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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Farheen Fathima Shaik, Upam Pushpak Makhecha and Sirish Kumar Gouda

Increasing digitization has transformed ways of work in modern age. Organizations are increasingly relying on global virtual teams (GVTs) as new forms of working. However…

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1665

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing digitization has transformed ways of work in modern age. Organizations are increasingly relying on global virtual teams (GVTs) as new forms of working. However, the challenges of configuration of GVTs have been reported to reduce the levels of employee engagement, especially so in multicultural GVTs. Extant research indicates cultural intelligence as one of the drivers of employee engagement in GVTs, though the nature of this relationship has remained unclear. As there is scarce literature on the nature of this relationship, the purpose of this paper is to examine the linkages between cultural intelligence and employee engagement and the authors explain the findings using the identity lens.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an ethnographic inquiry to understand the nature of the relationship between cultural intelligence and employee engagement.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the inclusionary pressures of non-work identities (national culture) are high in context of GVTs owing to their configuration. However, preferences (alignment or misalignment) of team members either initiate gain cycles or loss cycles, thus effecting the levels of employee engagement. Further, it was found that individual preferences may dynamically change from misalignment toward alignment with improved levels of cultural intelligence among team members of GVTs. The relationship between cultural intelligence and employee engagement has been found to be mediated by trust among team members in GVTs.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to understand the dynamics of this relationship in an organizational GVT context. The authors also propose a unique framework combining cultural intelligence, trust and employee engagement in the context of GVTs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2017

Anshu Sharma and Jyotsna Bhatnagar

This paper aims to identify the determinants of team engagement emerging as a collective team-level phenomenon under time pressure context. The paper particularly explores…

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2453

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the determinants of team engagement emerging as a collective team-level phenomenon under time pressure context. The paper particularly explores how teams working under time pressure conditions use their social resources to develop into highly engaged teams.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a conceptual framework along with related propositions by integrating diverse literature from the field of team processes, leadership and engagement. The arguments are theoretically embedded into the job demands-resources (JD-R) model to explain the emergence of team engagement under time pressure conditions.

Findings

The suggested conceptual model based on the JD-R model reveal that teams working under time pressure conditions view it as a challenging job demand and, hence, use their social resources as a coping mechanism, thereby developing into highly engaged teams. However, the paper finds that for team engagement to emerge under time pressure, teams require two important determinants. These two main determinants are team leader engaging behaviors and team climate. Engaging team leader’s behaviors include four sub-components: emotional agility, use of humor, efficient delegation and quality of feedback. Team climate constitute three sub-components: open communication, fun at work and compassion within the team. Only teams which have a strong team climate and team leaders’ engaging behaviors tend to have high team engagement under time pressure contexts.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers implications for both HR and line managers in team-based organizations to promote factors that enhance team engagement, for teams to perform under time pressure situations.

Originality/value

The paper identifies determinants of team engagement under time pressure context and further adds to the understanding of team processes by theoretically exploring how time pressure as a job demand can be channeled in a positive manner for promoting team engagement by using teams’ social resources: team leader’s engaging behaviors and team climate.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Prapti Mutha and Manjari Srivastava

Virtual teams are characterized by short social exchanges and a lack of para-verbal and non-verbal communication. This poses several challenges to virtual leaders. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtual teams are characterized by short social exchanges and a lack of para-verbal and non-verbal communication. This poses several challenges to virtual leaders. This study aims to decode the role of leadership and understand its impact on engaging geographically dispersed teams. This research offers a comprehensive view of idealized influence and inspirational motivation – the two sub-factors of transformational leadership which defines the charisma of a leader in leveraging engagement of virtual employees. It also studies the impact of effective leadership communication and trust between team members in engaging employees working in virtual teams.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a mixed method study. Phase I of qualitative study (10 FGD) facilitated phase II of quantitative study. A questionnaire was developed to reflect themes that emerged from qualitative phase. The focus of the qualitative study was to understand the role of leaders viewed by virtual employees in the context of engagement. A cross-sectional data of 300 respondents from eight different industries was gathered using a survey questionnaire. Purposive non-probability sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling, SmartPLS 3 software.

Findings

Results showed that leaders play a significant role in engaging virtual employees. The transformational leadership behaviour with a purview of idealized influence and inspirational motivation positively engages employees in virtual teams. The findings emphasize that trust between team members impacts engagement, and trust mediates the relationship between leadership communication effectiveness and engagement of virtual employees.

Practical implications

Positive leadership behaviour such as transformational leadership helps create an environment of trust and engagement that is experienced by a team working distantly. Leader plays a critical role to foster an engaging environment that boosts the potential of every employee. Organizations invest a lot of money, time and resources in leadership and communication training. This study could help organizations in training their managers/leaders for adapting their leadership style that suits the virtual work environment. Organizations can also pay attention to the required skill sets of people while hiring and/or promoting leaders who have to lead virtual employees.

