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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Robert J. Lake

Of all the major, global professional sports where women have made inroads, striving toward equality in terms of status, earnings and media attention, tennis stands at the…

Abstract

Of all the major, global professional sports where women have made inroads, striving toward equality in terms of status, earnings and media attention, tennis stands at the forefront. This chapter traces this historical development, outlining the sport's earliest socio-cultural features that afforded the inclusion of female players and charting the progress of notable women who thrust tennis into the limelight and turned themselves into commodities – the essence of professionalisation. Suzanne Lenglen blazed the trail by becoming, in 1926, the principal attraction in the sport's inaugural professional tour. Female players were encouraged to cast aside the shackles of restrained femininity and chart their own courses in a sport still dominated by men and played according to male standards. The rise of ‘Open Tennis’ in 1968 removed the playing restrictions and stigma of professionalism, but by opening up to the male-dominated corporate world, unsurprisingly it was the male players who initially competed for the lion's share of new money. Billie Jean King's efforts to galvanise her fellow female professionals to compete on a rogue tour sponsored by Virginia Slims left them ousted by the sport's main officials, but the tour's commercial success propelled them toward equality in terms of prize money and status. Still more or less a white, middle-class-dominated pursuit, the arrival of Venus and Serena Williams in the late 1990s turned tennis toward new markets, and the sport's significance for women remains apparent in the fact that its leading players are the most recognisable and well-paid of all professional female athletes.

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The Professionalisation of Women’s Sport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-196-6

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Yi Zhang and Hao Dong Gu

Scholars have examined the relationship between sports and urban development and proposed to use sport programs and events as a catalyst to revitalize communities, upgrade…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars have examined the relationship between sports and urban development and proposed to use sport programs and events as a catalyst to revitalize communities, upgrade urban infrastructure, promote city image, shift economic structure, nurture an active lifestyle, and enhance societal harmony and solidarity. Yet, previous studies were usually focused on mega sport events and were typically conceptual, theoretical and lack of practical applications. This study was designed to attain in-depth understanding on how a specific sport, table tennis, can be systematically organized and utilized to influence urban development through a qualitative research injury.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation was carried by conducting in-depth interviews of the executive director of the Shanghai Table Tennis Association, on-site observations and comprehensive review of literature. Development of interview questions took into consideration the conceptual framework postulated by Preuss (2007) that contains six structures of urban development through sports. Triangulation analyses were conducted to cross validate the three information sources to generate themes and assertions.

Findings

While the identified practices were consistent with Preuss' (2007) framework, specific management activities earnestly practiced in Shanghai are centered on utilizing cultural and historical heritage, star power, branding strategies, staging tournaments, hallmark events, technical innovation and government relations to achieve the objectives of table tennis as a sport and the objectives of urban development through table tennis.

Originality/value

The findings of this study help fill the void that a theory usually cannot specify, namely, detailed, unambiguous practices. While table tennis may be a viewed as a small sport in many parts of the world, it has a strong, unprecedented historical heritage in Shanghai. This city has made a prudent choice and investment in this sport, which has proved to be effective. Other cities in the world should look into their own social, cultural and historical heritage and develop sport strategies, operations and programs accordingly.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Chengli Xu, Jing Tian, Cong Liu and Yan Wang

With the rapid economic development, China has been increasingly paying special attention to its sports and health industries. In October 2014, the State Council raised…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid economic development, China has been increasingly paying special attention to its sports and health industries. In October 2014, the State Council raised the goal to upscale the sports industry to the net worth of 5 trillion yuan by 2025. To gain further insights into the current development of tennis in China, especially the development of Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) tennis competitions, an interview with the director of Wuhan Opening Fabrice Chouquet and Mr Guoqing Yi of Wuahan Sport Investment Inc. was conducted. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To gain further insights into the current development of tennis in China, especially the development of WTA tennis competitions, an interview with the director of Wuhan Opening Fabrice Chouquet and Mr Guoqing Yi of Wuahan Sport Investment Inc. was conducted.

Findings

The interview comprised a series of topics including motivators of tennis industries in China, the strategic position of China for WTA development, WTA choice of hosting city, effects of WTA competition events toward the hosting city, and the operation of WTA tennis competitions. Integrating the aforementioned topics with Wuhan Tennis Open, the interviewees also provided suggestions toward the future development of tennis industry in China.

Research limitations/implications

This study has several limitations that are of concern to researchers in the future. First, the interviewees of this research came from Wuhan Tennis Open. Though Mr Fabrice used to be the managing director of WTA in Asia, he only knows about women tennis in China, and his viewpoints have their own limitation. Therefore, the interviewee in the future has to be the person who could hold the opinion on tennis development in China at the macro scale. Second, the questions in the interview have a wide scale, but lack depth and penetration. For instance, the interview only relates to the motive of tennis development but does not go deeply into the relation between the above two aspects. Moreover, it mentions the problems related to the tennis development. It only concentrates on the tennis tournaments but does not discuss the tennis culture and the industry. These questions need to be considered when the authors research on the development of tennis in China in the future.

Originality/value

Through the analysis on WTA and tennis in China, the authors can understand the development of sports in China and the Chinese sports industry in recent years.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Abstract

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 33 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2016

Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Mine Gul, Esra Yazici and Gazanfer Kemal Gul

Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression…

Abstract

Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey) who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt-Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students' pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.

