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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2015

Flavio Felice and Massimiliano Vatiero

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence…

Abstract

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence on European political and economic debates after the Second World War. However, such an assumption is disputable: in accordance with Professor Gerber, the competition law in Europe is an indigenous product based primarily on ideas developed in Germany by the so-called ordoliberal thought. In this respect, the article 102 TFEU may be considered a proof. The aims of this article are to furnish a critical examination of ordoliberal ideas of anticompetitive conducts and underline the relevance of ordoliberal thought for the development of the modern European competition law.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-154-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2022

Sethiya Anuja and Thenmozhi M.

This study explores whether product market competition is a substitute for or complementary to good internal governance through promoter holdings. Specifically, it…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores whether product market competition is a substitute for or complementary to good internal governance through promoter holdings. Specifically, it examines the impact of product market competition on the linkage between promoter ownership and firm value and investigates whether this impact varies with the type of blockholders and level of ownership.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a fixed-effect panel regression method to analyze 1,136 National Stock Exchange-listed firms with 10,770 observations between the years 2005 and 2017. The authors computed product market competition using the Hirschman–Herfindahl Index and used the two-stage least squares regression model to address the issue of endogeneity.

Findings

Competition is a substitute for good corporate governance, especially in highly competitive industries, while promoters enhance firm value only in less competitive industries. This supports the theory that competition hinders a manager's “quiet life” hypothesis and creates disciplinary pressure to perform well. Additionally, the authors find that competition acts as a complement to promoters who are state-owned blockholders, while it acts as a substitute for promoters who are family-owned and private-owned blockholders.

Originality/value

This is possibly among the earliest attempts to integrate promoter ownership, product market competition, and firm value with the type of blockholder, especially in the context of the Indian market after 2005. The authors also provide evidence of situations in which both external and internal governance mechanisms either synergize or mitigate each other.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Shoaib Abdul Basit, Thomas Kuhn and Uwe Cantner

Knowledge competencies and (R&D) activities are one of the most important sources of innovation and have been widely discussed in the literature. In comparison, the role…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge competencies and (R&D) activities are one of the most important sources of innovation and have been widely discussed in the literature. In comparison, the role of the competitive environment for the innovation activities of firms is still open to debate and has not been fully understood yet. Therefore, this paper intends to provide new evidence on the interaction between knowledge competencies and R&D activities of firms on the one side and their competitiveness in the market environment on the other. In particular, the moderating function of market competition is explored. In this respect, the analysis covers the main innovation types as well as both sectors, manufacturing and services.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is based on a three years panel dataset of German manufacturing and service firms obtained from Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP) and Community Innovation Surveys (CISs: 2011, 2013 and 2015). For the estimation, a binary instrumental variable treatment model with Heckman selection method is used. Also, it provides a suitable approach to estimating the binary variables in order to cope with endogeneity concerns.

Findings

The estimation results show that R&D activities and knowledge competencies are positively related to innovation activities of different types conditioned on firms' specific perception of their competitive environment, in terms of outdated products/services as well as strong competition from abroad. Most importantly, the results from the moderation estimation reveal that there is a significant difference between the manufacturing and service sector. Service firms engage more in internal R&D activities on generating product innovations while the manufacturing firms conduct more external R&D on specific types of innovation. Further, the authors find that strong competition from abroad positively and significantly reinforces the effect of knowledge competencies on innovation activities for more types in services than in manufacturing. In contrast, outdated products and services tend to decline the effect of knowledge competencies for some innovation types in both sectors. The authors also observe a positive and significant reinforcement effect on knowledge competencies. However, it is found more beneficial for service firms since they can employ more innovation strategies.

Originality/value

The focus of the study is mainly on the impact of firms' competitive environment on innovation activities in various types through its interaction with knowledge competencies and R&D activities, across manufacturing and service firms.

Details

European Journal of Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2183-4172

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Habib Hussain Khan

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible impact of banking market structure on the idiosyncratic risk of financially dependent firms in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible impact of banking market structure on the idiosyncratic risk of financially dependent firms in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes firm-level data for China from 1999 to 2018 using a two-step dynamic panel system generalized method of moments (GMM).

