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Publication date: 18 April 2015

Flavio Felice and Massimiliano Vatiero

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence…

Abstract

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence on European political and economic debates after the Second World War. However, such an assumption is disputable: in accordance with Professor Gerber, the competition law in Europe is an indigenous product based primarily on ideas developed in Germany by the so-called ordoliberal thought. In this respect, the article 102 TFEU may be considered a proof. The aims of this article are to furnish a critical examination of ordoliberal ideas of anticompetitive conducts and underline the relevance of ordoliberal thought for the development of the modern European competition law.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-154-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Donghong Li, Zhenning Yang, Pengcheng Ma and Hang Chen

The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intra-group coopetition and subsidiaries' innovation performance and the moderating impact of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intra-group coopetition and subsidiaries' innovation performance and the moderating impact of the intensity of external competition.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 75 subsidiaries in China through a questionnaire survey of their R&D and general managers. The total number of individual respondents was 205. We tested our hypothesis by using ordinary least squares regression.

Findings

Intra-group cooperation was found to promote a subsidiary's performance in product and process innovation. Intra-group competition was found to have a U-shaped relationship with product and process innovation. Intra-group cooperation strengthens the U-shaped relationship between intra-group competition and process innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This study involved firms from more than one industry. Studies of specific industries might reach more specific conclusions. And all of the data were self-reported by the managers of the firms concerned. Future studies would be well-advised to consider more objective data describing pairs of parent firms and subsidiaries.

Practical implications

Subsidiaries ought to build their internal networks to cooperate with each other. That can bring significant advantages in terms of information and synergy in innovation. Subsidiaries are also suggested to take full advantage of the opportunities that intra-group competition brings.

Originality/value

This study is the first one to explore coopetition phenomenon in the context of business group. By taking Chinese business group subsidiaries as the research samples, this research not only extends the coopetition research but also reveals that cooperation and competition are co-existed and exert influence in subsidiaries.

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Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Mary Catherine Lucey

This paper aims to draw attention to a broad range of experimental institutional initiatives which operate in the absence of a global antitrust regime. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw attention to a broad range of experimental institutional initiatives which operate in the absence of a global antitrust regime. The purpose of this paper is to offer food for thought to scholars in other fields of international trade law facing challenges from divergent national regimes.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking inspiration from political science literature on institutions, this paper crafts a broad analytical lens which captures various organisational forms (including networks), codes (including soft law) and culture (including epistemic communities). The strength and shortcomings of traditional “bricks and mortar” institutions such as the European Union (EU) and General Agreement Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation are first examined. Then, the innovative global network of International Competition Network (ICN) is analysed.

Findings

It highlights the value of the global antitrust epistemic community in providing a conducive environment for extensive recourse to “soft law”. Examples from the EU and the ICN include measures which find expression in enforcement tools and networks. These initiatives can be seen as experimental responses to the challenges of divergent national antitrust regimes.

Research limitations/implications

It is desktop research rather than empirical field work.

Practical implications

To raise awareness outside the antitrust scholarly community of the variety of experimental institutional initiatives which have evolved, often on a soft law basis, in response to the challenges experienced by national enforcement agencies and businesses operating in the absence of a global antitrust regime.

Originality/value

It offers some personal reflections on the ICN from the author’s experience as a non-governmental advisor. It draws attention to the ICN’s underappreciated range of educational materials which are freely available on its website to everyone. It submits that the ICN template offers interesting ideas for other fields of international trade law where a global regime is unrealisable. The ICN is a voluntary virtual network of agencies collaborating to agree ways to reduce clashes among national regimes. Its goal of voluntary convergence is portrayed as standardisation rather than as absolute congruence. Even if standardisation of norms/processes is too ambitious a goal in other fields of international trade law, the ICN model still offers inspiration as an epistemic community within an inclusive and dynamic forum for encouraging debate and creating a culture of learning opportunities where familiarity and trust is fostered.

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Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Paula Castro Pires de Souza Chimenti, Marco Aurelio de Souza Rodrigues, Marcelo Guedes Carneiro and Roberta Dias Campos

Through a literature review, a gap has been identified regarding the role of competition as a driver of social network (SN) usage. This study aims to design to address…

Abstract

Purpose

Through a literature review, a gap has been identified regarding the role of competition as a driver of social network (SN) usage. This study aims to design to address this gap, seeking motivators for SN usage based on how SN consumption may be related to users’ experience of competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of competition in social media usage.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used an exploratory qualitative approach, conducting a set of focus groups with young social media users. Data was analyzed with software.

