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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Robert P. French II

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptualizations of mindset across disciplines with particular attention to scholars’ care in defining and operationalizing the…

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1490

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptualizations of mindset across disciplines with particular attention to scholars’ care in defining and operationalizing the construct of mindset. Theories of mindset have witnessed increased attention through a variety of disciplines for their applicability as processes with the potential to influence individual and/or organizational outcomes. Exploration of mindset conceptualizations and characterizations reveal substantial divergences.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper generally examines the utilization of mindset constructs via a multidisciplinary review of literature and specifically details three mindset theories (implemental and deliberative, global and growth and fixed mindsets) to illuminate such disparities.

Findings

This paper categorizes the significant variations of the mindset construct and research via three distinct streams. Each stream highlights knowledge as instrumental in the mindset construct; however, the ways in which varying aspects of knowledge, knowledge mechanisms or knowledge as a component of an individuals and/or organization’s identity correspond to the inherent presuppositions of varying articulations of mindset theory and praxis.

Practical implications

Effectively influencing an individual and/or organization’s mindset necessitates an accurate assessment of the mindset construct. Further, evaluating the applicability of mindset research and/or feedback from a consultant warrants attention to the assumptions undergirding the mindset construct.

Originality/value

Generally, mindset studies and theories have scantly attended to both the historical development of mindset research as well as divergences in the research record within and across disciplines. This paper attempts to address this deficiency. Further, this paper appears to be the first attempt to compare and identify varying conceptualizations and characterizations of mindset theory and, therefore, identifies previously unidentified assumptions.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Dawn R. Elm

Cognitive moral development, often referred to as moral reasoning, stems from the field of cognitive developmental psychology and moral psychology. Early work done by Jean…

Abstract

Cognitive moral development, often referred to as moral reasoning, stems from the field of cognitive developmental psychology and moral psychology. Early work done by Jean Piaget studying the cognitive abilities of children to make moral judgments as they grow and mature created the foundation for the later work of Lawrence Kohlberg and James Rest in studying the moral reasoning abilities of adults. Thus, moral reasoning refers to the cognitive process of how a person reasons about ethical situations. This chapter will present the evolution of the use and validity of cognitive moral development/moral reasoning in determining how individuals resolve ethical or moral dilemmas. Further, more recent models and potential measurement of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making including our intuition and emotions will be discussed and suggestions regarding directions for developing methods to measure such cognitive and emotional (or intuitive) means by which individuals make difficult moral choices will be discussed.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Richard P. Bagozzi

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1305-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

William H Starbuck

Cognitive perspectives have emerged from many years of struggle for recognition, and grown into a dominant theme in psychology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss…

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1403

Abstract

Purpose

Cognitive perspectives have emerged from many years of struggle for recognition, and grown into a dominant theme in psychology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss what Karl Weick expressed as important themes in this struggle, made major contributions to the content of cognitive psychology, and helped to make cognition relevant for organizational behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews key developments in the history of psychology, points out central issues, and summarizes Weick’s contributions.

Findings

Weick brought sensemaking into sharp focus as a major activity of people and organizations. His writings established information processing as the core of organizational activities. He also showed how sensemaking affects organizational reliability.

Originality/value

Weick is one of the authors whom management scholars cite very often because he has been a thought leader. The paper places Weick’s work in historical context and points to his major contributions.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Shailendra Kumar, I.A. Khan and O.P. Gandhi

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on design for maintainability with emphasis on psychology and cognitive sciences and suggest possible gaps from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on design for maintainability with emphasis on psychology and cognitive sciences and suggest possible gaps from the point of view of researchers and practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper systematically reviews the published literature and then analyzes it methodically.

Findings

The paper discusses a new shift in engineering design, in general, and design for maintainability (DFM) of mechanical systems, in particular.

Practical implications

Literature on DFM of mechanical systems with psychological factors has so far been very limited. This paper reviews a number of papers from the field of mechanical engineering and other related branches of engineering, along with important papers from the field of psychology and cognitive sciences. Subsequently, various merging trends in the field of DFM are identified to help researchers specifying gaps in the literature and direct the research efforts suitably.

Originality/value

The paper contains a comprehensive listing of publications in the field of maintainability from the psychology point of view. The paper will be useful to researchers, designers, maintenance professionals and others concerned with maintainability of a system. This paper is equally useful for the researchers and design professionals from the domain of engineering design irrespective of their field of application.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Marian Evans

Adopting a dual processing cognitive perspective, this study explores the decision-making processes past the start-up stage that small entrepreneurial businesses employ to…