Findings

The findings imply that bank competition lowers corporate risk, particularly among firms that are highly dependent on external funding for their financing needs. The findings are consistent with alternative indicators of competition, corporate risk, and financial dependence. The analysis of the transmission mechanism – the channel through which competition affects corporate risk – reveals that bank competition reduces corporate risk by curtailing financing constraints faced by firms.

Research limitations/implications

The competition-enhancing policy should consider the optimum level of bank competition for financial and economic stability. Further research is necessary to define the “desirable” or “optimum” level of bank competition.

Practical implications

In China, where the banking sector is still highly concentrated, the findings of this study call for policies aimed at encouraging healthy competition among banks. Nevertheless, such a policy must also consider the extent of bank competition that is optimal for the economy, particularly for financial and economic stability.

Originality/value

The paper provides the first evidence of the possible linkage between bank competition and corporate risk in China.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2022

Dong-lin Chen, Min Fu, Meng-Di Yao and Lei Wang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the optimal competition or cooperation decision between technology service platforms and governments in the context of fierce…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the optimal competition or cooperation decision between technology service platforms and governments in the context of fierce competition within urban agglomerations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the cooperation and competition game model, this study builds a two-level model for government and technology service platforms considering three cases: perfect competition, platform cooperation and government-led cooperation.

Findings

By analyzing the optimal strategies of the government and a platform in three cases, the research shows that choosing appropriate cooperation in a competitive situation is beneficial to both the government and the platform. Government-led cooperation is conducive to increasing social welfare. From the perspective of the platforms, if they actively seek cooperation, they can obtain higher subsidies and profits. The more intense the competition is, the higher the profits and social welfare generated from the platforms' active cooperation.

Practical implications

The contribution of this study relates to the development of technology service platforms in urban agglomerations. As local governments and platforms continuously undertake decision-making processes, this study constructs quantitative models to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of competition and cooperation. It is worth noting that relying on government subsidies to maintain the sustainable development of technology service platforms is not a long-term solution. Government subsidies play a vital role in the initial development of technology service platforms. The analysis results are in line with Guo et al. (2016), Jung and Feng (2020) and Li (2021) conclusions. Furthermore, long-term government subsidies will make platforms dependent on these subsidies. These are the contributions to the scientific literature.

Originality/value

Instead of focusing on vertical relationships, this study emphasizes the horizontal cooperation and competition relationship between platforms and local governments in an urban agglomeration. Thus, the vertical effects of government subsidies on platforms can be investigated. Another innovation is the social welfare policy goal, which is an important index for the development of urban agglomerations.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Richard E. Wagner

The Theory of Economic Equilibrium was written in the period of what George Shackle calls the “Years of High Theory”. Unlike the works that Shackle discusses, da Empoli’s…

906

Abstract

The Theory of Economic Equilibrium was written in the period of what George Shackle calls the “Years of High Theory”. Unlike the works that Shackle discusses, da Empoli’s volume received little attention and played no part in shaping the analytical formulations of the time. The Theory of Economic Equilibrium offered an alternative to the then conventional approach to the treatment of competition as an adjective. For da Empoli, competition was a rivalrous process, a verb. It is arguable that had da Empoli’s formulations found their way into the literature of the time, the recent revival of interest in competition as a process would now be at a more advanced state.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Diego Fornaciari and Stefaan Callens

Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation…

965

Abstract

Purpose

Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation, production and distribution. European courts consider doctors and hospital staff as undertakings (any entity that performs economic activities), so that if they enter into agreements then they have to comply with competition rules. This paper's objective is to determine whether competition law, which applies to undertakings, can in fact be applied to different healthcare‐sector players and whether specific rules are needed regarding competition between healthcare undertakings.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were selected from relevant European and national case law, European institution legal documents (such as regulations, guidelines and communications) and healthcare competition law literature, and then examined.

