-customer congruence moderated the effect of both perceived stability and plastic on the salesperson overall equity.

Research limitations/implications

This research suggests that the moderation mediation model enables predicting the relationship between the perceived personality and performance. From a managerial perspective, the author encourages sales managers to pay attention to salespersons’ equity development as well as their performance. Notably, the author suggests that sales managers support and monitor salespeople with regard to improving their social status as well as their social popularity in their interactions with customers.

Originality/value

Previous research in sales force literature focuses on salespersons’ self-personality to predict sales performance. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first to show it is important to consider the perceived personality of a salesperson in predicting their performance. This study is also the first to introduce the salesperson reputation concept and its dimensions (perceived stability and plasticity).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Patricia Chen, Stephen M. Garcia, Valentino E. Chai and Richard Gonzalez

Social comparison literature has long established that drawing comparisons facilitates competitive motivation. Yet, the literature has neglected how the actor may…

Abstract

Social comparison literature has long established that drawing comparisons facilitates competitive motivation. Yet, the literature has neglected how the actor may simultaneously become the target of comparison, which can likewise increase competitive motivation. Therefore, competitive motivation increases not only because coacting competitors draw social comparisons but also because they are simultaneously the target of other's social comparison. In this chapter, we build a dual process framework to explain how comparing and being compared each facilitate competitive motivation. We also posit that these processes – comparing and being compared, respectively – are bidirectional and reciprocal, as each process can incite the other. Finally, we discuss the circumstances under which comparing and being compared combine additively versus interactively to drive competitive motivation. Our theoretical framework brings together the disparate literatures on social comparison and evaluation apprehension under one unified theory of competitive motivation, and proposes new directions for competition research.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-677-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Chien-Yu Chen

Researchers and practitioners have remarked the critical nature of job crafting for employee and organizational effectiveness in the hotel industry. However, few studies…

1614

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers and practitioners have remarked the critical nature of job crafting for employee and organizational effectiveness in the hotel industry. However, few studies have investigated the determinants of job crafting, especially the role of personality traits. Hence, this study aims to address this research gap by exploring how job resourcefulness influences job crafting and by clarifying the mediating role of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of the present study comprised 433 Taiwanese frontline hotel employees. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results reveal that job-resourceful employees tend to engage themselves at work. Engaged employees tend to craft their jobs individually and collaboratively. That is, work engagement is a mediator between job resourcefulness and job crafting. Finally, the job resourcefulness–work engagement–individual crafting relationship is closer than the job resourcefulness–work engagement–collaborative crafting relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that job resourcefulness can be considered as a criterion in selecting and retaining employees. Work engagement may serve as a mechanism for interpreting the relationship between job resourcefulness and job crafting. This study provides crucial insights to help hotel managers seek and aid employees who can actively reshape their work conditions. However, the sample comprises only frontline hotel employees and the generalization can be considered in the future studies.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine the psychological process that mediates the connection between job resourcefulness and job crafting. The findings of this study contribute to the theory of the relationship between personality traits and job crafting and may serve as a reference in related practices.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Michele N. Medina-Craven, Kathryn Ostermeier, Pratigya Sigdyal and Benjamin David McLarty

The purpose of this study is to systematically examine and classify the multitude of personality traits that have emerged in the literature beyond the Big Five (Five…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to systematically examine and classify the multitude of personality traits that have emerged in the literature beyond the Big Five (Five Factor Model) since the turn of the 21st century. The authors argue that this represents a new phase of personality research that is characterized both by construct proliferation and a movement away from the Big Five and demonstrates how personality as a construct has substantially evolved in the 21st century.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of personality research from 2000 to 2020 across 17 management and psychology journals. This search yielded 1,901 articles, of which 440 were relevant and subsequently coded for this review.

Findings

The review presented in this study uncovers 155 traits, beyond the Big Five, that have been explored, which the authors organize and analyze into 10 distinct categories. Each category comprises a definition, lists the included traits and highlights an exemplar construct. The authors also specify the significant research outcomes associated with each trait category.

Originality/value

This review categorizes the 155 personality traits that have emerged in the management and psychology literature that describe personality beyond the Big Five. Based on these findings, this study proposes new avenues for future research and offers insights into the future of the field as the concept of personality has shifted in the 21st century.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000