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Mental Illness, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Yi Zhang, Minkil Kim, Jerred Junqi Wang and Brenda Pitts

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club…

Abstract

Purpose

By using table tennis as an example and conducting an in-depth investigation into the impact of market demand factors on membership consumption of table tennis club members in the USA, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the opportunities and marketing efforts needed for Asian sports to survive and thrive in North America, in which consumer demand factors assessing core program features of table tennis clubs were found to be very influential of cognitive, affective, and behavioral consumptions of table tennis club members.

Design/methodology/approach

Through conducting a review of literature, observations of club operations, and interviews of club administrators and club members representing various table tennis clubs, a preliminary questionnaire was formulated for this study. The initial questionnaire was submitted to a panel of five experts, for a test of content validity. By incorporating their suggestions, editing was made to improve a number of the items in the questionnaire. Data collection took place in two national table tennis tournaments, two local tournaments, and six table tennis clubs. Procedures in SPSS 19.0 (SPSS, 2009) and Mplus 5.21 were carried out for data analyses.

Findings

The findings of this study are that market demand factors would be significantly related to consumer perceived benefits and perceived value, and in turn related to consumer satisfaction of table tennis club membership. The market demand factors had a positive impact on perceived value and benefits confirmed the theoretical framework and previous research findings, which also made a practical sense that a table tennis club needs to offer product features and meet expectations of its current and potential members in order to enhance program value and benefits perceived by its members.

Originality/value

The past two decades have marked the speediest rise of a globalized sport production and consumption trend. In an era of globalized sport marketplace, sports have become a business commodity to meet the needs of commerce. For an Asian sport to penetrate into the North American marketplace as table tennis has done, it would be wise to develop regional network, strategies, product, and promotions. It is expected that table tennis as a popular Asian sport will continue being spread to other parts of the world; thus, the findings of this study have potential relevance to promoting table tennis globally.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Katharine Hoskyn, Geoff Dickson and Popi Sotiriadou

Sport participation is the lifeblood of community sport clubs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how sport clubs can leverage participation from local…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport participation is the lifeblood of community sport clubs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how sport clubs can leverage participation from local, medium-sized, elite sport events.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an action research approach where researchers, along with representative stakeholders from two elite tennis tournaments and 23 local tennis organizations, collaborated to develop and implement a series of interventions as part of a wider leveraging plan. The interventions were developed and evaluated in one cycle of action research that incorporated predominantly qualitative research methods.

Findings

The interventions stimulated the interest of event spectators by offering a free tennis lesson at a participating club. However, the conversion from interest to club participation was limited.

Practical implications

Key recommendations for clubs to leverage participation from a medium-sized event include: a leveraging plan should consider the resources and capacity of local community sport clubs; clubs should act collectively and collaboratively; and clubs should have a strong physical presence at the event(s).

Originality/value

Regional sports organizations can utilize existing collaborative networks to enable community clubs to design and implement event-leveraging initiatives. This study also highlights the limited capacity of community sport clubs to leverage participation outcomes from medium-sized annual events. The use of collaborative networks may ameliorate the organizational capacity deficiencies of clubs.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2006

Susan Schultz Kleine, Robert E. Kleine and Debra A. Laverie

In this article, we examine how person–possession relations vary across three stages of the role-identity cultivation processes. We explore stage-related variation in the…

Abstract

In this article, we examine how person–possession relations vary across three stages of the role-identity cultivation processes. We explore stage-related variation in the accumulation of role-related consumption stimuli and their self-relevance in a cross-sectional sample of two freely chosen athletic role-identities. Results show that as individuals cultivate an identity they accumulate more role-related possessions, social ties, and media commitments, and evaluation of those elements becomes more positive, yet the impact of those stimuli on self-conception declines. Ultimately, the results suggest that a full understanding of person–possession relations must include consideration of how role-identity cultivation stage moderates relations between people and consumption stimuli.

Details

Research in Consumer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 0-7623-1304-8

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

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Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Yi Zhang and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the push and pull factors associated with the consumption of Chinese Table Tennis Super League (CTTSL) game events by online…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the push and pull factors associated with the consumption of Chinese Table Tennis Super League (CTTSL) game events by online audiences and on-site attendants.

Design/methodology/approach

Conducting a comprehensive review of literature and a test of content validity, a questionnaire was formulated to assess push and pull motives, event consumption, and sociodemographic variables. A total of 433 CTTSL event consumers, including 225 respondents who primarily followed CTTSL game events via television and webcasting and 208 respondents who primarily consumed the events by attending live game events.

Findings

Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that for online consumers, two push factors, self-esteem and drama excitement, were found to be positively related to the event consumption factors; whereas, social interaction and sport performance factors were found to be negatively predictive of event consumption factors. For on-site consumers, none of the push and pull factors were found to be related to the consumption factors.

Research limitations/implications

These results indicate that unlike research findings derived in other research settings mainly conducted in Western countries, push and pull factors are more functional for online CTTSL consumers who are of comparatively stronger fandom level, which are likely affected by CTTSL’s contemporary operations.

Originality/value

Enriching the dual process theory through examining its applicability in studying sport consumer behavior, from both perspectives of internal and external motivations; applying theories and research findings of internal and external motivations that have primarily been derived in Western countries into a professional sport setting in China; identifying unique and diverse perspectives of professional table tennis consumers in China between online and on-site consumers; contrary to the findings derived in Western countries, the motivational factors are more functional for online CTTSL consumers who are of comparatively stronger fandom level, which are likely affected by CTTSL’s contemporary operations; and conducting micro-perspective analyses to study Chinese sport consumer behaviors, which has rarely been done in contemporary scholarly inquiries in China.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000