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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 November 2022

Milja Marčeta and Štefan Bojnec

This study aims to establish the position of the European Union (EU-28) countries in the dynamics of international trade openness linkages and the Global Competitiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to establish the position of the European Union (EU-28) countries in the dynamics of international trade openness linkages and the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) in correlation with the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, research and development (R&D) expenditures, innovation capability and information and communication technology (ICT) adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

In the panel data set, comparative analyses were applied to scatter diagrams, correlation and regression analyses and structural equation models using Eurostat and World Economic Forum (WEF) data for the EU-28 countries in the period 2008–2019.

Findings

The empirical results did not confirm the hypotheses that a positive correlation exists between GCI and trade openness indicators and between GDP per capita and GCI. The ICT adoption and innovation capability increase GCI, which affects GDP per capita.

Practical implications

The empirical results provide a better understanding of the importance of trade policies, particularly in terms of trade openness and trade shares of the EU-28 countries, as it could contribute to increasing the GCI of the EU-28 countries. Furthermore, the results of this study underline the importance of ICT adoption and innovation capability and the need for appropriate government policies that improve global competitiveness.

Originality/value

This study, through empirical analysis, demonstrates the existence of correlations between trade openness (exports as % of GDP, imports as % of GDP and export market shares as % of world trade), R&D expenditures, innovation capability, ICT adoption, GDP per capita and the GCI in the EU-28 countries. In addition, this study contributes managerial and policy-based implications on driving forces of global competitiveness.

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2022

Weihong Chen, Xi Zhong and Hailin Lan

The impact of executive characteristics on firm internationalization has already been extensively explored. However, relatively few studies have examined the critical role…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of executive characteristics on firm internationalization has already been extensively explored. However, relatively few studies have examined the critical role of chief executive officer (CEO) personality attributes, and especially CEO openness, in firm internationalization. This research aims to deepen the understanding of firm internationalization, by exploring whether and when CEO openness influences firm internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of private high-tech listed firms in China is used, with data from 2004 to 2020.

Findings

Based on upper echelons theory, this study theorizes and finds that CEO openness will positively influence firm internationalization. Further, based on the behavioral theory of the firm, this study finds that the performance aspiration gap weakens the positive effect of CEO openness on firm internationalization, but also finds that the potential slack strengthens this effect.

Originality/value

First, the study reinterprets firm internationalization strategies from the perspective of CEO openness, a personality attribute; CEO openness is an important but so far rarely discussed topic in the field of international business. Second, for the first time, problemistic search and slack search into a research framework are introduced to explore the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm internationalization. This approach can further define the boundary conditions under which CEOs can project their values, preferences and personalities into the process of formulating and implementing a firm's internationalization strategy.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2006

Christina H. Drew, Michael Kern, Todd Martin, Max S. Power and Elaine M. Faustman

Openness is critical to long-term cleanup and stewardship of former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities. Openness is especially challenging in such facilities because…

Abstract

Openness is critical to long-term cleanup and stewardship of former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities. Openness is especially challenging in such facilities because a culture of secrecy has dominated them since the earliest days of nuclear weapons development. This paper describes a multi-year effort at the Hanford Site called the Hanford Openness Workshops. The Workshops were convened to address and resolve issues impeding the availability and understanding of information important to public health, the environment, and decision–making. Lessons from the workshops can improve dialogue about nuclear waste cleanup and long-term stewardship among regulators, decision makers, stakeholders, and Tribes.

Details

Long-Term Management of Contaminated Sites
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-419-5

Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Danny Soetanto

For a new technology-based firm, the ability to learn is crucial to their growth process. However, firms constantly face the challenge of maintaining the ambidexterity of…