Findings

The paper finds that competition rules are applicable to healthcare players considering the consequences if competition rules are applied to the healthcare market. For market processes to result in the appropriate cost, quality and output, competition law must be proactive. In other words, quality must be fully factored into the competitive mix, allowing consumers to weigh healthcare price and non‐price characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

Countries have different healthcare system and competition rules (although similar), competition rule impact is different for each country. Some healthcare systems are more regulated and there will be less opportunity for healthcare players to compete.

Practical implications

Efficiently applying competition law to healthcare players means that several challenges need facing, such as healthcare quality complexity and court scepticism.

Originality/value

This article points out the challenges when competition law is applied to the healthcare sector and how these challenges are faced in certain countries such as The Netherlands.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Gerrit Meijer

Tries to assess the place of Da Empoli’s Theory of Economic Equilibrium, a book on the development of thinking on market structures and price theory. It is an early and…

633

Abstract

Tries to assess the place of Da Empoli’s Theory of Economic Equilibrium, a book on the development of thinking on market structures and price theory. It is an early and important, though almost neglected, contribution. Neglected because the main developments in the 1930s and later on were on market classifications and theories of pricing within these market structures, as developed by Chamberlin, Robinson, Stackelberg, Triffin, and de Jong. Chamberlin and Robinson who knew the study either did not pay attention to and/or did not understand the true nature of the work. The approach was too different from theirs. Da Empoli’s work is on the process of competition. In this he has affinity to work of Knight and Clark written in the 1920s. This approach had some later defenders in the 1940s in Clark, Eucken and Hayek. Around 1960 it got a more prominent place in the work of Clark, Hayek, de Jong and Stigler. At almost the same time the other approach petered out, casu quo came to a close.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this chapter is to analyse the decisions of the Croatian Competition Agency in the field of grocery retail mergers in the 2004–2009 period. In particular, various criteria used by the Competition Agency to evaluate grocery retail mergers are identified and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the comparative approach the author attempts to detect the relevant sources for certain solutions embraced by the Competition Agency by examining especially the relevant practice of the European Commission as well as relevant decisions adopted by some competition authorities in EU member states.

Findings

The grocery retail market in Croatia has seen a flurry of mergers since 2004 with the largest competitor spreading to various local markets. For the Croatian competition authority this merger wave has perhaps been the biggest challenge since its inception. In the face of growing market concentration, the authority saw fit to shift from initially providing green light to duly notified transactions to subsequently addressing serious competition concerns by ordering a number of remedies. The Croatian competition authority relied extensively on EU acquis when deciding on specific merger cases, especially as regards the relevant market definition.

Originality/value

The value of the chapter is reflected in the fact that this kind of comparative analysis of Croatian merger cases in the field of grocery retail mergers was not available before. It is especially in the light of the accession of Croatia to the EU, as foreseen on 1 July 2013, that this kind of study becomes useful both for domestic but also EU audience.

Details

Challenges for the Trade of Central and Southeast Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-833-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Luigi Siciliani

Hospitals are complex organisations accounting for most of total health expenditure. They play a critical role in providing care to patients with high levels of need. A…

Abstract

Hospitals are complex organisations accounting for most of total health expenditure. They play a critical role in providing care to patients with high levels of need. A key policy concern is that patients receive high quality care. Policymakers have attempted to influence hospital quality in different ways. This chapter focuses on three key policy levers: the extent to which hospital competition and higher hospital tariffs (of the DRG type) can stimulate quality, and whether non-profit hospitals provide higher or lower quality than for-profit ones. The chapter outlines key methodological challenges and selectively reviews the main findings from the literature. While several studies suggest that hospital competition reduces mortality rates for heart attack cases when hospital tariffs are fixed (under a DRG system), at this stage is unclear whether the effect holds across a range of quality indicators. Moreover, the limited literature on hospital mergers tends to suggest that hospital quality does not change following a merger. Finally, whether non-profit hospitals provide higher or lower quality varies across regions and institutional arrangements. The economic theory suggests several mechanisms with opposite effects on quality. To guide policy, future work needs to further unpack the various mechanisms through which these three key policy issues affect hospitals incentives.

Details

Health Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-541-2

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 107000