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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2011

Irina Anderson and Helena Bissell

This study seeks to examine whether blame and fault assigned to victims and perpetrators in a hypothetical sexual violence case are distinct conceptually, and whether they…

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397

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine whether blame and fault assigned to victims and perpetrators in a hypothetical sexual violence case are distinct conceptually, and whether they are affected by gender of participant, perpetrator and victim.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants read an incident of either female or male rape, perpetrated by either a female or a male, and assigned attributions of blame and fault to both victims and perpetrators. Participants also completed Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance Scale.

Findings

Findings showed that none of the independent variables had any effect on victim attributions of blame and fault, only affecting blame and fault assigned to perpetrators. Perpetrators of male victim rape were assigned more blame than perpetrators of female victim rape. In terms of fault: male participants reduced the amount of fault that they attributed to female perpetrators relative to male perpetrators; and female participants increased the amount of fault that they attributed to female perpetrators relative to male perpetrators. In addition, greater endorsement of traditional sex‐role attitudes and rape myths was associated with higher rape victim blame.

Originality/value

Findings are discussed in relation to social norms, social categorisation theory and differential focus of specific rape victim vs rape victims in general.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Suparak Janjarasjit and Siew H. Chan

The purpose of this study is to examine whether users’ perceived moral affect explains the effect of perceived intensity of emotional distress on responsibility judgment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether users’ perceived moral affect explains the effect of perceived intensity of emotional distress on responsibility judgment of a perpetrator and company, respectively, in an ill and good intention breach.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed a questionnaire containing items measuring their perceived intensity of emotional distress, perceived moral affect and responsibility judgment of a perpetrator and company, respectively.

Findings

The results support the mediating hypothesis on responsibility judgment of a perpetrator regardless of intention. The mediating hypothesis is also supported in an ill intention breach in responsibility judgment of a company. However, the mediating effect is not observed in a good intention breach when users assess a company’s responsibility.

Originality/value

The findings support the notion that users use the consequentialism approach when assessing a perpetrator’s responsibility because they focus on the victims’ emotional distress and discount a perpetrator’s intent, resulting in similar mediating effect of perceived moral affect in an ill and good intention breach. The results also indicate that perceived moral affect increases the negative effect of perceived intensity of emotional distress on responsibility judgment of a company, suggesting that users may exhibit empathetic feelings toward a company and perceive it as a victim of an ill intention breach. The lack of mediating effect in responsibility judgment of a company in a good intention breach may be attributed to the diminished effect of a perpetrator’s feelings of regret, sorrow, guilt and shame for causing emotional distress to the victims.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 26 December 2020

Mickael Ballot, Anta Niang, Stéphane Laurens and Benoit Testé

This paper aims to examine whether being shown a testimony alleging that the perpetrator of a crime was influenced by an accomplice has an impact on the severity of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether being shown a testimony alleging that the perpetrator of a crime was influenced by an accomplice has an impact on the severity of the sentence given to this accomplice.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 119 participants read the summary of a case of armed robbery. Two experimental conditions were adopted: the presence of a testimony suggesting the accomplice’s influence on the perpetrator in committing the crime (versus no testimony). The participants were then asked what sentence they would give the accomplice and what sentence they would have given the perpetrator of the crime, who had in fact already been sentenced. The participants rated items relating to the explanation for the crime (perception that the perpetrator had been manipulated by the presumed accomplice) and to the presumed accomplice’s intent to commit the crime.

Findings

The participants showed themselves to be harsher towards the presumed accomplice when they were shown the testimony about his influence, which reduced the disparity with the sentence they would have given to the perpetrator of the crime. Analyses of mediation show that the participants shown the testimony (as opposed to those who were not) were more likely to say that the presumed accomplice manipulated the perpetrator of the crime, leading them to be more likely to attribute to the accomplice the intent to commit the crime and to be harsher towards him.

Originality/value

The results of this research are discussed with a focus on naïve interpretations of influence in the very specific context of legal adjudication.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Shreya Mishra, Manosi Chaudhuri and Ajoy Kumar Dey

The purpose of the paper is to identify how the intersection of power, context, subjectivity and directionality makes it possible for the targets of workplace bullying to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to identify how the intersection of power, context, subjectivity and directionality makes it possible for the targets of workplace bullying to deflate power imbalance between them and the perpetrators.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on nine in-depth interviews with self-reported targets from different public sector organizations in India. The targets were purposively selected keeping in mind that they made deliberate attempts to counter bullying. Constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Six themes emerged as sources of power imbalance and eight themes as the way of deflating power imbalance. The core category that emerged was “enhancing personal identity”, which was the underlying phenomenon leading to deflation of power imbalance, through the intersection of power, context, subjectivity and directionality.

