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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Mark H. Chae and Douglas J. Boyle

The purpose of this paper is to explore risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among law enforcement personnel.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among law enforcement personnel.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is based on the “Best Evidence Synthesis” approach, whereby researchers systematically examine and integrate the most empirically sound available research on the topic under investigation.

Findings

Results of studies showed that the interaction of multiple risk factors had a cumulative effect in increasing the risk for suicidal ideation. In total, five prominent aspects of policing were associated with risk for suicidal ideation: organizational stress; critical incident trauma; shift work; relationship problems; and alcohol use and abuse. Studies also indicated that protective factors and preventative measures had stress‐buffering effects which decreased the impact of police stressors.

Research limitations/implications

The model is limited because few studies have employed methodologically‐sound research designs to test risk and protective factors related to police suicide. This conceptual overview may facilitate theory development and provide directions for future research.

Practical implications

Law enforcement agencies which implement programs that assist police personnel in developing active coping styles, identify and access available social support systems, as well as utilize community‐based services may decrease risk for suicidal ideation. This review provides practical applications for law enforcement training, education, and program development.

Originality/value

The paper represents the most recent review of risk and protective factors related to suicidal ideation among police personnel. This integration of research provides police practitioners with an evidence‐based ecological framework that can be applied universally in police management settings.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Ronald J. Burke and Aslaug Mikkelsen

The purpose of this study is to examine potential predictors of suicidal ideation among a large sample of Norwegian police officers. Some have suggested that suicide is a…

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1158

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine potential predictors of suicidal ideation among a large sample of Norwegian police officers. Some have suggested that suicide is a leading cause of death among police officers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using anonymously completed questionnaires from 766 officers, a 60 percent response rate most measures included were commonly used by other researchers. Predictors included personal demographics, work situation characteristics, job demands, burnout components, work outcomes and coping responses. Logistic regression analysis was used as the prevalence of suicidal ideation was strongly skewed; most police officers indicated no suicidal ideation. Two criterion groups were created; police officers indicating no suicidal ideation (n=495) and police officers indicating some suicidal ideation (n=124).

Findings

Single police officers, officers reporting higher levels of both exhaustion and cynicism (burnout components), and officers engaging in less active coping and reporting lower levels of social support indicated more suicidal ideation.

Research limitations/implications

Use of self‐report data raises the possibility of response set tendencies.

Practical implications

Organizations can undertake efforts to prevent potential suicide of their members. It appears that reducing levels of burnout, increasing social support, and highlighting the benefits of active coping represent useful starting points.

Originality/value

This study contributes to our understanding of suicidal ideation among police officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

Jerneja Sveticic and Diego De Leo

The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of…

Abstract

The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of interpreting suicidality has great relevance in preventative approaches, since it gives the opportunity of intercepting suicidal trajectories at several different stages. However, this may not be the case for many situations, and the hypothesis of a continuum can be true only in a limited number of cases, probably embedded with a specific psychopathological scenario (e.g. depression) and with a frequency that should not permit generalisations. This paper reviews the available evidence about the existence and validity of this construct, and discusses its practical implications.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Saba Javed and Khadeeja Munawar

The purpose of this paper is to provide an educational overview of suicidal behavior and the factors related to suicidality among students between the ages of 18 and 30 years.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an educational overview of suicidal behavior and the factors related to suicidality among students between the ages of 18 and 30 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature related to suicide among students were identified through various electronic database searches. The databases searched included: PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC/ProQuest, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and PMC using the following search terms and their derivatives: suicide/self-harm, suicide risk and students, mental health issues and suicide, substance use and suicide, childhood adversities and suicide, recent life stressors, help-seeking attitude and elevated suicidal risk, help-seeking behavior and suicide and subjective factors and suicide.

