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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

J. Duncan Herrington and Louis M. Capella

Reports the results of an exploratory study of the effects of timepressure on consumer supermarket shopping behaviour. Unique to the studyare the use of measures of both…

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3450

Abstract

Reports the results of an exploratory study of the effects of time pressure on consumer supermarket shopping behaviour. Unique to the study are the use of measures of both actual and relative shopping time and purchase amount, and measures of self‐reported perceived time pressure. Measures of relative shopping time and purchase amount potentially provide more accurate methods for measuring time pressure effects in certain shopping situations while the use of self‐reported time pressure makes the results applicable to a wider variety of consumers. Results indicate that timepressured shoppers do not necessarily spend any more or less time or money in supermarkets. Instead, supermarket shoppers tend to spend less time making any given purchase and more money in the time available to them. Provides several suggestions for improving future research of time pressure effects as well as several possible retail strategies for dealing with the time‐harried consumer.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 23 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2021

Xianchun Zhang, Zhu Yao, Wan Qunchao and Fu-Sheng Tsai

Time pressure is the most common kind of work pressure that employees face in the workplace; the existing research results on the effect of time pressure are highly…

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58

Abstract

Purpose

Time pressure is the most common kind of work pressure that employees face in the workplace; the existing research results on the effect of time pressure are highly controversial (positive, negative, inverted U-shaped). Especially in the era of knowledge economy, there remains a research gap in the impact of time pressure on individual knowledge hiding. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of different time pressure (challenge and hindrance) on knowledge hiding and to explain why there is controversy about the effect of time pressure in the academics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected two waves of data and surveyed 341 R&D employees in China. Moreover, they used regression analysis, bootstrapping and Johnson–Neyman statistical technique to verify research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that challenge time pressure (CTP) has a significant negative effect on knowledge hiding, whereas hindrance time pressure (HTP) has a significant positive effect on knowledge hiding; job security mediates the relationship between time pressure and knowledge hiding; temporal leadership strengthen the positive impact of CTP on job security; temporal leadership can mitigate the negative impact of HTP on job security.

Originality/value

The findings not only respond to the academic debate about the effect of time pressure and point out the reasons for the controversy but also enhance the scholars’ attention and understanding of the internal mechanism between time pressure and knowledge hiding.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Don A. Moore and Elizabeth R. Tenney

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the question of whether there is an optimal level of time pressure in groups.Design/approach – We argue that…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the question of whether there is an optimal level of time pressure in groups.

Design/approach – We argue that distinguishing performance from productivity is a necessary step toward the eventual goal of being able to determine optimal deadlines and ideal durations of meetings. We review evidence of time pressure's differential effects on performance and productivity.

Findings – Based on our survey of the literature, we find that time pressure generally impairs performance because it places constraints on the capacity for thought and action that limit exploration and increase reliance on well-learned or heuristic strategies. Thus, time pressure increases speed at the expense of quality. However, performance is different from productivity. Giving people more time is not always better for productivity because time spent on a task yields decreasing marginal returns to performance.

Originality/value of chapter – The evidence reviewed here suggests that setting deadlines wisely can help maximize productivity.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Chin-Ching Yin, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Hung-Chang Chiu and Jhih-Ling Yu

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study applies social presence theory to explore the influences of public self-awareness on consumers’ choice…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study applies social presence theory to explore the influences of public self-awareness on consumers’ choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction. Second, the authors investigate how time pressure moderates the effects of self-awareness on choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction so that online sellers can better align their marketing strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This research consists of two studies. Study 1 conducted a 3 (self-awareness: public/private/control) × 2 (time pressure: high/none) experiment, and 311 online participants were recruited to explore the influence of public self-awareness and time pressure. Study 2 used a 3 (self-awareness: public/private/control) × 2 (time pressure: high/no) × 2 (self-consciousness: high/low) quasi-experiments, and the authors used 652 online participants to examine the effect of self-awareness, time pressure and public self-consciousness on choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction.

Findings

The results indicate that publicly self-aware consumers under high time pressure show greater inconsistency than those under no time pressure. Also, people with higher public self-consciousness exhibited higher choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction in public self-awareness situations than those in private self-awareness and control conditions.