Originality/value

The exponential increase in virtual working has necessitated decoding essential leadership skills to engage the virtual workforce. Working virtually is psychologically a different experience and hence requires a separate study. The lack of proximity and face-to-face conversations in virtual teams increases the complexity of leading and thus alters the engagement equation. This paper explores the impact of leaders in enhancing employee engagement and that is presented in a condensed manner.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Judy Matthews, Tracy Stanley and Paul Davidson

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the project challenges, human factors and knowledge development that influence the nature of employee engagement in a…

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1938

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the project challenges, human factors and knowledge development that influence the nature of employee engagement in a project team within a global project-based organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design used semi-structured interviews, and observations in team meetings and the work environment to identify characteristics in the work environment which influenced employee engagement.

Findings

Workplace characteristics that influence employee engagement relate to the project challenges, the problem-solving nature of work, and achieving specified outcomes within time allocations. Human factors including the manager’s behaviours with feedback and recognition of effort, mentoring, and encouraging collaboration are important in team environment. The potential for learning and knowledge development from the project and with the team positively influence engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This study examines the characteristics of an established project team of 13 consultant engineers from eight nationalities, and forms a basis for future comparison with other project teams with different job types and demographic profiles.

Practical implications

This study contributes to project management (PM) research by broadening the focus from human factors influencing employee engagement to project challenges and knowledge development, with implications for managers in project-based organisations in terms of job design, development of team climate, team processes and their own behaviours.

Originality/value

This study contributes to human factors in PM literature through exploratory research into the antecedents of employee engagement.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Michelle Chin Chin Lee and Mohd. Awang Idris

The importance of organizational climates in enhancing employees’ job performance is well studied in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect…

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1237

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of organizational climates in enhancing employees’ job performance is well studied in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and team climate on job performance, particularly through job engagement, by using a multilevel survey. The study also predicted that only PSC (and not team climate) predicted job resources (i.e. role clarity and performance feedback).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 412 employees from 44 teams (72.6 per cent response rate) in Malaysian private organizations participated in the current study.

Findings

Research findings revealed that performance feedback and role clarity mediate the relationship between PSC and job engagement, and that there is no direct effect between the variables, team climate, and job resources. As expected, the study also discovered that job engagement mediates the relationship between PSC and team climate related to job performance.

Practical implications

This paper suggests the importance of PSC as the precursor to better working conditions (i.e. job resources) and to indirectly boosting employees’ engagement and job performance.

Originality/value

The study compared two distinctive organizational climate constructs that affect the different types of job resources using multilevel approach within the Asian context.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Md. Aftab Uddin, Monowar Mahmood and Luo Fan

Adopting a multi-level research approach, this study aims to investigate the impact of employee engagement on team performance. It further explores the mediating effects…

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6405

Abstract

Purpose

Adopting a multi-level research approach, this study aims to investigate the impact of employee engagement on team performance. It further explores the mediating effects of employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour on the employee engagementteam performance relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows a quantitative method. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire survey using snowball and convenience sampling. Descriptive statistics and bi-variate correlation analyses were conducted using SmartPLS 2 and SPSS 20 software, and subsequently, a structural equation model was developed.

Findings

The study suggests that better employee engagement could improve team performance in organizational contexts. Organizational commitment and citizenship behaviour played a mediating role in the employee engagementteam performance relationship. Further research on the meditating effects of demographic factors is suggested to advance knowledge in the employee engagement domain.

Research limitations/implications

Based on premises of the social exchange theory and the employee stewardship theory, the study integrates multi-level variables to impact of individual employee engagement on organizational team performance. The findings of the study contribute to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence of the impact of individual-level variables on team-level performance. It reiterates the need for multi-level modelling of organizational behavioural research.

Originality/value

The study used a multi-theoretical approach to investigate team performance in organizational contexts, i.e. individual employee engagement, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. This integrated model using predictors from multiple levels demonstrates that team performance could be enhanced from interactions of different factors of individual behaviour.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Doaa Fathy, Mohamed H. Elsharnouby and Ehab AbouAish

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased profitability, particularly within the sports context. This research aims to explore fans' engagement behaviours with their sports teams and identify its drivers and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers deployed mixed methods in this study via three phases: (1) A judgmental sampling technique, along with snowballing, were used to conduct in-depth interviews with twenty-two football fans, for the exploratory phase; (2) A convenience sample was also used for the quantitative phase, which was divided into two stages, (1) the pretesting stage (30 fans), and (2) the main data collection stage (407 fans) and (3) A judgmental sampling technique was applied for the qualitative validation phase (10 interviews with experts and practitioners).

Findings

Qualitative and quantitative results supported team jealousy, team competitiveness and team morality as new predictors for fan engagement behaviours. Further, while the fan role readiness had the most positive effect on management cooperation, team identification had the most predicting power for prosocial behaviour. Finally, team morality had the most significant positive impact on performance tolerance.

