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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Liubov Skavronskaya, Noel Scott, Brent Moyle, Dung Le, Arghavan Hadinejad, Rui Zhang, Sarah Gardiner, Alexandra Coghlan and Aishath Shakeela

This review aims to discuss concepts and theories from cognitive psychology, identifies tourism studies applying them and discusses key areas for future research. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to discuss concepts and theories from cognitive psychology, identifies tourism studies applying them and discusses key areas for future research. The paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of cognitive psychology for understanding why tourists and particularly pleasure travellers demonstrate the behaviour they exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews 165 papers from the cognitive psychology and literature regarding pleasure travel related to consciousness, mindfulness, flow, retrospection, prospection, attention, schema and memory, feelings and emotions. The papers are chosen to demonstrate the state of the art of the literature and provide guidance on how these concepts are vital for further research.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that research has favoured a behaviourist rather than cognitive approach to the study of hedonic travel. Cognitive psychology can help to understand the mental processes connecting perception of stimuli with behaviour. Numerous examples are provided: top-down and bottom-up attention processes help to understand advertising effectiveness, theories of consciousness and memory processes help to distinguish between lived and recalled experience, cognitive appraisal theory predicts the emotion elicited based on a small number of appraisal dimensions such as surprise and goals, knowledge of the mental organisation of autobiographical memory and schema support understanding of destination image formation and change and the effect of storytelling on decision-making, reconstructive bias in prospection or retrospection about a holiday inform the study of pleasurable experience. These findings indicate need for further cognitive psychology research in tourism generally and studies of holiday travel experiences.

Research limitations/implications

This review is limited to cognitive psychology and excludes psychoanalytic studies.

Practical implications

Cognitive psychology provides insight into key areas of practical importance. In general, the use of a cognitive approach allows further understanding of leisure tourists’ behaviour. The concept of attention is vital to understand destination advertising effectiveness, biases in memory process help to understand visitor satisfaction and experience design and so on. Use of cognitive psychology theory will lead to better practical outcomes for tourists seeking pleasurable experiences and destination managers.

Originality value

This is the first review that examines the application of concepts from cognitive psychology to the study of leisure tourism in particular. The concepts studied are also applicable to study of travellers generally.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Jong-Hyeong Kim

This chapter sought to overcome the current theoretical lack of understanding of the memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) phenomena and provide a conceptual framework for…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter sought to overcome the current theoretical lack of understanding of the memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) phenomena and provide a conceptual framework for guiding destination managers who seek to design and deliver memorable experiences appropriate to their particular destination.

Methodology/approach

This chapter employed literature-based research methods. More specifically, it sought to (1) summarize the understanding of MTEs gained from a review of others’ work, and conduct a retrospective examination of my own empirical research on the topic; and (2) convey the insights I have formulated regarding the implications for destination managers of this understanding for designing, delivering, and evaluating programs, which may increase the probability a visitor will return home with truly memorable experiences.

Findings

The literature review and the content analysis and synthesis identified seven conceptual and theoretical components of MTEs, such as hedonism, refreshment, novelty, local culture, meaningfulness, knowledge, and adverse feelings.

Practical implications

The current study suggested what characteristics of tourism experiences lead to strong memorability and how to measure each component of MTEs. Thus, the findings provide important implications for destination managers to develop tourism programs that last long in visitors’ memories.

