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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2022

Samuel Façanha Câmara, Brenno Buarque, Glauco Paula Pinto, Thiago Vasconcelos Ribeiro and Jorge Barbosa Soares

This study aims to evaluates a public policy program that finances projects for the development of innovative technological solutions. This paper analyzed the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluates a public policy program that finances projects for the development of innovative technological solutions. This paper analyzed the influence of human and social capital on the development of the projects, under the perspective of the policy’s effectiveness and efficiency. This specific policy adopted the funding model of economic subsidy by means of grants, which shows the significant engagement of the public sector in applying nonrefundable resources more directly through loans, assuming the role of an entrepreneurial state, according to Mazzucato (2011, 2018) and Tavani and Zamparelli (2020).

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative-descriptive study, according to Marconi and Lakatos (2017). This study is descriptive, for presenting information on innovation projects funded by FUNCAP (Ceará Foundation for Support to Scientific and Technological Development). In addition, this study is quantitative, by establishing multivariate relationships among the variables that relate to human capital and social capital, which are relevant to technological and innovative development, and by introducing variables on technological evolution, proposed as measures of the program’s effectiveness (DTRL, MkTRL) and efficiency (ETRL).

Findings

This paper sought to contribute on public policies for innovation, more specifically on analyzing variables that may affect the development of technological and innovative projects in knowledge-intensive companies. The authors studied capitals potentially important for these companies in the development of innovative projects. Specifically, the authors sought to understand the importance of human capital and how it reflects in technical and scientific knowledge of the project team and of social capital and how it reflects the connection and social relationship among different team members. The results presented that the degree of efficiency of the public funding program depends on how much the teams of the benefited projects have accumulated knowledge, skills and technical capacities – the so-called teams’ human capital.

Research limitations/implications

It is important to address the research sample as a research limitation, which had 72 responses obtained, from a submission rate of 284. Another study limitation is on the qualitative analysis of the topics addressed from the companies and policymakers perspectives, considering that the quantitative nature of the study does not allow for a deeper understanding of the qualitative perspective of the actors involved in the phenomenon studied. As recommendations for future studies, it is suggested to conduct qualitative studies on the aspects studied here. In this sense, it is possible to conduct case studies for specific companies, or policymakers, to clarify and deepen the relationships between the themes addressed here.

Practical implications

As for the practical implications of the research, both for managers of public funding programs and for company managers, the benefits of human capital, related to innovative project development teams, are important in programs that deal with technological development projects. In practice, this means that the greater the human capital of academic background of the members of the supported project teams, the more efficient the projects are in the process of developing their technologies by using the resources provided (Ashford, 2000; Chen et al., 2008; Lerro et al., 2014).

Social implications

Hence, the authors conclude that the evaluated innovation-funding program through grants achieved acceptable results in terms of promoting the technological evolution of the benefited projects and bringing the technologies closer to the market. Its efficiency was the least favorable result, showing that the program needs to focus on improving this specific aspect. Within the investigated program, the issue that needs enhancement (efficiency – ETRL) was the one that presented significant relationships with the human and social capital of the benefited projects’ teams. Thus, it is possible that, by selecting more projects that have teams with high capital, the efficiency of the public policy, in this case the development of projects with high technological and innovative potential, will be possibly reached.

Originality/value

The findings strengthen the need for innovation public policies designed and implemented in a systemic way in the science, technology and innovation ecosystem, to provide a technological infrastructure and human capital necessary for developing projects with high technological and innovative potential (Ergas, 1987; Audretsch and Link, 2012; Caloghirou et al., 2015; Edler and Fagerberg, 2017; Silvio et al., 2019).

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2022

Sakine Owjimehr and Hooman Hasanzadeh Dastfroosh

According to the Government Response tracker (oxCGRT) index, the strictest policy responses to the coronavirus pandemic from January 2020 to May 2022 belong to Italy…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the Government Response tracker (oxCGRT) index, the strictest policy responses to the coronavirus pandemic from January 2020 to May 2022 belong to Italy, China, Hong Kong, Greece, Austria, Peru, Singapore and Malaysia. The main question is: “this level of strictness has been able to reduce the uncertainty of the stock market?”

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, the authors investigated the effect of oxCGRT index, and the growth rate of COVID-19 confirms cases on stock market uncertainty from January 2020 to May 2022 in the GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH models.

Findings

Among these countries, the oxCGRT index has reduced uncertainty in the stock market only in Malaysia and Singapore. This result says an appropriate pattern of applying government policy responses is more important than the degree of stringency.

Originality/value

The study will contribute to the existing literature by examining the impact of the comprehensive oxCGRT index on the uncertainty of the stock market.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Helena Carreiras

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them…

Abstract

The integration of women into the armed forces of western democracies reveals a pattern of significant diversity: while some countries have integrated women, granting them real (and not only formal) access to a wide range of positions and occupations, other keep women in little more than symbolic spaces.