Abstract

Adopting a dual processing cognitive perspective, this study explores the decision-making processes past the start-up stage that small entrepreneurial businesses employ to grow. The author examines how entrepreneurs evaluate and make decisions on growth opportunities in their business environment. The author uses cognitive style as a theoretical lens to capture differences in information processing, combining interviews and psychometric questionnaires to analyse cognitive styles. The longitudinal mixed methods approach illustrates the richness of the entrepreneur’s decision-making process, which the author tracks over a two-year period. The author determines how intuitive and analytical cognitive styles are used by entrepreneurs and the contribution these styles make to decision-making. The findings show that the two cognitive styles are versatile as entrepreneurs adjust and adapt their cognitive style over time, in keeping with the situational factors of their business environment. The author also finds marked differences between novice and mature entrepreneurs and that experienced entrepreneurs exhibited greater levels of cognitive versatility, which was directly linked to their prior experience. The study has significant implications for future research, which should consider the question how an entrepreneur’s cognitive style is dependent on the business context and their prior experience.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-577-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Larry Wofford, Michael Troilo and Andrew Dorchester

This paper seeks to consider selected aspects of the relationship between real estate valuation, human cognition, and translational research. Its purpose is to introduce…

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1685

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to consider selected aspects of the relationship between real estate valuation, human cognition, and translational research. Its purpose is to introduce the concept of cognitive risk, to propose a framework for mitigating it, and to develop a stream of translational research to transfer knowledge to real estate valuers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes an interdisciplinary conceptual approach towards the development and study of cognitive risk, and its mitigation. It proposes to broaden the study of behavioral issues in real estate valuation beyond cognitive psychology to cognitive science, and also fields such as time studies and human failure, in order to identify and mitigate cognitive risk.

Findings

The paper offers a framework as a starting‐point for handling cognitive risk. It borrows the concept of translational research from medicine to discuss how basic theoretical knowledge may be communicated to real estate valuers to improve performance.

Originality/value

The paper's concept of cognitive risk and discussion of its mitigation will enrich behavioral real estate by introducing the wisdom of other fields such as cognitive science and time studies. These fields have much to say about managing the risk surrounding human cognition, and will be of both academic and practical value to the discipline of real estate valuation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Shashank Mittal

Potential appraisal is the foremost indicator of employee's readiness to take higher responsibilities and used for multiple purposes in promotion, human resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Potential appraisal is the foremost indicator of employee's readiness to take higher responsibilities and used for multiple purposes in promotion, human resource development including training and development needs of employees. This study examines how construal level as psychological difference among employees (holistic–analytic differential in preference of thinking for various action domains among individuals) and meaningfulness of work is related to their readiness for development and responsibility. Combining meaning of work literature and cognitive psychology, the moderated mediation model is formed to examine the psychological process and social boundary conditions in the relationship between construal level and potential appraisal of employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 1,494 working executives and their 297 reporting managers across companies operating in an industrial cluster situated in India. The proposed model considered “experienced meaningfulness” as mediator and contextual factors of psychological empowerment and supervisor feedback as moderators.

Findings

Using multi-variate analysis and after controlling for industry type and experience, supervisor potential appraisal ratings of employees are found to be statistically related to construal level, and this relationship is found to be partially mediated by “experienced meaningfulness” of work. Further, contextual factors are found to be significant as moderators.

Originality/value

By bringing the subjective interpretation of different aspects of meaning of work from work design literature to examine its role in relationship between aspects of cognitive psychology and potential appraisal of employees, this study bridges the gap between cognitive psychology of development, meaning of work literature and HRD literature. Further implications for academic literature and managers are discussed.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Torkil Clemmensen

To outline how psychology as one of the original approaches to human‐computer interaction (HCI) has formed a key part of the HCI literature, and to discuss the need for…

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3570

Abstract

Purpose

To outline how psychology as one of the original approaches to human‐computer interaction (HCI) has formed a key part of the HCI literature, and to discuss the need for psychological approaches to HCI and system development.

Design/methodology/approach

The contributions to the journal Human‐Computer Interaction is examined from the journal's start in 1985 up to the millennium. The analysis focuses the three main elements, task, user and computer, in the classic study “Psychology of human‐computer interaction” from 1983.

Findings

Provides information about authorship, and form and focus of research published. The paper concludes that already from the beginning, HCI researchers too narrowly used Card et al.'s analytical framework. Today it has developed into a sub‐theory within a multidisciplinary HCI science and in this role it continues to be an important cumulative factor in HCI.

Research limitations/implications

The main conclusion about the role of psychology in HCI only applies to the mainly US authors who published in the journal investigated in the given period. European research focusing on information technology and people may differ in important ways.

Practical implications

A much needed discussion of a central document of historical importance tying together many HCI researchers and a range of HCI studies.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils partly the need for meta‐analyses of the psychological approach to HCI.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 January 2005

Viktor J. Vanberg

The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature…

Abstract

The methodological individualism and subjectivism of the Austrian tradition in economics is often associated with a methodological dualism, i.e. the claim that the nature of its subject matter, namely purposeful and intentional human action, requires economics to adopt a methodology that is fundamentally different from the causal explanatory approach of the natural sciences. This paper critically examines this claim and advocates an alternative, explicitly naturalistic and empiricist outlook at human action, exemplified, in particular, by the research program of evolutionary psychology. It is argued that, within the Austrian tradition, a decidedly naturalistic approach to subjectivism can be found in F. A. Hayek’s work.

Details

Evolutionary Psychology and Economic Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-138-5

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