Originality/value

Previous researchers suggested some practical strategies to prepare environments and design experiences. However, a comprehensive, theoretically sound understanding of the fundamental factors of MTEs was left out. This study investigated tourism experiential factors that enable and facilitate MTEs. It also tried to demonstrate the managerial importance of these theoretical components to the design of “on the ground” destination programs, which initially create excitement and anticipation among potential visitors (within the context of a highly competitive marketplace), to the point where a given destination is selected over a multitude of others and where it subsequently delivers the kind of high-quality “truly memorable” experiences that fully meet the inflated expectations initially “promised” by the destination brand.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Hyangmi Kim, Junhyoung Kim, Kyoung Tae Kim and Ya-Ling Chen

To augment the current literature on the memorable travel experience, this research attempts to elucidate the complex meaning of memorable travel experiences. It deploys a…

Abstract

To augment the current literature on the memorable travel experience, this research attempts to elucidate the complex meaning of memorable travel experiences. It deploys a qualitative study to interview 17 participants in four study sites in the State of Indiana, US. From the personal interviews, this study discovers five thematic views entailing: (1) social interaction, (2) destination attractiveness, (3) excitement, (4) novelty, and (5) learning. Unlike most memorable travel experience studies in the existing literature which indicates knowledge as one of the components, this study finds that memorable travel experience involves in the learning process, not merely gaining knowledge. Relevance suggestions for future research are provided in the conclusion section.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Chengming Hu and Shu Cole

This research examines impacts from tourists’ destination knowledge and destination interest upon Generation Z’s recognition memory of advertisement for a new travel…

Abstract

This research examines impacts from tourists’ destination knowledge and destination interest upon Generation Z’s recognition memory of advertisement for a new travel destination (Taiwan). The findings of this study indicated that participants with high destination knowledge are more likely to exhibit a lower level of new travel destination advertising recognition than participants with low destination knowledge, while the destination interest is low. Practical and theoretical implications of this outcome for destination marketers and tourism scholars are suggested to better understand and anticipate the processes of tourists’ learning and retaining of new travel destination information.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-956-9

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Samira Zare and Philip Pearce

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the order in which a set of cities are visited to ascertain the effects of position on group tourists’ recall and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the order in which a set of cities are visited to ascertain the effects of position on group tourists’ recall and evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a questionnaire, the views of highly experienced tour guides were analysed to provide preliminary insights about the likely occurrence of position effects. The topic was studied in Iran where a natural variation in the order of visiting cities on guided tours exists.

Findings

Credible and consistent evidence was found for the perceived effects of recency when considering tourists’ recall and evaluations. In particular, the influence was seen as clearly enhancing the recall and positive evaluation for the most high profile cities in the set of visited locations.

Research limitations/implications

Replications of the position effect in other countries and for other kinds of tourism cities needs to be pursued, desirably by direct assessments of tourist’ views to buttress the present views held by guides.

Practical implications

Designing itineraries by making imaginative use of the effects of order on the tourists’ sequence of city visits should facilitate the memorability of destinations for tourists and benefit businesses.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence about order effects in multi-city tour itineraries has never been established. The study provides foundation evidence for such influences through a non-reactive and naturalistic assessment by tour guides who are in contact with varied itineraries and who regularly consider the experiences of diverse and large numbers of tourists.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Emma Harriet Wood and Maarit Kinnunen

This study aims to explore how emotionally rich collective experiences create lasting, shareable memories, which influence future behaviours. In particular, the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how emotionally rich collective experiences create lasting, shareable memories, which influence future behaviours. In particular, the role of others and of music in creating value through memories is considered using the concept of socially extended emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 250 narratives were gathered from festival attendees in the UK and Finland. Respondents completed a writing task detailing their most vivid memories, what made them memorable, their feelings at the time and as they remembered them, and how they shared them. The narratives were then analysed thematically.

Findings

Collective emotion continues to be co-created long after the experience through memory-sharing. The music listened to is woven through this extension of the experience but is, surprisingly, not a critical part of it. The sociality of the experience is remembered most and was key to the memories shared afterwards. The added value of gathering memorable moments, and being able to share them with others, is clearly evidenced.

Practical implications

The study highlights the importance of designing events to create collective emotional moments that form lasting memories. This emphasizes the role of post-experience marketing and customer relationship building to enhance the value that is created customer-to-customer via memory sharing.