Findings

Two new drivers for SN use are proposed, namely, competition and collective narrative.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory study, and it does not seek to generalize results or quantify causal relationships among variables.

Practical implications

This paper offers SN managers a deeper understanding of key growth drivers for these media.

Social implications

This research can help society understand and debate the impacts of SNs on users’ lives, providing insights into drivers of excessive usage.

Originality/value

This paper proposes the following two SN usage drivers yet to be described in the literature: competition and collective narrative.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Richard E. Wagner

The Theory of Economic Equilibrium was written in the period of what George Shackle calls the “Years of High Theory”. Unlike the works that Shackle discusses, da Empoli’s…

Abstract

The Theory of Economic Equilibrium was written in the period of what George Shackle calls the “Years of High Theory”. Unlike the works that Shackle discusses, da Empoli’s volume received little attention and played no part in shaping the analytical formulations of the time. The Theory of Economic Equilibrium offered an alternative to the then conventional approach to the treatment of competition as an adjective. For da Empoli, competition was a rivalrous process, a verb. It is arguable that had da Empoli’s formulations found their way into the literature of the time, the recent revival of interest in competition as a process would now be at a more advanced state.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Diego Fornaciari and Stefaan Callens

Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

Competition rules maximise consumer welfare by promoting efficient use of scarce resource and thus high output, low prices, high quality, varied services, innovation, production and distribution. European courts consider doctors and hospital staff as undertakings (any entity that performs economic activities), so that if they enter into agreements then they have to comply with competition rules. This paper's objective is to determine whether competition law, which applies to undertakings, can in fact be applied to different healthcare‐sector players and whether specific rules are needed regarding competition between healthcare undertakings.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were selected from relevant European and national case law, European institution legal documents (such as regulations, guidelines and communications) and healthcare competition law literature, and then examined.

Findings

The paper finds that competition rules are applicable to healthcare players considering the consequences if competition rules are applied to the healthcare market. For market processes to result in the appropriate cost, quality and output, competition law must be proactive. In other words, quality must be fully factored into the competitive mix, allowing consumers to weigh healthcare price and non‐price characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

Countries have different healthcare system and competition rules (although similar), competition rule impact is different for each country. Some healthcare systems are more regulated and there will be less opportunity for healthcare players to compete.

Practical implications

Efficiently applying competition law to healthcare players means that several challenges need facing, such as healthcare quality complexity and court scepticism.

Originality/value

This article points out the challenges when competition law is applied to the healthcare sector and how these challenges are faced in certain countries such as The Netherlands.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Gerrit Meijer

Tries to assess the place of Da Empoli’s Theory of Economic Equilibrium, a book on the development of thinking on market structures and price theory. It is an early and…

Abstract

Tries to assess the place of Da Empoli’s Theory of Economic Equilibrium, a book on the development of thinking on market structures and price theory. It is an early and important, though almost neglected, contribution. Neglected because the main developments in the 1930s and later on were on market classifications and theories of pricing within these market structures, as developed by Chamberlin, Robinson, Stackelberg, Triffin, and de Jong. Chamberlin and Robinson who knew the study either did not pay attention to and/or did not understand the true nature of the work. The approach was too different from theirs. Da Empoli’s work is on the process of competition. In this he has affinity to work of Knight and Clark written in the 1920s. This approach had some later defenders in the 1940s in Clark, Eucken and Hayek. Around 1960 it got a more prominent place in the work of Clark, Hayek, de Jong and Stigler. At almost the same time the other approach petered out, casu quo came to a close.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 28 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2021

Mohsin Ali, Mudeer Ahmed Khattak and Nafis Alam

The study of credit risk has been of the utmost importance when it comes to measuring the soundness and stability of the banking system. Due to the growing importance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The study of credit risk has been of the utmost importance when it comes to measuring the soundness and stability of the banking system. Due to the growing importance of Islamic banking system, a fierce competition between Islamic and conventional banks have started to emerge which in turn is impacting credit riskiness of both banking system.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the system GMM technique on 283 conventional banks and 60 Islamic banks for the period of 2006–2017, this paper explores the important impact of size and competition on the credit risk in 15 dual banking economies.

