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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2022

Ruihua Zhang and Weihua Liu

The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of hollow fiber membrane and improve the separation efficiency.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of hollow fiber membrane and improve the separation efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

By establishing a mathematical model of hollow fiber membrane gas separation, the influences of parameters such as pressure difference between the inside and outside of the filament, initial oxygen concentration of intake air, intake air flow rate and back pressure outside the filament on the polarization coefficient were analyzed, so as to explore the degree of influence of operating parameters on the concentration polarization, and put forward a technical scheme to reduce the concentration polarization.

Findings

Factors such as pressure difference between the inside and outside of the filament, initial oxygen concentration of intake air, intake air flow rate and back pressure outside the filament have a certain effect on the polarization coefficient. Among them, the polarization coefficient is positively correlated with pressure difference inside and outside the filament, initial oxygen concentration of intake air and back pressure outside the filament, and is negatively correlated with intake air flow.

Practical implications

Negative pressure suction on the permeation side can be used to increase the membrane permeation flow rate and reduce the concentration polarization.

Originality/value

The influence of concentration polarization on membrane performance is reduced by controlling various factors.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Bénédicte Apouey and Jacques Silber

Traditional indices of bi-dimensional inequality and polarization were developed for cardinal variables and cannot be used to quantify dispersion in ordinal measures of…

Abstract

Traditional indices of bi-dimensional inequality and polarization were developed for cardinal variables and cannot be used to quantify dispersion in ordinal measures of socioeconomic status and health. This chapter develops two approaches to the measurement of inequality and bi-polarization using only ordinal information. An empirical illustration is given for 24 European Union countries in 2004–2006 and 2011. Results suggest that inequalities and bi-polarization in income and health are especially large in Estonia and Portugal, and that inequalities have significantly increased in recent years in Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, and the Netherlands, whereas bi-polarization significantly decreased in France, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.

Details

Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Osnat Peled and Jacques Silber

This chapter proposes a definition of pro-middle class growth derived from the approach of Lasso de la Vega, Urrutia, and Diez (2010) to intermediate polarization. The…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a definition of pro-middle class growth derived from the approach of Lasso de la Vega, Urrutia, and Diez (2010) to intermediate polarization. The authors show that a sufficient condition for growth to be pro-middle class is for the growth rate of what we define as the “intermediate median income” of the whole population to be higher than that of the weighted average of the growth rates of the rich and smaller than the weighted average growth rate of the poor, the “rich” and the “poor” being respectively those with an income higher and lower than the median income. An empirical illustration based on Israeli data for the period 1995–2018 indicates that in absolute terms growth was not pro-middle class for any income type. In contrast, growth was pro-middle class in relative terms for all market incomes (individual income from salaried work, individual wage per hour worked, household economic income, total household income and total equivalized income). But growth was not pro-middle class for net income and net equivalized income, even in relative terms. These conclusions appear to be related to the combined effect of developments in labor force participation, welfare policy changes and major modifications in income tax rates. The intermediate polarization measures indicate that in general there was no pro-middle class growth except in the case of specific market income types.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality: Poverty, Inequality and Shocks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-558-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Joseph Deutsch

Income polarization is a relatively new concept introduced in the literature of the measurement of income inequality. It has essential properties that may be used to…

Abstract

Income polarization is a relatively new concept introduced in the literature of the measurement of income inequality. It has essential properties that may be used to measure relative deprivation and it adds another dimension to the measurement of income inequality concerned mainly with the middle income class (Esteban and Ray, 1994). No study, however, seems to have tried to decompose by population subgroups any of the polarization indices that have appeared in the literature. This study introduces a methodology that decomposes the polarization index recently suggested by Deutsch et al. (2007) by population subgroups. This polarization index is related to the Gini index and its components so that previous results on the decomposition of the Gini index may be applied. Two main cases are examined, that of nonoverlapping groups and overlapping groups. The paper also includes an empirical analysis based on Israeli data for the period 1990–2004, which covers the case of nonoverlapping (income) groups as well as that of overlapping groups, the latter being either Jews of Western and Eastern origin or Jews and Non-Jews. The empirical analysis shows a decrease in polarization over the period 1990–2002 and an increase in polarization during the years 2002–2004. Using the Shapley methodology we analyze the contribution of the different factors to the trend in polarization observed over time.