Originality/value

The research addresses the lack of literature exploring post-event experience journeys and the collective nature of these. It also deepens a theoretical understanding of the role of time and sociality in the co-creation and extension of emotions and their value in hospitality consumption. A model is proposed to guide future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Philip L. Pearce and Zohre Mohammadi

Building on key ideas about the value of savoring in understanding the importance of vacation memories, a sample of Iranians were asked to write a long paragraph (one…

Abstract

Building on key ideas about the value of savoring in understanding the importance of vacation memories, a sample of Iranians were asked to write a long paragraph (one page) which described a particularly important, happy, and enjoyable vacation occasion. The answers were coded using five categories developed from savoring studies. By benchmarking the scores with data from well-matched samples from other countries (specifically a European sample from Austria, and Chinese and Japanese respondents), the Iranian tourists were shown to be especially appreciative of vacations being grateful, marveling, luxuriating, and having a strong sense of the status value of their time. For Iranians, vacations provide powerful, evocative highlights for their lives.

Details

Experiencing Persian Heritage
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-813-8

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Siamak Seyfi, Raouf Ahmad Rather and Colin Michael Hall

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating role of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from tourists in the heritage city of Kashan, Iran. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) were applied to analyze the data.

Findings

The results of PLS-SEM showed that three dimensions of MTE as follows: local culture, involvement and knowledge, significantly directly or indirectly influence tourists’ behavioral intention toward a destination. However, the results of fsQCA identified greater heterogeneity among the respondents by highlighting the positive effects of hedonism and novelty on satisfaction and revisit and word-of-mouth intentions.

Originality/value

This study enriches the empirical evidence on MTE by constructing a composite picture of the memorability of tourists’ experiences within a heritage tourism context. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of dimensions of MTE on behavioral intentions using both symmetric (PLS-SEM) and asymmetric approaches to identify the more significant dimensions of MTE, as well as sufficient combinations of dimensions to predict behavioral intentions.

研究目的

本文旨在研究难忘旅游体验 (MTE) 各维度通过满意度这个中介变量来驱动遗产旅游游客行为意图的机制

研究设计/方法论/研究方法

实证数据是从伊朗遗产城市卡尚的游客那里收集的。本研究采用偏最小二乘结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA)对数据进行分析

研究发现

偏最小二乘结构方程模型的研究结果表明,难忘旅游体验(MTE)的三个维度:当地文化、参与度和熟悉程度,显著地直接或间接地影响游客对目的地的行为意向。然而,模糊集定性比较分析的研究结果表明受访者间存在更大的异质性,其结果凸显了享乐主义和新鲜感对满意度、重游意向和口碑(WOM)意向的正效应

独创性/价值

本研究通过构建遗产旅游背景下游客体验难忘性的相互影响机制,丰富了关于难忘旅游体验(MTE)的实证研究证据。本研究是第一个同时使用对称方法(PLS-SEM)和非对称方法(fsQCA)来探究MTE各维度对行为意向的影响的研究之一,通过这种方式可以识别出MTE各维度中更为重要的维度以及维度组合,以此来预测行为意向

Propósito

Este artículo investiga la influencia de las dimensiones de las experiencias turísticas memorables (ETM) en el fomento de las intenciones de comportamiento de los turistas del patrimonio a través del papel mediador de la satisfacción.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se recogieron datos empíricos de turistas en la ciudad patrimonial de Kashan, Irán. Para analizar los datos se aplicaron las técnicas partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) y fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Conclusiones

Los resultados que proporcionó el análisis PLS-SEM mostraron que tres dimensiones de las ETM: cultura local, implicación y conocimiento, influyen significativamente, de forma directa o indirecta, en la intención de comportamiento de los turistas hacia un destino. Sin embargo, los resultados del enfoque fsQCA identificaron una mayor heterogeneidad entre los encuestados al destacar los efectos positivos del hedonismo y la novedad sobre la satisfacción y las intenciones tanto de volver a visitar el destino como de realizar una comunicación de boca a boca (WOM).