Research limitations/implications

To generalize the results, this study should be replicated using more heterogeneous populations in diverse regions and cultures, as well as other product categories.

Practical implications

This study explores the implications of evoking self-awareness during online consumption and the online purchase process by observing the moderating effect of self-consciousness and time pressure. The findings provide insights to marketing practitioners who seek to increase their companies’ competitive advantage and profits through effective online manipulations of consumers’ self-awareness.

Originality/value

Extant research does not address how time pressure affects the relationships among public self-awareness, choice inconsistency and post-choice satisfaction. In addition, prior research only focused on public self-awareness in customer consumption. This study bridges these gaps and has implications for e-commerce, consumer behavior and relationship marketing research fields.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Torbjørn Bjorvatn and Andreas Wald

With faster innovation and shorter product cycles, time pressure is a highly relevant factor affecting contemporary business processes. This study aims to extend prior…

Abstract

Purpose

With faster innovation and shorter product cycles, time pressure is a highly relevant factor affecting contemporary business processes. This study aims to extend prior research on the effects of velocity at the firm level by considering the effect of time pressure on knowledge transfer effectiveness (KTE) on the team level and the role of trust as a mediator of this effect.

Design/methodology/approach

We empirically assess the impact of time pressure on knowledge transfer effectiveness in teams. Further, we test the mediating effect of trust on this relationship. We study a sample of 285 project teams applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The authors find that time pressure is negatively associated with KTE. Moreover, trust among team members has a complementary mediating effect on this relationship. Thus, while trust is urgently needed for enhancing KTE under time pressure, time pressure reduces trust-building too.

Research limitations/implications

This study establishes empirically the importance of time pressure and trust as drivers of KTE in teams. The contribution connects the field of knowledge management to important streams in the wider business literature: organization studies, management, strategic management, project management, innovation etc. Whereas the model is parsimonious, it has high explanatory power and high generalizability to other contexts.

Practical implications

Team managers should take care to allow enough time for knowledge transfer within the team. This is particularly important when knowledge sharing is central, e.g. in innovation, development and change processes. If this is not possible, measures should be taken to maintain trust among team members.

Social implications

Effective knowledge management enhances the performance of business entities and public-sector organizations alike. Today, both the private and public sectors are under considerable pressure to increase both efficiency and effectiveness. Effective knowledge transfer within teams is a core capability to achieve this goal. More effective organizations result in more competitive private firms, more employment opportunities and improved public services to citizens.

Originality/value

Time pressure is an increasingly relevant factor in contemporary business but so far little explored in research. This study extends current knowledge by considering the effect of time pressure on KTE.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Christy Ashley, Jonathan Ross Gilbert and Hillary A. Leonard

Customers can be territorial, which results in reactive behaviors that can hurt firm profitability. This study aims to expand the typology of customer territorial…

Abstract

Purpose

Customers can be territorial, which results in reactive behaviors that can hurt firm profitability. This study aims to expand the typology of customer territorial responses previously identified in the environmental psychology and marketing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The exploratory studies elicit and test a typology of consumer territorial responses using critical incident technique and factor analysis. Two surveys use the typology. Study 1 examines intrusiveness in grocery store settings. Study 2 expands the model with specialty store shoppers to examine how rapport, employee greed, entitlement and time pressure interact with intrusion pressure and relate to customer territorial responses.

Findings

The results indicate a new category of territorial responses – deferential verbalizations – and show relationships between intrusion pressure and deferential actions, retaliatory verbalizations, retaliatory actions and abandonment. The relationships are affected by the moderators, including rapport, which interacts with intrusion pressure to increase the likelihood of switching.

Research limitations/implications

Collecting data near closing time restricted observations and consumer time to participate using self-report data. The results should be replicated with other populations and service providers.

Practical implications

Managers should monitor customer treatment during closing time. The results indicate consumer responses to closing time cues not only impact their shopping trip but also affect whether they will patronize the store in the future.

Originality/value

The study provides an expanded typology of territorial responses, identifies moderating factors that may affect responses and links employee intrusiveness and territorial responses to store patronage.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Rodney Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore the phenomenon of time pressure in supply chain relationships.