Details

Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Ilaria Petrarca and Roberto Ricciuti

The relationship between income inequality and polarization is an empirical fact: a change in equality might occur together with a change in polarization. At the same…

Abstract

The relationship between income inequality and polarization is an empirical fact: a change in equality might occur together with a change in polarization. At the same time, polarization might emerge while inequality remains constant. The outcome of this process entails relevant information on the evolution of the income distribution. We exploit the LIS database to perform a relative distribution analysis for six European countries. Our aim is describing how disposable income distributions evolved over time. The results indicate that polarization increased in all the considered countries, being the largest in the United Kingdom and the smallest in Italy. Nonetheless, in all the countries downgrading prevails over upgrading: the relevance of the middle class getting poorer is larger than the one of the middle class getting richer.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Joachim Merz and Bettina Scherg

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion…

Abstract

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion. Our study contributes to this discussion in two ways: First, on a theoretical level we propose extended multidimensional polarization indices based on a constant elasticity of substitution (CES)-type well-being function and present a new measure to multidimensional polarization, the mean minimum polarization gap, 2DGAP. This polarization intensity measure provides transparency with regard to each single attribute, which is important for targeted policies, while at the same time respecting their interdependent relations. Second, in an empirical application, time is incorporated, in addition to the traditional income measure, as a fundamental resource for any activity. In particular, genuine personal leisure time will account for social participation in the sense of social inclusion/exclusion and Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

Instead of arbitrarily choosing the attribute parameters in the CES well-being function, the interdependent relations of time and income are evaluated by the German population. With the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and detailed time use diary data from the German Time Use Surveys (GTUSs) 1991/1992 and 2001/2002, we quantify available and extended multidimensional polarization measures as well as our new approach to measuring the polarization of the working poor and affluent in Germany.

There are three prominent empirical results: Genuine personal leisure time in addition to income is an important and significant polarization attribute. Compensation is of economic and statistical significance. The new minimum 2DGAP approach reveals that multidimensional polarization increased in the 1990s in Germany.

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Cheuk Hang Au and Kevin K.W. Ho

The impact of ideological polarization has been a serious concern, given its damages to society. In addition, Schadenfreude is increasingly common in the era of…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of ideological polarization has been a serious concern, given its damages to society. In addition, Schadenfreude is increasingly common in the era of ideological polarization. Previous literature may have discussed the cause and outcomes of schadenfreude in general but not specifically related to ideological polarization. This study aims to serve to establish a more informed understanding of online schadenfreude as an outcome of ideological polarization and help society recover from the damages.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted a case research method with netnography for our study, given that the authors are exploring the phenomena of online schadenfreude, which involves multiple dimensions.

Findings

The authors identified a three-level model that illustrates how schadenfreude is driven as an outcome of ideological polarization, i.e. macro-environment, camp/partisan and target. These factors of different levels involve political viewpoint differences, perceived appearance, personal conduct, aggressive norms and polarized environment with a lack of conventional opinion expression channel. Moreover, attackers may demonstrate a belief in Karma, creativity and a sense of humor and may call for actions.

Originality/value

While previous literature focused on the relationship between fake news, echo chambers and ideological polarization, this study is a relatively earlier one on studying schadenfreude as an outcome of ideological polarization, which would facilitate to formulate the solution to repair the damages created to ideological polarization. The authors also discussed the enablers as well as the self-reinforcing nature of ideological polarization, and provided some practical implications for politicians and government officials.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Yuejiang Li and Hong Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to review the recent studies on opinion polarization and disagreement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the recent studies on opinion polarization and disagreement.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, recent advances in opinion polarization and disagreement and pay attention to how they are evaluated and controlled are reviewed.