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio enriquece la evidencia empírica sobre las ETM al construir una imagen combinada del carácter memorable de las experiencias de los turistas dentro de un contexto de turismo patrimonial. Este estudio es uno de los primeros en investigar los efectos de las dimensiones las ETM en las intenciones de comportamiento utilizando enfoques simétricos (PLS-SEM) y asimétricos para identificar las dimensiones más significativas las ETM, así como para determinar las combinaciones necesarias de dimensiones para predecir las intenciones de comportamiento.

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2019

Ian Michael, Thomas Ramsoy, Melodena Stephens and Filareti Kotsi

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art…

Abstract

Purpose

This applied neuroscience study aims to understand how direct and unconscious emotional and cognitive responses underlie travel destination preferences. State-of-the-art neuroscience tools and methods were used, including stationary eye tracking and brain scanning electroencephalography (EEG) to assess emotional and cognitive responses to destination images and assets. To the researchers’ knowledge, this study is the first applied neuroscience study in tourism research and thus opens a new path of research and enquiry to this area. This paper is an attempt to understand specific mental processes in human tourism behaviours, and it is suggest that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Design/methodology/approach

To better understand consumers’ unconscious responses to possible travel destinations, a 3 × 5 factorial design was run with the factors being stimulus type (images, printed names and videos) and travel destination (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, New York and London). Eye-tracking calibration was done with a nine-point fixation test and the EEG calibration was done using functional localizer tests based on the ABM B-ALERT calibration process. This calibration procedure allows reliable tracking of emotional and cognitive responses over time. Thirty Emirati (nationals of the UAE) participants, consisting of equal numbers of males and females (15) were recruited from the UAE and signed informed consent. Each participant was positioned in front of an eye tracker and computer screen, and brain-scanning equipment was mounted; then, each participant underwent eye-tracking and neuroimaging calibration procedures. A Tobii T60XL eye tracker and an ABM X-10 EEG brain scanner, both running iMotions v5.1 in a Windows 7 environment, were used.

Findings

General emotional and cognitive differences were identified between the channels through which travel destinations are presented. Words about and names of travel destinations cause higher cognitive loads, which may not be surprising, given the greater associative load that words have than images. Of particular interest is the hypothesis that images evoke stronger affective responses than verbal representations. However, as previously noted (Holmes and Mathews, 2005), empirical evidence for this assumption seems surprisingly sparse. The present study and the context provided here suggest that decisions on travel destination have an unconscious component and a direct component that may drive or affect overt preference and actual choice.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this paper is that first, neuromarketing is not dependent on sample sizes; however, future studies could build on this paper to understand why there is a preference for cities. It is suggested that unconscious emotional and cognitive responses are natural processes that need to be studied and understood, not as special cases, but embedded as natural parts of tourism research.

Originality/value

Thus, tourism research may indeed be a suitable field for understanding the brain bases of complex preference formation and choice. Various researchers have found that a destination image is typically measured using cognitive, affective and behavioural components, and further stated that the cognitive image component of a destination was found to have a significant positive effect on the affective image component and overall destination image (Stylidis et al., 2017). Therefore, this research which has introduced brain scanning can be used to better understand the underlying unconscious emotional and cognitive processes that affect consumer thought and action. An understanding of what goes on in the human unconscious mind is very important for destination marketers, this can help in the integrated marketing communication process to create a destination image and brand.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Sonia Varadinova Mileva

The paper is making a preliminary evaluation of dark tourism potential in Bulgaria. Dark tourism is underestimated research topic in Bulgaria – a country with long and