Findings

Suicide is an important public health problem. Several factors influence suicide (including suicidal ideation and taking life or dying by suicide) such as genetics, family functions, socioeconomic status, personality and psychiatric comorbidity. The main themes that were investigated included: mental health issues, childhood adversity and recent life stressors, barriers toward seeking professional help and subjective factors (psychache risk of suicidal behavior, impulsivity, aggression).

Originality/value

This review focuses on several modifiable psychological factors that have been shown to contribute toward suicidal ideation in youth, especially among university students.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Kaitlyn R. Schuler, Natasha Basu, Nicholas A. Fadoir, Laura Marie and Phillip N. Smith

US age-adjusted suicide rates increased by 33 per cent from 1999 to 2017 (Hedegard et al., 2018). Communications about suicide and death are a commonly cited warning sign…

Abstract

Purpose

US age-adjusted suicide rates increased by 33 per cent from 1999 to 2017 (Hedegard et al., 2018). Communications about suicide and death are a commonly cited warning sign (SPRC, 2014) and are foundational to the vast majority of risk assessment, prevention and intervention practices. Suicidal communications are critically understudied despite their implications for prevention and intervention practices. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between five factor model personality traits and forms of suicidal communications.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 154 people admitted to emergency psychiatry for suicide ideation or attempt completed self-report measures about their suicide ideation and behavior. Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA examined differences between five-factor model personality domains and forms of communications.

Findings

There were no significant differences; however, two nonsignificant trends related to indirect or non-communication and extraversion and openness emerged.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should focus on using more nuanced measures of dimensional personality and suicidal communications.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine differences in the Five-Factor Model personality traits and suicidal communications.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Kristina Sesar, Arta Dodaj and Nataša Šimić

Intimate partner violence (IPV) represents a widespread social and public health problem. Researchers have been shown association between IPV and mental health problems…

Abstract

Purpose

Intimate partner violence (IPV) represents a widespread social and public health problem. Researchers have been shown association between IPV and mental health problems. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature on relationship between wide ranges of mental health problems.

Design/methodology/approach

Research papers related to mental health problems among IPV perpetrators and published in leading academic journals in UK and abroad from 1987 to 2017 were identified and reviewed.

Findings

Although there were some equivocal findings, the authors found that most of the available research suggests that there is a variety of psychological health problems among IPV perpetrators. Specifically, there was evidence of a significant relationship between anger problems, anxiety, depression, suicidal behaviour, personality disorders, alcoholism or problem gambling and perpetration of IPV. Results from analysed studies identified high rates of co-morbid disorders in IPV perpetrators.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the need for treatment services to undertake screening and assessment of wide range of psychological difficulties to be able to provide best treatment approaches.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that has included studies evaluating various psychological health problems among perpetrators of IPV.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Jennifer Pearson, Lindsey Wilkinson and Jamie Lyn Wooley-Snider

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools…

Abstract

Purpose: Sexual minority youth are more likely than their heterosexual peers to consider and attempt suicide, in part due to victimization experienced within schools. While existing research suggests that rates of school victimization and suicidality among sexual minority students vary by school and community context, less is known about variation in these experiences at the state level.

Methodology: Using data from a large, representative sample of sexual minority and heterosexual youth (2017 Youth Risk Behavior States Data, n = 64,746 high school students in 22 states), multilevel models examine whether differences between sexual minority and heterosexual students in victimization and suicide risk vary by state-level policies.

Findings: Results suggest that disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual boys in bullying, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt are consistently smaller in states with high levels of overall policy support for LGBTQ equality and nondiscrimination in education laws. Sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be electronically bullied, particularly in states with lower levels of LGBTQ equality. Disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual girls in suicide ideation are lowest in high equality states, but state policies are not significantly associated with disparities in suicide attempt among girls.