Originality/value

Despite the considerable practical attention, and the recent extensive research, paid towards conceptualising customer engagement behaviours in the last decade, there is still a need for further exploration on the fan engagement concept to better understand fans' unique behavioural responses; accordingly, the current research was conducted.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Rocco Palumbo

Team autonomy involves empowering employees to achieve greater control over organizational dynamics. Such empowerment may augment the employees’ vigor, dedication and…

Abstract

Purpose

Team autonomy involves empowering employees to achieve greater control over organizational dynamics. Such empowerment may augment the employees’ vigor, dedication and absorption at work. However, there is limited evidence on the contents of the relationship between team autonomy and work engagement. This paper aims to fill in this gap, shedding light into the manifold implications of team autonomy on employees’ work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A serial mediation analysis was designed to collect evidence of the effects of team autonomy on work engagement. Drawing on self-determination theory, social comparison theory and social facilitation theory, team member-supervisor exchanges and organizational climate were contemplated in the analysis as mediating variables. An ordinary least square regression-based model relying on 5,000 bootstrap samples was implemented. The study focused on a large sample of Europeans employed in the manufacturing sector (n = 4,588).

Findings

Team autonomy had tiny, but statistically significant effects on work engagement. Good relationships between team members and supervisors positively mediated the effects of team autonomy on work engagement. Conversely, the organizational climate did not have a significant mediating role. A statistically significant serial mediation effect linked team autonomy and work engagement via team member-supervisor exchanges and organizational climate.

Practical implications

Team autonomy contributes to increasing the employees’ vigor, dedication and absorption at work. The enhancement of team member-supervisor relationships fosters the engagement of team members who experience a greater autonomy at work. The effects of team autonomy on organizational climate are ambiguous and mediated by an improvement of the relationships between team members and supervisors.

Originality/value

The paper originally investigates the implications of team autonomy on work engagement, emphasizing the importance of social exchanges at work to realize the full potential of team autonomy.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Patrícia Lopes Costa, Ana Margarida Passos and Arnold B. Bakker

– The purpose of this paper is to test whether work engagement can be predicted by two core dimensions, energy and involvement, both at the individual and team levels.

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1881

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether work engagement can be predicted by two core dimensions, energy and involvement, both at the individual and team levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the circumplex model of affective well-being (Russell, 1980), the authors propose the work engagement grid and collect data on individual and team work engagement (TWE) from two different samples (n=1,192 individuals).

Findings

Results show a significant positive relationship between the individual engagement grid and individual work engagement. However, only the energy dimension significantly predicted TWE. The authors also provide evidences for the relationship between the engagement grid and related variables (e.g. adaptive performance, team cohesion, satisfaction), and show that the combination of energy and involvement present smaller correlations with those variables than the complete engagement scales.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from simulation samples, therefore generalization of the findings must be done with caution. The findings allow for developing a brief measure of work engagement, particularly useful for longitudinal or diary study designs.

Practical implications

When teams are the work unit, the displays of energetic behaviors ought to be fostered in order to boost collective engagement.

Originality/value

The authors add to the existing literature on work engagement, concluding that individual and team-level work engagement have structural differences between them, with the collective construct being dependent on external manifestations of energy, and that individual work engagement needs a cognitive component of absorption in order to foster performance.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Ling Yuan, Yue Yu and Pan Liu

The purpose of this study is to find ways to mitigate the negative consequences of relationship conflict under the situation that while the negative role of team

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to find ways to mitigate the negative consequences of relationship conflict under the situation that while the negative role of team relationship conflict has been underscored in prior literature, few studies try to alleviate it. With the development of positive psychology, a stream focusing on the role of emotion in conflict management emerges. First, the authors want to explore the mediating role of members’ work engagement in the association between relationship conflict and members’ job performance. Moreover, they want to explore contingent roles of perceived team leader’s emotional intelligence and members’ emotion regulation strategies (i.e. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in moderating the effect of relationship conflict on members’ work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a data set of 363 individuals working in 73 teams in service sectors, the authors empirically examined the cross-level model with hierarchical linear model.

Findings

Relationship conflict was negatively related to members’ job performance while members’ work engagement mediated this relationship. Moreover, perceived team leader’s emotional intelligence mitigated the negative effect of relationship conflict on members’ work engagement, while members’ expressive suppression strategy intensified the negative effect.

Originality/value

The authors address the void of the cross-level mediating process by examining the role of individual work engagement that mediates relationship conflict and individual job performance. The individual work engagement is highlighted in this study for the hope of serving as the basis of finding effective moderators to alleviate the negative relationship conflict–performance relationship by mitigating the decrease of work engagement. Moreover, the claim that the role of emotion from different status subjects varies in regulating the effect of relationship conflict contributes to the development of positive psychology by combining emotion with conflict management.

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