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is making a preliminary evaluation of dark tourism potential in Bulgaria. Dark tourism is underestimated research topic in Bulgaria – a country with long and rich cultural heritage, belonging to orthodox religion, with ambiguous impacts from the communist/socialist political regime and nowadays being a typical destination for mass and 3 “S” (sun, sand, sea) tourism. The research topic is approached by starting with an inventory and classification of the main tourist attractions/sites for dark tourism according to the most widely applicable theoretical typologies, inclusively their territorial density, cities location, authenticity and commercialization. The general counterpoint is the non-western approach and the hypothesis that dark places/attractions can be explored as potential tourist resources, diversifying the cities destination supply. The places related to death within the death-tourism framework are explored within the urban landscape. The research applies supply-demand approach and includes semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders from the supply side and a questionnaire accessing the tourist’s perspective and readiness from the demand side. Special attentions is given to the cities as concentrating the major part of the dark sites/attractions in the country, being at the same time integral part of the public areas and urban landscape, with special designation and/or combination of additional recreational functions. The data and results from the conducted research revealed that dark tourism in Bulgaria, in the narrowest sense is relatively unknown, unexplored type of tourism, difficult to distinguish and overlapping with other types of tourism mainly in the cities. The paper also raises the discussion about the necessity to extend the dark tourism research in the cities, taking into account the non-western approach and cultural sensitiveness. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of the research, in its nature, is purely qualitative, widest and most applicable (Biran A., Hyde K., 2013), (Wight, 2006) (Light, 2017) and follows two main stages: inventory, classification and potential of the dark tourism sites/attractions in Bulgaria and supply-demand approach for pilot exploratory study of the reediness of the suppliers and main stakeholders from one side, and the tourist’s perceptions from other side.

Findings

The data and results from the conducted research revealed that dark tourism in the narrowest sense in Bulgaria is relatively unknown, unexplored type of tourism, difficult to distinguish and overlapping with other types of tourism mainly in the cities. The findings challenge the predominant understanding of dark tourism typology, spectrum, and type of places/attractions (Light, 2017). Within the tourism-death relationship framework in the non-western approach with narrow focus in Bulgaria as research area, the author can confirm that the concept of dark tourism research should be extended taking into account the religion (relationship to death), historical development and political regime. The results obtained clearly show that the main difference from the western approach lies in on completely different conceptual basis, which differs from the concept of dark tourism. Tourism is mostly linked with recreation, leisure, and entertainment, while the dark places/sites related to death and suffer are mostly linked to religion, historical or political heritage. Besides being different both create and conduct to a behavior and visit of such places with deserved respect, honor and part of national identity and culture.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s focus is narrow and limited at national level as part of “eastern” (non-western) context of tourism-death relationship framework. The findings resulted from pilot exploratory study provide theoretical and practical insights into understanding of dark tourism and its potential development in Bulgaria by considering the availability of dark sites/attractions, supply (readiness of main stakeholders) and demand side (tourist’s perspective). The paper limits the research in the post-modern context stressing on tourism/leisure and commercial use of death as attractions and places. Other limitations are pilot character of the exploratory study and the limited number of respondents.

Practical implications

The paper delivers practical insights into understanding of dark tourism and its potential development in Bulgaria by considering the availability of dark sites/attractions, supply (readiness of main stakeholders) and demand side (tourist’s perspective).

Originality/value

Most of the research in the field of dark tourism as expression of tourism-death relationship framework are concentrated on the “western way of thinking” (Light, 2017, p. 297) covering countries from West Europe, USA, Australia (Foote, 1997), (Bowman M., Pezzullo P., 2010, p. 188). The use of Western frameworks for understanding the tourism-death relationship in other parts of the world and particularly in Bulgaria as Eastern European and orthodox country may not be appropriate. For the specific research area – the case of Bulgaria, theoretically although incorrect, a parallel is possible between the western post-modern secularism and atheism as official communist policy between 1940 and 1990 (Metodiev, 2013). Darkness of sites/attraction identified within the tourism-death relationship and exploitation of the death is seen supporting and commemorating the sacrifice of the “heroes” of the time keeping them “eternally alive” and as symbols, incarnations of the “sacral” political power.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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