Value: Overall, findings suggest that state-level policies supporting LGBTQ equality are associated with a reduced risk of suicide among sexual minority youth. This study speaks to the role of structural stigma in shaping exposure to minority stress and its consequences for sexual minority youth's well-being.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2013

A. Christson Adedoyin and Susan Nicole Salter

The purpose of this paper is to propose that black churches in the USA are best suited to curtail the rising incidence of suicide, and suicide ideation among…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that black churches in the USA are best suited to curtail the rising incidence of suicide, and suicide ideation among African-American adolescents. Presently, little is known about the best preventive practices and mental healthcare interventions for the black adolescents assailed by suicide and suicidal ideation.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the extant literature was conducted to understand and synthesize the current knowledge base about suicide rates among African-American adolescents. To retrieve and review relevant literature that focussed on suicide among African-American adolescents and the preventive roles of black churches the authors searched the following databases: PsychINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Social Work abstracts, and Google Scholar.

Findings

Findings indicate that black churches could implement, and profusely replicate the lay health advisors and HAVEN models to successfully mitigate the rate of suicide among black adolescents. In addition it was found that the gatekeeper suicide prevention program model also holds promise for suicide prevention among black adolescents in black churches.

Research limitations/implications

The result of this research synthesize is limited to African-American adolescents and may not be generalizable to other minority adolescents’ experiencing suicidal challenges. Furthermore, future research should utilize qualitative research methodologies to document lived experiences of African-American adolescents who are survivors of suicide attempts with a view to preventing suicide and suicidal ideation among black adolescents.

Originality/value

Healthcare professionals, and policy makers, are provided a panoramic view of culturally competent and spiritually sensitive prevention interventions within black churches that are most appropriate for reducing suicide rates among minority black adolescents.

Details

Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0980

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Hyeouk Chris Hahm, Stephanie Tzu-Han Chang, Hui Qi Tong, Michelle Ann Meneses, Rojda Filiz Yuzbasioglu and Denise Hien

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian-American…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian-American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian-American women.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Of an original 32 articles, 12 were chosen for in-depth empirical review due to relevance to the topics at hand, quality of research, and significance of findings.

Findings

The paper identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian-American women: family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” substance use/abuse, and untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a proposed causal pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role.

Research limitations/implications

The review focussed on Asian-American women, substance use among Asian-Americans, and mental health among Asian-Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language.

Practical implications

The complex interplay among Asian-American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan.

Originality/value

This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

John C. Jasinski, Jennifer D. Jasinski, Charmine E. J. Härtel and Günter F. Härtel

Purpose: To demonstrate how an online coaching intervention can support well-being management (mental health and mood) of medical students, by increasing psychological…

Abstract

Purpose: To demonstrate how an online coaching intervention can support well-being management (mental health and mood) of medical students, by increasing psychological awareness, emotional management, and healthy/positive action repertoires.

Design/methodology/approach: A two-group randomized control trial design using a waitlist as a control was used with a sample of 176 medical students. Half were randomly assigned the 5P© coaching intervention and the remaining half assigned to the waitlist group, scheduled to receive the intervention after the initial treatment group completed the intervention. Participant baseline data on stress, anxiety, depression, positive and negative affect, and psychological capital were obtained prior to commencing the study, after completion of the first treatment group, and again postintervention of the waitlisted group, and then at the end of the year.

Findings: Coaching the students to reflect on their emotions and make solution-focused choices to manage known stresses of medical education was shown to decrease medical student stress, anxiety, and depression, thereby increasing the mental health profiles of medical students.

Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that an online coaching tool that increases psychological awareness and positive action can have a positive effect on mental health and mood of medical students.

Practical implications: The framework developed and tested in this study is a useful tool for medical schools to assist medical students in managing their well-being, thereby decreasing the incidence and prevalence of mental illness in medical students. The implications of this research are significant in that positively affecting the psychological well-being of medical students could have a significant effect not only on each medical student but also on every patient that they treat, and society as a whole. Better mental health in medical students has the potential to decrease dropout rates, increase empathy and professionalism, and allow for better patient care.

Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature on online coaching for improved psychological well-being and emotional regulation, mental health, and medical students. It is one of the first studies using a coaching protocol to make a positive change to the known stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by medical students worldwide.

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