Among the variety of factors which account for different paths and integration levels – which range from global social-economic conditions, political factors, cultural and historical patterns, military organizational structure, or time effects – there are institutional policies. One rather common assumption is that explicit organizational policies are a crucial factor to promote integration at the organizational level. However, some studies have also reached disappointing conclusions regarding the power of institutional policies to help redress culturally entrenched stereotypes that often function as obstacles to integration.

This paper discusses the impact of organizational policies on gender integration using available empirical data from a comparative study conducted among NATO nations (Carreiras, 2006). It specifically addresses the following questions: what is the impact of organizational policies on gender integration? To what extent does the existence of explicit and active integration policies contribute to promote equality in military forces? Under which conditions are policies effective and under which conditions may their effects be blocked?

It concludes that polices may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for integration – that their impact, while positive on formal integration, may not always be so on social integration – and that conditions for change do not depend strictly on formal policies. A final suggestion is made regarding the need to analyze the specific conditions under which the efficacy of policies might vary.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Chosita Pestonji and Sareeya Wichitsathian

This research investigates (1) the impacts of working capital investment policy and working capital financing policy on firms’ performances (profitability and market…

Abstract

This research investigates (1) the impacts of working capital investment policy and working capital financing policy on firms’ performances (profitability and market value) and (2) the impact of profitability on market value. Data are gathered from 68 companies listed in the Stock Exchange of Thailand covering production sector. Data collected from 2012 to 2016 are analyzed using path analysis to measure the impacts of working capital policy on performances and examine the consistency of the model and the empirical data.

The model is found to be consistent with the empirical data; the probability level is 0.085, χ 2/df is 2.96, CFI is 0.951, GFI is 0.979, IFI is 0.957, and RMR is 0.004. The result reveals a statistically significant positive relationship between working capital investment policy and profitability. In addition, working capital investment policy affects market value through profitability as a mediator variable. However, there are significant negative impacts of working capital financing policy on profitability and market value. Overall, it can be implied that companies which adopt conservative working capital investment policy and conservative working capital financing policy can increase their profitability and market value.

Details

Asia-Pacific Contemporary Finance and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-273-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Egemen Sertyesilisik and Begum Sertyesilisik

Resilience of the economy is related with its ability to cope with the challenges (e.g., economic and environmental crises). Economies need to be resilient as countries…

Abstract

Resilience of the economy is related with its ability to cope with the challenges (e.g., economic and environmental crises). Economies need to be resilient as countries having resilient economy can enhance welfare of their people and achieve sustainable development (SD). Total factor productivity can be improved through smart technologies, smart workforce, and innovations. It requires holistic and systematic as well as strategic approach as it is directly related with the SD of the countries and welfare of their people. It is directly related with the policies covering all these main aspects with the long-term, systematic, and holistic view. Resilient economies need to enhance their resilience to keep them resilient despite of the changes which can act as threats in the future. Resilience of the economy necessitates transformation of the manufacturing industry (MI) into the sustainable, smart, circular, and global one. In this way MI's competitiveness can be enhanced. For this reason, based on an in-depth literature review, this chapter aims to examine ways for enhancing resilience of the global economy through smart, circular, and competitive MI. Specific focus is on the policies fostering the transformation of the MI into the sustainable, smart, circular, global, and innovative one. This chapter emphasizes the importance of and need for the productivity-based resilient economy. Policy makers, academics, and researchers in the relevant field can get benefit from this chapter.

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Marie Nougier

Global drug policy has undergone significant change over the past decade, especially with the advent of the 2016 UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs…

Abstract

Global drug policy has undergone significant change over the past decade, especially with the advent of the 2016 UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs. This was a catalyst moment both in highlighting the need for a gender perspective in drug policy, and in initiating a review of the indicators used to evaluate progress in drug policy.

To date, the UN has not adequately tracked gender-specific data in drug policy. This is symptomatic of the lack of focus granted to the specific vulnerabilities and needs of women in the illicit drug trade. This has resulted in a knowledge and understanding gap in relation to the issues faced by women worldwide.

The importance of quantitative and qualitative data and analysis of how and why women are involved in the illicit drug trade, and how this relates to their age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, family situation and history of trauma, violence and mental illness cannot be understated. Without adequate indicators on the underlying factors of their engagement in the trade, the differentiated impacts that both drugs and drug policies have on their lives, and the vulnerabilities they may face, policy makers will be unable to design and implement drug policies that are truly effective.

This chapter provides a historic overview of how data on women has so far been tracked by the UN. The chapter will then look to the future, focussing on opportunities to identify more meaningful indicators within a revised Annual Reports Questionnaire, and also by leveraging the Sustainable Development Goals, UN human rights mechanisms and civil society research.