Research limitations/implications

The study indicates that power, context, subjectivity and directionality of bullying help the targets to identify effective strategies of deflating power imbalance. In the process, the targets indulge in personal identity enhancement. It further reinforces the understanding that power does not remain static and may shift from the perpetrator to the target of bullying.

Practical implications

The study provides various tactics that targets can use to counter workplace bullying. It implies that targets need not always leave the organization or succumb to the situation in order to deal with bullying. It encourages the targets of bullying and those who deal with bullying targets to indulge in personal identity enhancement through problem-focused strategies of tackling workplace bullying.

Originality/value

It also furthers our understanding of workplace bullying from the point of intersection of the four aspects of the phenomenon – power, context, subjectivity and directionality – which allows the targets of bullying to enhance their personal identity.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Chengjing You

This paper aims to convict the offender of real concurrence offenses of the most severe offense and applying the most severe penalty will result in no distinction between…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to convict the offender of real concurrence offenses of the most severe offense and applying the most severe penalty will result in no distinction between the perpetrator who conducted more than one act and the one who conducted only one act. This approach deviates from the purpose of criminal law. The real concurrence of offenses means several offenses, the perpetrator’s dangerousness and culpability are much higher than the perpetrator who commits just one crime, so combined punishments for several offenses should be applied to the real concurrence of offenses.

Design/methodology/approach

If the depositors are acquaintances or relatives and friends, the relationship can be explained by “personality trust.” If the depositors are strangers, but they have complied with their duties of care, the deposit relationship can be explained by “system trust.”

Findings

The real concurrence of offenses means several offenses, the perpetrator’s dangerousness and culpability are much higher than the perpetrator who commits just one crime, so combined punishments for several offenses should be applied to the real concurrence of offenses.

Originality/value

The principle of choosing the most severe punishment applied to the real concurrence of offense should be abolished. As the perpetrator separately conducts two acts at different times, these acts infringe on different legal interests. Although these acts exist closely, the authors cannot deny that these acts constitute more than one offense.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Grace Mui and Jennifer Mailley

– This paper aims to propose the application of the Crime Triangle of Routine Activity Theory to fraud events as a complement to the universally accepted Fraud Triangle.

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3491

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the application of the Crime Triangle of Routine Activity Theory to fraud events as a complement to the universally accepted Fraud Triangle.

Design/methodology/approach

The application of the Crime Triangle is illustrated using scenarios of asset misappropriations by type of perpetrator: external perpetrator, employee, management and the board and its governing bodies.

Findings

The Crime Triangle complements the Fraud Triangle’s perpetrator-centric focus by examining the environment where fraud occurs and the relevant parties that play their role in preventing fraud or not playing their role, and thus, allowing the occurrence of fraud. Applying both triangles to a fraud event provides a comprehensive view of the fraud event.

Research limitations/implications

The scenarios are limited to asset misappropriations with one perpetrator. Future research can apply both triangles to different types of fraud and cases where perpetrators collude to commit fraud.

Practical implications

This paper maps the Crime Triangle to the Fraud Triangle to provide forensic accounting practitioners and researchers with a comprehensive perspective of a fraud event. This comprehensive perspective of fraud is the starting point to designing fraud risk management strategies that address both the perpetrator and the environment where the fraud event occurs.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to propose the application of the established Crime Triangle environmental criminology theory as a complement to the Fraud Triangle to obtain a comprehensive perspective of a fraud event.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2019

Helen De Cieri, Cathy Sheehan, Ross Donohue, Tracey Shea and Brian Cooper

The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of power imbalance to explain workplace and demographic characteristics associated with bullying by different perpetrators

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2113

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of power imbalance to explain workplace and demographic characteristics associated with bullying by different perpetrators in the healthcare sector.

Design/methodology/approach

All 69,927 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victoria) were invited to participate in an online survey in 2014; 4,891 responses were received (7 per cent response rate). Participants were asked about their exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) by different perpetrators. The questionnaire addressed demographic characteristics and perceptions of workplace characteristics (workplace type, leading indicators of occupational health and safety (OHS), prioritisation of OHS, supervisor support for safety and bureaucracy). Analysis involved descriptive statistics and regression analyses.