Abstract

For a new technology-based firm, the ability to learn is crucial to their growth process. However, firms constantly face the challenge of maintaining the ambidexterity of two different learning activities, namely learning by exploiting existing competencies and learning through exploring new ones. The purpose of this study is to examine how small technology-based firms at incubators perform both activities. Using the index of network openness, we argue that firms perform ambidexterity by maintaining a balance between a high and low level of network openness. Our first hypothesis was constructed as firms pursuing explorative learning will develop a high level of network openness while those pursuing exploitative learning will develop a low level of network openness. In the second hypothesis, we argue that firms need to balance network openness. Developing too low level of network openness will not add more benefits as the cost for maintaining relationship increases. Similarly, developing too high level of openness may potentially hinder firms’ progress as firms face distractions and difficulties in maintaining a wide variety of relationships. Using the empirical data from new technology-based firms located at the Daresbury SIC, we confirm the hypotheses. The result also found a trend of a curvilinear relationship between network openness and the firms’ performance which confirm the second hypothesis. The overall findings have illustrated how a network has a positive impact on helping small and new technology-based firms perform learning ambidexterity.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

Book part
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Jacob Lauring, Jan Selmer and Karsten Jonsen

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and…

Abstract

Purpose

We aim to explore whether demographic groups of varying status positions differ in terms of their perception of work group members’ openness to deep-level and surface-level diversity. We also explore the effect that task group conflict and relational group conflict have on perceptions of openness to diversity.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Quantitative analysis of responses from 489 academics in multicultural university departments is applied. A comparison is made of different demographic groups based on age, nationality, and seniority with regard to perceptions of work group members’ openness to diversity. Specifically, we focused on perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarity (deep-level) and openness to visible dissimilarity (surface-level).

Findings

We found that there are indeed differences between demographic groups with regard to perceptions of the work group’s openness to value dissimilarities. No significant differences could be found in relation to openness to visual dissimilarities for any of the demographic sub-samples. We also found that there were differential effects of contextual adverse circumstances in the form of relational group conflict and task group conflict on the perceptions of the two types of work group openness to diversity.

Practical Implications

The knowledge that different demographical groups perceive their peers’ openness to diversity differently is an important insight when decisions regarding diversity issues have to be taken.

Originality/Value

Few studies have focused on perceptions of diversity. This is an important omission because individuals often act upon their perceptions, rather than on objective reality.

Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Xiuping Hua and Agyenim Boateng

This chapter investigates the long-run relationship between trade, financial openness, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions across 167 countries over the period 1970–2007.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the long-run relationship between trade, financial openness, economic growth, and carbon dioxide emissions across 167 countries over the period 1970–2007.

Methodology/approach

We employ both standard panel least squares and dynamic Generalized Method of Moments approaches to overcome problems of mis-specification inherent in the prior literature.

Findings

We find a strong link between economic growth, trade, financial openness, and environment. For the entire sample and industrial countries, our results support the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Our results also suggest that while economic growth, trade financial, and openness reduce CO2 emissions for all countries, the countries from the North appear to benefit more from trade and financial openness than the countries from the South in terms of reduction in CO2 emissions.

Research implications

The results imply that policy makers should not seek to limit efforts to link trade openness and financial liberalization to environmental quality but to set trade policy-making, economic growth, and financial liberalization in a broader context to take into account environmental concerns as these issues are inextricably linked.

Originality/value

This chapter extends the existing literature by comparing the extent to which trade openness and financial liberalization influence the carbon emissions in the North and South.

Details

Beyond the UN Global Compact: Institutions and Regulations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-558-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2022

Hui Zhang, Huanhuan Xiong, Qian Wang and Yongjie Gu

This paper aims to explore the impact of enterprise niche on dual innovation performance and the moderating role of innovation openness on the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact of enterprise niche on dual innovation performance and the moderating role of innovation openness on the relationship between enterprise niche and dual innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the panel data of the enterprise technology patents of China's Top 100 Electronic Information Enterprises from 2009 to 2018. Multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Niche width has a significant positive impact on exploitative and exploratory innovation performance. Niche overlap has an inverted U-shaped effect on exploitative innovation performance and significantly positively affects exploratory innovation performance. Innovation openness negatively moderates the impact of niche width on exploitative innovation performance and positively moderates the impact of niche overlap on exploitative innovation performance.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the effects of enterprise niche on dual innovation performance by showing the moderating role of innovation openness. The study finds a strategic logic of moderate niche overlap, clarifies the innovative effect of different innovation openness modes and reveals the construction and management mechanisms of enterprise niche and innovation openness strategy.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Yohan Koo, Soo Jung Kim and Ji Hoon Song

The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating role of communication in the relationship between person-organization fit (P-O fit) of openness to change, learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating role of communication in the relationship between person-organization fit (P-O fit) of openness to change, learning organization and knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,015 faculty and staff participants from three private universities in South Korea was included in the analysis. Individual and organizational aspects of openness to change were examined based on the P-O fit theory. Moderated polynomial regression and response surface methodology were used for data analysis.