Findings

In literature, three metrics: polarization, disagreement and polarization-disagreement index are usually adopted and there is a tradeoff between polarization and disagreement. Different strategies have been proposed in literature which can significantly control opinion polarization and disagreement based on these metrics.

Originality/value

This review is of crucial importance to summarize works on opinion polarization and disagreement and to the better understanding and control of them.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Indra Indra, Suahasil Nazara, Djoni Hartono and Sudarno Sumarto

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between expenditure inequality and expenditure polarization in Indonesia during the post-reformation era in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between expenditure inequality and expenditure polarization in Indonesia during the post-reformation era in 2002–2012. It also explores the various dimensions of regional groups; and finds out in which dimension did the expenditure inequality and polarization occur in Indonesia during the period.

Design/methodology/approach

Gini index was employed to measure expenditure inequality and a number of developed polarization measurement was applied to investigate the linkage between inequality and polarization at national levels. It also applied a polarization index based on inequality decomposition to investigate how the polarization occurs in the regional dimension. It covered several groups of regional dimensions; those are rural and urban areas; eastern and western regions, as well as natural resource-rich provinces and non-natural resource-rich provinces.

Findings

This study found that expenditure inequality and polarization in Indonesia have moved in line, showing an increasing trend during the observation period. In the regional context, the greatest rise was in the region with low initial levels of expenditure inequality and polarization. The trends in each of the regional dimension showed a convergent pattern. It also showed that a significant portion of total polarization was attributed to expenditure differences between urban and rural areas rather than the other groups of regions.

Research limitations/implications

The similar upward movement of expenditure inequality and polarization indicates that not only the differences between groups of expenditure are getting larger, but also the identification of the within groups expenditure are getting stronger. Since the high degree of inequality and polarization are closely related to conflict among groups of communities, this finding is a strong message to the policymaker that the development process in Indonesia during 2002–2012 tended to encourage the creation of social instability.

Practical implications

This study provides an evaluation for further development of social economy in Indonesia.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to give an overview of the relationship between expenditure inequality and polarization in Indonesia during 2002–2012. It also tries to reveal in which regional dimension, expenditure inequality and polarization occurred in Indonesia during the mentioned period. The issues have not been examined in previous empirical studies in Indonesia.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Tindara Addabbo, Rosa María García-Fernández, Carmen María Llorca-Rodríguez and Anna Maccagnan

The purpose of this paper is to assess the change in the Italian and Spanish wage polarization degree in a time of economic crisis, taking into account the factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the change in the Italian and Spanish wage polarization degree in a time of economic crisis, taking into account the factors affecting labor force heterogeneity. Gender differences in the evolution of social fractures are considered by carrying out the analysis separately for males and females.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach by Palacios-Gonzánlez and García-Fernández (2012) on polarization is applied to the microdata provided by the EU Living Conditions Surveys (2007, 2010 and 2012). According to Palacios-Gonzánlez and García-Fernández’s approach, polarization is generated by two tendencies that contribute to the generation of social tension: the homogeneity or cohesion within group and the heterogeneity between groups. The following labor force characteristics are considered: gender, level of education, type of contract, occupational status and job status.

Findings

The results for Italy reveal a higher increase of polarization for women than for men from the perspective of the type of contract. In Spain, the wage polarization of women also increases more intensively compared to men from the perspectives of level of education, job status and occupational status, while in Italy the reduction of the wage polarization index by level of education can be related, above all, to an increase in overqualification of women.

Originality/value

While the empirical literature on polarization has made considerable investigation into employment and job polarization, this paper explores the rather less explored matter of wage polarization. Furthermore, particular attention is paid to the impact on polarization of the Great Recession.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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