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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Stuart James

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Reference Reviews, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2015

Jasbir Singh

Media has been crucial to development of economic, political, social, and cultural spheres at the local, national, and global levels. Media through different means has…

Abstract

Media has been crucial to development of economic, political, social, and cultural spheres at the local, national, and global levels. Media through different means has remained not only the source of information and entertainment but it has been able to produce and disseminate information, ideas, beliefs, values, ways of thinking, and narratives which can help us to understand and follow the socio-cultural happenings around the world. In India, television along with internet has become the main source of social media. In fact, television is the most powerful source of social media which covers both urban areas and rural areas. Approximately 47.2 per cent of population in India has access to television. Many researchers are of the opinion that television advertisements present idealized images of appropriate behavior and role for women, making television advertisement an important factor that shapes desired and appropriate behaviors and roles of each sex in developing nations. Some studies mention that changing portrayal of women in advertisements has been the result of increased number of educated women working outside the home. In contrast, entrepreneurs recognize that consumption is related to the creation and production of sense of self. The greater is an association with the sense of self, the greater will be the capacity to buy products for consumption. This paper posits that media, and especially television programs, promote images that appeal to traditional gender role to support economic enterprise of sale of traditional women’s apparel.

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Enabling Gender Equality: Future Generations of the Global World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-567-3

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Anastacia Ryan

This chapter explores sex work and compares legal regimes in two case study contexts of Scotland and New Zealand. It highlights parallels in policy norms and approaches…

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This chapter explores sex work and compares legal regimes in two case study contexts of Scotland and New Zealand. It highlights parallels in policy norms and approaches towards women in sex work and women who use drugs, including stigmatisation and punishment of ‘deviant’ women or alternatively, approaches that seek to ‘rescue’ women and which frames them as victims. Different policy approaches and regulatory regimes are discussed but the chapter argues that without attention to social justice issues, the structural drivers of women’s engagement in sex work will continue to be overlooked. Participation in policy processes by those with lived experience is emphasised, both to ensure better understanding of sex work by policymakers, and also in recognition of the citizenship, voice and agency of sex workers.

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The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2011

Anna Christine Snyder and Stephanie Phetsamay Stobbe

This section highlights the varied roles and contexts in which women contribute to both conflict resolution and conflict transformation. Three of the five chapters feature…

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This section highlights the varied roles and contexts in which women contribute to both conflict resolution and conflict transformation. Three of the five chapters feature or include indigenous or traditional women's activities. Tursunova and Stobbe conduct primary research in their countries of origin, illustrating the traditional contexts in which women build and sustain social networks that contribute to conflict resolution and empowerment. Their studies not only widen the spectrum of potential conflict resolution settings but also broaden narrow conceptions of women's empowerment, such as gender mainstreaming that focus primarily on women's direct involvement in political systems overlooking traditional community means of decision making. Snyder's research expands peacebuilding models by putting the transnational social networking of refugee women's organizations at the center of her analysis and in the process, challenges the meaning of “local,” traditional conflict resolution by focusing on indigenous peoples in the context of a refugee camp or host country. Snyder, Tursunova, and Chawansky integrate development literature, bridging interdisciplinary fields and highlighting the interest of international development agencies in women's peace activities in the context of protracted conflict. Chawansky, in particular, critiques the ideology, both feminist and post-feminist, of peace and development agencies offering sports activities to girls in conflict arenas. Finally, Snyder, Graybill, Stobbe, and Chawansky include in their analysis the impact of UN mandates (e.g., UNSCRs on women, peace, and security, and the UN Millennium Development Goals) on gendered peacebuilding strategies from the grassroots to the transnational level.

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Critical Aspects of Gender in Conflict Resolution, Peacebuilding, and Social Movements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-913-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Rashmi U. Arora

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Gender Bias and Digital Financial Services in South Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-855-5

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Giavana Margo

The Russian Federation has taken a harsh, punitive approach towards drug policy. There are limited health and social services available to people who use drugs and…

Abstract

The Russian Federation has taken a harsh, punitive approach towards drug policy. There are limited health and social services available to people who use drugs and widespread, documented discrimination within the criminal justice system. Amongst those who use drugs, the proportion of women who use injection drugs is estimated to be approximately 30 per cent. While a minority, women who use drugs are often disproportionately impacted by drug policy enforcement and remain underrepresented within research. Moreover, women who use drugs experience specific gender-based forms of discrimination within social, health and criminal justice systems, which result in particular vulnerabilities. This chapter examines policing and sentencing practices within the Russian criminal justice system and their gendered impacts, especially concerning women who use drugs. Human rights reports and court cases as well as interviews from civil society organisation (CSO) workers are analysed in order to understand how gender roles, gender-based discrimination and gender-based violence shape these interactions and result in disproportionate negative impacts on the lives of women who use drugs. This analysis also highlights key areas that need greater involvement and attention from researchers, policymakers and advocates.

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The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Umesh Chandra Pandey and Chhabi Kumar

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SDG5 – Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women and Girls
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-521-5

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Chontit Chuenurah and Ukrit Sornprohm

Over the past decade, an increase in the numbers of women prosecuted, sentenced and imprisoned for drug-related offences has prompted concern and debate amongst criminal…

Abstract

Over the past decade, an increase in the numbers of women prosecuted, sentenced and imprisoned for drug-related offences has prompted concern and debate amongst criminal justice practitioners and policymakers. The female prison population in Southeast Asian countries is high compared to other regions. The direction of national drug policies and law enforcement are critical determinants of this situation. This chapter discusses the trends in the illicit drug market, the different types of policy responses, and the impacts on correctional services in the region. It provides an overview of women prisoners’ profiles, their backgrounds and their involvement in drug-related crimes. Key issues relating to the treatment of women in Southeast Asian prisons are analysed and addressed through the lens of the relevant provisions of the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders.

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The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Nanette Fondas

Why do women’s ambitions wane? After an historic 50-year climb to unprecedented educational and career heights, many best-selling books, viral articles, and research…

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Why do women’s ambitions wane? After an historic 50-year climb to unprecedented educational and career heights, many best-selling books, viral articles, and research studies are telling us that the aspirations and confidence of today’s women often abate. These readings offer explanations such as workplace biases and family responsibilities for the ebb of ambition; yet, all fail to identify the underlying unifying problem that explains choices women make to step off the upward fast tracks in favor of different work and life paths. The problem is that the workplace is not a reliable site of recognition for women. Without the positive feedback of appropriate recognition from an appreciative community, women’s ambitions and the intensity with which they are pursued tilt elsewhere. Women’s movement into and embrace of entrepreneurship provide a clear illustration of one way women are designing the workplace to support the maintenance of their ambitions.

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Go-to-Market Strategies for Women Entrepreneurs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-289-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Sarah Pedersen

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The Politicization of Mumsnet
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-468-2

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