Findings

At a higher level of communication, the congruence of openness to change between the individual and organization showed a positive fit effect on learning organization. The incongruence of openness to change between individual and organization, in which the organizations’ openness to change was higher than that of individuals, decreased the level of knowledge sharing when the level of communication was higher.

Originality/value

The results of this study support the theory and practice that consideration of P-O fit on openness to change and a strategic approach of communication are needed to succeed in organizational change.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2022

Effie Kesidou, Ram Narasimhan, Serdal Ozusaglam and Chee Yew Wong

Prior research on open innovation has not investigated changes in knowledge acquisition strategies of firms over time overlooking how learning from past knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research on open innovation has not investigated changes in knowledge acquisition strategies of firms over time overlooking how learning from past knowledge acquisition can change subsequent search strategies. Also, prior research has focused principally on product innovation overlooking process innovation. The purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of dynamic openness, which is defined as temporal changes in external knowledge search strategy. We explore four dynamic openness strategies – closing down, opening up, persistent open and persistent closed – and examine the impact of these strategies on both product and process innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a panel dataset of 16,021 firms based on five waves (2009–2017) of the UK Community Innovation Survey (UKIS). All models are estimated using firm and year fixed effects (FE) method to control for endogeneity that arises from unobserved heterogeneity. Endogeneity and robustness tests were carried out to ensure the validity of results.

Findings

The results show that firms do use dynamic openness strategies over time leveraging learning from past searches. Specifically, the study indicates that closing down is not an effective strategy for either type of innovation. For process innovation, firms should pursue opening up strategy rather than persistent open strategy, whereas for product innovation firms could pursue either strategy, highlighting important contextual differences.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on knowledge acquisition in open innovation: (1) by theorizing the underlying reasons – learning from past collaborations, absorptive capacity and external knowledge heterogeneity – why firms pursue one dynamic openness strategy over another and (2) by extending literature by delineating the dynamic openness strategies that firms should pursue in process innovation vs product innovation.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Mingjun Yang, Tuan Trong Luu and David Qian

Service innovative behavior from employees helps hospitality organizations gain a competitive advantage and sustain business flourishment. Although group diversity has…

Abstract

Purpose

Service innovative behavior from employees helps hospitality organizations gain a competitive advantage and sustain business flourishment. Although group diversity has been demonstrated as a predictor of employee outcomes, whether group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness enhances employee service innovative behavior remains a gap. This study aims to fill this gap by developing a multilevel model of the direct relationship between group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness and employee service innovative behavior and also the mediations and moderations behind the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collectd data from 44 Chinese hospitality teams. The research model was validated by multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results showed that both group extraversion diversity and group openness diversity fostered employee service innovative behavior via creative self-efficacy. Developmental culture strengthened the effectiveness of group openness diversity on creative self-efficacy and the effectiveness of creative self-efficacy on employee service innovative behavior. Nevertheless, developmental culture did not strengthen the effectiveness of group extraversion diversity on creative self-efficacy.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that managers and team leaders from hospitality organizations can elicit employee service innovative behavior through increasing group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness. Hospitality practitioners also should understand that employees’ confidence for creativity is able to channel group diversity into employee service innovative endeavors. Moreover, building developmental culture is essential for hospitality teams to strengthen the effect of group diversity on innovating services.

Originality/value

This study expands the diversity-innovation research through unfolding both the mediations and the moderations behind the link between group diversity in terms of extraversion and openness and employee service innovative behavior.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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