Findings

The study found that the exposure of nurses and health workers to bullying is relatively high (with 42 per cent of respondents experiencing WPB in the past 12 months) and there are multiple perpetrators of bullying. The research revealed several demographic predictors associated with the different types of perpetrators. Downward and horizontal bullying were the most prevalent forms. Workplace characteristics were more important predictors of bullying by different perpetrators than were demographic characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations to the study due to a low response rate and the cross-sectional survey.

Practical implications

Practical implications of this study emphasise the importance of focussed human resource strategies to prevent bullying.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this research is to draw from theoretical explanations of power to inform understanding of the differences between perpetrators of bullying. The study highlights the workplace characteristics that influence bullying.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Peggy Cunningham, Minette E. Drumwright and Kenneth William Foster

The purpose of this paper is to explore the question of why sex harassment persists in organizations for prolonged periods – often as an open secret.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the question of why sex harassment persists in organizations for prolonged periods – often as an open secret.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 people in diverse organizations experiencing persistent sex harassment. Data were analyzed using standard qualitative methods.

Findings

The overarching finding was that perpetrators were embedded in networks of complicity that were central to explaining the persistence of sex harassment in organizations. By using power and manipulating information, perpetrators built networks that protected them from sanction and enabled their behavior to continue unchecked. Networks of complicity metastasized and caused lasting harm to victims, other employees and the organization as a whole.

Research limitations/implications

The authors used broad, open-ended questions and guided introspection to guard against the tendency to ask for information to confirm their assumptions, and the authors analyzed the data independently to mitigate subjectivity and establish reliability.

Practical implications

To stop persistent sex harassment, not only must perpetrators be removed, but formal and informal ties among network of complicity members must also be weakened or broken, and victims must be integrated into networks of support. Bystanders must be trained and activated to take positive action, and power must be diffused through egalitarian leadership.

Social implications

Understanding the power of networks in enabling perpetrators to persist in their destructive behavior is another step in countering sex harassment.

Originality/value

Social network theory has rarely been used to understand sex harassment or why it persists.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

María Fernanda Wagstaff, María del Carmen Triana, Abby N. Peters and Dalila Salazar

The purpose of this paper is to examine alleged perpetrators' reactions to being accused of discrimination.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine alleged perpetrators' reactions to being accused of discrimination.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines how the mode of confrontation as well as the perpetrator's status relate to the alleged perpetrator's state of anger and the likelihood of providing a justification to the victim. To test the hypotheses, the authors conducted an experimental design using an organizational scenario.

Findings

The mode of confrontation predicts the likelihood of providing a justification to the victim. The paper also found that both anger and the likelihood of providing a justification for a charge of discrimination are higher when the mode of confrontation is indirect and the alleged perpetrator is the supervisor.

Research limitations/implications

An organizational scenario limits the realism of the study such that results may not generalize to actual organizational settings (Stone, Hosoda, Lukaszewski and Phillips). In addition, the response rate was low. Nevertheless, a full understanding of issues related to reactions to alleged discrimination will depend upon research conducted in a variety of settings under a variety of conditions.

Practical implications

It is unlikely that direct confrontations will be instrumental in correcting misperceptions of discriminatory behavior. Organizations need to provide training on how to manage confrontation episodes as an opportunity to mitigate perceived mistreatment.

Originality/value

Which mode of confrontation is best? Indirect confrontation is associated with a higher likelihood of the alleged perpetrator providing a justification for a charge of discrimination, particularly when the alleged perpetrator is the supervisor. However, anger is also higher when supervisors are confronted indirectly about allegations of discrimination.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Dominic Peltier‐Rivest and Nicole Lanoue

The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of perpetrators of occupational fraud and their effects on organizations.

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1888

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of perpetrators of occupational fraud and their effects on organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a 2006 occupational fraud web survey conducted in Canada by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) using a multivariate regression analysis to explain the effect of perpetrators' characteristics on fraud losses.

Findings

The authors' analyses show that the perpetrator's position (i.e. employee, manager, executive/owner), gender, education level and the presence of accomplices (i.e. collusion) appear to affect fraud losses when analyzed separately. However, only the perpetrator's position and collusion are statistically significant when controlling for the potential correlation among explanatory factors.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to academia and the anti‐fraud profession by measuring the statistical effect of perpetrators' characteristics on fraud losses while controlling for the potential correlation among these characteristics.

Practical implications

This study is useful to regulatory agencies and anti‐fraud professionals because it provides information about the characteristics of perpetrators of occupational fraud, who are more likely to be associated with larger frauds, thus pinpointing where prevention and detection efforts may be most effective.

Originality/value

This paper is based on proprietary data owned by the ACFE and is the first to analyze the statistical significance of the characteristics of perpetrators of occupational fraud in Canada.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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