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Maria Carolina Foss and Maria Beatriz M. Bonacelli

This paper aims to analyze Brazil’s legal and institutional arrangements for the design, implementation and accountability of public procurement for innovation (PPI) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze Brazil’s legal and institutional arrangements for the design, implementation and accountability of public procurement for innovation (PPI) and to investigate how this apparatus has been adjusted, modified and even replaced to enable its use in innovation policies.

Design/methodology/approach

It is a descriptive analysis of the legal framework for PPI in Brazil supplemented with case reports of ongoing PPI contracts.

Findings

Despite the significant advances in the PPI legal framework in Brazil, this instrument’s implementation is still limited. A disconnection between PPI and innovation policy goals and legal-institutional constraints are reasonable answers to this problem.

Social implications

Law is closely related to the design, implementation and control of public policy tools. However, there is still a tine understanding of how the legal framework can corroborate or constrain new mechanisms to state purchase power, such as PPI.

Originality/value

Public procurement is the most crucial tool of demand-side policies for innovation, and it is implemented according to the legal framework in each country. This paper adds to the law and innovation research agenda, providing an overview of the Brazilian PPI legal framework and how it is going so far.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2022

Jong Min Kim, Jeongsoo Han and Shiyu Jiang

This study aimed to empirically examine the effectiveness of disclosing user comment history without disclosing personal identity as a nudge policy to refrain users from…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to empirically examine the effectiveness of disclosing user comment history without disclosing personal identity as a nudge policy to refrain users from posting malicious content online.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected the number of comments and posters from the leading portal website in South Korea, Naver.com. To causally investigate the impacts of the new nudge policy on the number of comments and posters, the authors used the regression discontinuity design (RDD) approach.

Findings

The authors found that the new policy reduced all types of comments, including the number of malicious comments, self-deleted comments and current comments. This resulted in an overall decrease in the total number of posted comments, which is considered a side effect. In addition, the authors found that the effect of the nudge policy, which disclosed user comment history, has a stronger effect on older female users than their counterparts.

Originality/value

The study findings extend the current knowledge on a nudge policy being implemented by a website as a means to reduce malicious online content and how it impacts user content posting behaviors.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2022

Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Victor A. Malaolu and Anthony Orji

This study investigated the asymmetric effects of changes in policy uncertainty on real sector variables in Brazil, China, India and South Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the asymmetric effects of changes in policy uncertainty on real sector variables in Brazil, China, India and South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) modeling framework.

Findings

The results showed that both in the long run and short run, rising uncertainty not only increases consumer prices significantly in these economies, but also impedes aggregate and sectoral output growths, and deters investment, employment and private consumption. Contrary to economic expectation, the results also showed that in the long run, declining uncertainty impedes aggregate and sectoral output growths in these economies, and significantly hinders employment in South Africa and Brazil. This suggests that in the long run, economic agents in these economies somewhat behave as if uncertainty is rising. The authors also found significant asymmetric effects in the response of real sector variables to uncertainty both in the long run and short run, which justifies the choice of NARDL framework for this study.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is limited to Brazil, India, China and South Africa. While Brazil, India and China are three of the most prominent large emerging market economies, South Africa is the largest emerging market economy in Africa.

Practical implications

To lessen the adverse effects of policy uncertainty observed in the results, there is need for sound institutions and policy regimes that can promote predictable policy responses in these economies so that policy neither serves as a source of uncertainty nor as a channel through which the effects of other shocks are transmitted.

Originality/value

Apart from using the NARDL framework to capture the asymmetric effects of policy uncertainty, this study also accounted for the sectoral effects of uncertainty in emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2022

Valérie Fernandes, Cemil Kuzey, Ali Uyar and Abdullah S. Karaman

This study aims to examine the roles of board gender and cultural diversities in driving social sustainability practices through the moderating effect of board structure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the roles of board gender and cultural diversities in driving social sustainability practices through the moderating effect of board structure policies in the logistics and transportation sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted fixed-effects regression with 2005–2019 data from Thomson Reuters Eikon.

Findings

The results showed that female directors are significant predictors of social sustainability across the four dimensions of human rights, workforce, product responsibility and community development. Additionally, directors with different cultural backgrounds (but not the workforce) are significant determinants of community development, human rights and product responsibility. Furthermore, although board structure policies positively moderate the relationship between board gender diversity and social sustainability, they fail to moderate the relationship between board cultural diversity and social sustainability.

Originality/value

The findings have crucial implications for the logistics and transportation sector's social sustainability and may help the sector align with employees' and society's expectations. The incorporation of board gender and cultural diversities into the research design was a response to calls by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) to address board configuration and stakeholders' concerns.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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