Findings

The authors found that as bank competition increases credit risk seems to be reduced. On the size effect, the authors found that big Islamic banks are less risky than big conventional banks whereas small Islamic banks are riskier than small conventional banks. The results are robust for different panel data estimation models and sub-samples of different size groups. The findings of this paper provide important insights into the competition-credit risk nexus in the dual banking system.

Originality/value

The paper is specifically focused on credit risk in dual banking environment and tries to fill the gap in the literature by studying (1) do the Islamic and conventional banks exhibit a different level of credit risk; (2) does competition in the banking system impact the credit risk of Islamic and conventional banks and finally (3) do the big and small banks exhibit similar levels of credit risk.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Klaus Friesenbichler and Andreas Reinstaller

The purpose of this study is to explore the strategic positioning and product portfolio diversification of Austrian manufacturing firms that face competition from emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the strategic positioning and product portfolio diversification of Austrian manufacturing firms that face competition from emerging markets as opposed to firms that do not.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted in two successive steps. Firstly, a literature review of dynamic capabilities was put into an international and import competition context, from which the domains studied empirically were derived. Secondly, a survey among the largest Austrian manufacturing firms was conducted to explore differences between firms that face competitors from emerging markets, and firms that do not. The questionnaire development was based on the strategic management literature. Even though the data are cross-sectional, backward- and forward-looking questions introduce a dynamic perspective. Both descriptive statistics and a regression analysis were used in the analysis.

Findings

The findings show that facing competitors from emerging markets is not always a force majeure, but the result of firms’ international activity. An analysis of the competitiveness profile reveals that existing strengths and weaknesses are more pronounced when firms face competitors from emerging markets. In addition, emerging market competition is associated with a broader product portfolio and triggers portfolio adjustments. Yet, a larger share of the companies facing emerging market competitors neither adjusts the product portfolio nor plans to develop new competences.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study is that it is confined to a survey among Austrian manufacturing firms. The findings may differ in other contexts, and thus, future research should be expanded to include firms from countries that are not from a small, open economy like Austria or from the service sector. The study uses cross-sectional data, and longitudinal/panel data would add causality.

Practical implications

Emerging markets play an increasing role in international business and there is a fierce debate about the strategic reactions of firms that face such competitors, especially from China. The findings provide guidance to managers who adjust their business strategies in a dynamically evolving competitive environment. The results also provide evidence relevant for strategic industrial policies aiming to reduce pressures from low-cost emerging market competitors while maintaining a free trade regime.

Social implications

Import competition from China (and other emerging economies) has been argued to contribute to the decline of the manufacturing industry, especially from the USA. The findings provide a building block of the efforts that aim to alleviate competitive pressures.

Originality/value

Even though researchers increasingly debate the effects of competition from emerging markets, research about incumbents’ responses focuses on broadly defined product diversification or patent analyses. This study aims to fill this gap by providing comprehensive evidence about the strategic positioning of firms, thereby adding to theory. This paper also adds methodologically by offering a comprehensive picture that allows researchers to paint a nuanced picture of firms’ competitiveness.

Details

European Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this chapter is to analyse the decisions of the Croatian Competition Agency in the field of grocery retail mergers in the 2004–2009 period. In particular, various criteria used by the Competition Agency to evaluate grocery retail mergers are identified and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the comparative approach the author attempts to detect the relevant sources for certain solutions embraced by the Competition Agency by examining especially the relevant practice of the European Commission as well as relevant decisions adopted by some competition authorities in EU member states.

Findings

The grocery retail market in Croatia has seen a flurry of mergers since 2004 with the largest competitor spreading to various local markets. For the Croatian competition authority this merger wave has perhaps been the biggest challenge since its inception. In the face of growing market concentration, the authority saw fit to shift from initially providing green light to duly notified transactions to subsequently addressing serious competition concerns by ordering a number of remedies. The Croatian competition authority relied extensively on EU acquis when deciding on specific merger cases, especially as regards the relevant market definition.

Originality/value

The value of the chapter is reflected in the fact that this kind of comparative analysis of Croatian merger cases in the field of grocery retail mergers was not available before. It is especially in the light of the accession of Croatia to the EU, as foreseen on 1 July 2013, that this kind of study becomes useful both for domestic but also EU audience.

Details

Challenges for the Trade of Central and Southeast Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-833-4

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 100000