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1555

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore the phenomenon of time pressure in supply chain relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data were accumulated from experienced supply chain managers. Depth interviews were utilized in order to gain a deeper understanding of time pressure in supply chain relationships.

Findings

Analysis of the qualitative data suggests that time pressure can exist in a supply chain relationship and potentially impact the relationship. This qualitative evidence implies that time pressure may create tension, reduce collaboration, or alter expectations in supply chain relationships.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides a greater understanding of the potential effects of time pressure in relationships which provides insight into relational dynamics and characteristics. These initial qualitative findings can inform and prompt quantitative testing of the effects of time pressure in relationships. By demonstrating that time pressure can exist in supply chains and impact interfirm relationships, new streams of research can develop.

Practical implications

This research begins to provide managers with information about potential consequences of imposing time pressure on other supply chain members. Such information can be used to make more informed decisions about relationship management.

Originality/value

Interfirm relationships are the foundation of supply chain management and supply chains frequently focus on time‐based performance. However, the interfirm relationship literature does not address relationships in an environment with an intense pressure to focus on time. Although the detrimental effects of time pressure have been studied in other business contexts, research is lacking in the interfirm relationship literature. This research begins to address this gap in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Breda Sweeney and Bernard Pierce

Audit firms face a constant conflict between the business of auditing and the profession of auditing, which is manifested at audit senior level in the pressure to perform…

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5338

Abstract

Audit firms face a constant conflict between the business of auditing and the profession of auditing, which is manifested at audit senior level in the pressure to perform quality work within specified time limits. Prior quantitative studies have reported high levels of quality‐threatening behaviour (QTB) at senior level and the importance of examining contributory factors has been highlighted. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with audit seniors in four of the (then) Big Five firms and findings suggest that key variables (time pressure, participative target setting, and style of performance evaluation) have been inadequately operationalised in previous studies and that two distinct forms of QTB exist: deliberate and inadvertent. Propositions are developed for variables associated with both forms of QTB, which provide direction and focus for future research.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Amparo Caballer, Francisco Gracia and José‐María Peiró

To analyze the direct and combined effects of the communication media and time pressure in group work on the affective responses of team members while performing intellective tasks

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3457

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze the direct and combined effects of the communication media and time pressure in group work on the affective responses of team members while performing intellective tasks

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment was carried out with 124 subjects working in 31 groups. The task performed by the groups was an intellective one. A 2 × 3 factorial design with three media (face‐to‐face, video‐conference, and e‐mail) and time pressure (with and without time pressure) was used to determine the direct and combined effects of these two variables on group members' satisfaction with the process and with the results, and on members' commitment with the decision.

Findings

Results show a direct effect of communication media on satisfaction with the process, which confirms the prediction of the media‐task fit model, and a negative effect of time pressure on satisfaction with group results and commitment to those results. Most interestingly, the interaction effects for the three dependent variables are significant and show that the most deleterious effects of time pressure are produced in groups working face‐to‐face, while groups mediated by video‐conference improve their affective responses under time pressure.

Research limitations/implications

Some limitations are the use of a student sample, so generalizability of the findings is limited, and the use of only one task type.

Practical implications

It can help one to know how to design work to improve satisfaction and implication of workers.

Originality/value

This paper shows some innovations as the combined effects of media and time pressure, controlling for the task type on group members' affective responses to their work and achievements.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Alice F. Stuhlmacher, Treena L. Gillespie and Matthew V. Champagne

In negotiation, pressures to reach an agreement are assumed to influence both the processes and the outcomes of the discussions. This paper metaanalytically combined…

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1846

Abstract

In negotiation, pressures to reach an agreement are assumed to influence both the processes and the outcomes of the discussions. This paper metaanalytically combined different forms of time pressure to examine its effects on negotiator strategy and impasse rate. High time pressure was more likely to increase negotiator concessions and cooperation than low pressure as well as make agreements more likely. The effect on negotiator strategy, however, was stronger when the deadline was near or when negotiations were simple rather than complex. The effects were weaker when the opponent was inflexible and using a tough negotiation strategy. The effects on cooperative strategies were weaker when incentives for good performance were available than when they were not. Although time pressure in negotiation has significant effects, situational factors play a major role on its impact.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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