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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Marzena Tomaszewska, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Monika Trząskowska, Joanna Trafialek, Lidia Wadolowska and Jadwiga Hamulka

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and practices of selected group of Polish children in early school age in terms of issues such as: (1) the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and practices of selected group of Polish children in early school age in terms of issues such as: (1) the principles of food preparation, storage and eating meals; (2) personal hygiene; and (3) basic information about microorganisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The auditorium survey method was used. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions related to the children's knowledge of personal hygiene, the principles of food preparation and storage and the physiology of microorganisms and 13 questions related to the children's personal and food hygiene practice. In total, 169 questionnaires were collected. The study group of children had incomplete knowledge and often reported inappropriate food hygiene practices.

Findings

The subjects of food preparation and storage and knowledge of microbes were particular problem areas. By contrast, aspects related to handwashing, the appropriate practices while coughing or sneezing and washing fruit before consumption were positively evaluated. The children demonstrated the most knowledge in the field of personal hygiene. However, a very low percentage of correct answers was noted for the question about handwashing at school. None of the 13 questions related to this practice received more than 90% correct answers. The boys and girls demonstrated a comparable level of knowledge and practice in the area of food safety. It was showed that the place of school influenced answers to a greater extent compared to gender.

Originality/value

The results of the study play an important role in the prevention of food poisoning and are useful for the teachers, staff of training institutions and parents. They can also inspire institutions in countries with a high incidence of food poisoning to search for the causes in the inappropriate hygienic practices of young children.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Silambarasi Kuralneethi, Sarina Sariman and Vaidehi Ulaganathan

This study aimed to determine the relationship between calorie and macronutrients intake and the growth status of Aboriginal children based on gender and age group.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to determine the relationship between calorie and macronutrients intake and the growth status of Aboriginal children based on gender and age group.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional study participated by 85 school-aged Aboriginal children at Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The dietary intake and socioeconomic status data were collected from the parents using an interviewer administrated structured-questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. WHO AnthroPlus software was used to determine the z-score of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI) for age (BAZ).

Findings

The mean fat intake was significantly higher among younger children (i.e. 7–9 years old) as compared to elder children (i.e. 10–12 years old) (40.7 ± 17.3 g vs 32.0 ± 13.8 g; t = 2.496, p = 0.015) but not for the mean intake of calorie (1816.1 ± 979.9 kcal vs 1566.3 ± 808.7 kcal; t = 1.248, p = 0.216), protein (50.13 ± 20.08 g vs 44.94 ± 16.45 g; t = 1.269, p = 0.208) and carbohydrates (198.0 ± 63.0 g vs 190.8 ± 66.1 g; t = 0.513, p = 0.609). The majority of the respondents did not meet recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for the calorie (65.9%) and fat (75.3%). A significantly higher proportion of elder children did not meet RNI for fat as compared to younger children (88.8% vs 65.3%; X2 = 6.21, p = 0.021). The HAZ showed that 28.2% (n = 24) of the Aboriginal children were stunted, while WAZ showed that 14.8% (n = 9) of the Aboriginal students were underweight, and 8.2% of them were overweight. Based on BAZ classification, 15.4% (n = 6) of boys and 2.2% (n = 1) of girls were overweight. There is no significant correlation between calories and macronutrients and growth status of the children.

Originality/value

Although the under-nutrition status among Aboriginal children is still a highlighted issue, the few over-nutrition statuses among Aborigines should be taken into count, especially in term of energy and macronutrient intake.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Bryan McIntosh, Ronald McQuaid, Anne Munro and Parviz Dabir‐Alai

After many years of equal opportunities legislation, motherhood still limits womens' career progress even in a feminized occupation such as nursing. While the effect of…

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Abstract

Purpose

After many years of equal opportunities legislation, motherhood still limits womens' career progress even in a feminized occupation such as nursing. While the effect of motherhood, working hours, career breaks and school aged children upon career progression has been discussed widely, its actual scale and magnitude has received less research attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of these factors individually and cumulatively.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers the impact of the above through a longitudinal analysis of a demographically unique national database, comprising the 46,565 registered nursing workforces in NHS Scotland from 2000‐2008. The variables examined include gender, employment grades, number and length of career breaks, lengths of service, age, working patterns, the number and age of dependent children.

Findings

The results indicate: motherhood has a regressively detrimental effect on women's career progression. However, this is a simplistic term which covers a more complex process related to the age of dependent children, working hours and career breaks. The degree of women's restricted career progression is directly related to the school age of the dependent children: the younger the child the greater the detrimental impact. Women who take a career break of greater than two years see their careers depressed and restricted. The results confirm that whilst gender has a relatively positive effect on male career progression; a women's career progression is reduced incrementally as she has more children, and part‐time workers have reduced career progression regardless of maternal or paternal circumstances.

Originality/value

This paper is the only example internationally, of a national workforce being examined on this scale and therefore its findings are significant. For the first time the impact of motherhood upon a women's career progression and the related factors – dependent children, career breaks and part‐time working are quantified. These findings are relevant across many areas of employment and they are significant in relation to broadening the debate around equal opportunities for women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2021

Silambarasi Kuralneethi, Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak and Vaidehi Ulaganathan

This study aims to determine the association between dietary quality and growth of the aboriginal primary school children in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the association between dietary quality and growth of the aboriginal primary school children in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The cross-sectional study was carried out in Negeri Sembilan. A total of 194 school-aged aboriginal children participated in the study. The dietary intake and socioeconomic status data were collected from the parents using an interviewer-administrated structured questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic questions and three days of dietary recall. The Malaysian Healthy Eating Index was used to determine the diet quality of children. WHO Anthro Plus software was used to determine the z-score of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMI)-for-age (BAZ).

Findings

Among all children, 15, 9 and 5% of them were stunted, underweight and thin, respectively. On the other hand, 16 and 12% of the children were overweight and obese, respectively. The aboriginal children were at risk of poor diet quality (37.19 ± 12.07) and had high dietary protein and fat intake than national recommended nutrient intake. The children achieved micronutrients intake, except for calcium. There was no significant association between total diet quality scores with growth indices among the aboriginal children. There is significant negative correlation between dietary vitamin A intake with HAZ (r = −0.168, p < 0.05) and WAZ (r = −0.219, p < 0.05) z-score of the aboriginal children.

Originality/value

Although there was a reduction in under-nutrition among the aborigines, an increasing over-nutrition status among aborigines should be considered, especially in terms of poor dietary quality and intake.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Maria Nnyepi, Maurice R. Bennink, Jose Jackson-Malete, Sumathi Venkatesh, Leapetswe Malete, Lucky Mokgatlhe, Philemon Lyoka, Gabriel M. Anabwani, Jerry Makhanda and Lorraine J. Weatherspoon

Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a randomized, double blind pre-/post-intervention trial with 201 HIV-positive children (six to 15 years) in Botswana. Eligibility included CD4 cell counts < 700/mm3 (a marker for the severity of HIV infection), documented treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and no reported evidence of taking supplemental food products with one or more added nutrients in the six-month period prior to the study. The intervention (12 months) consisted of two food supplements for ethical reason, one with a higher protein content, bean (bean-sorghum based) group (n=97) and a cereal (sorghum) group (n=104) both of which contained added energy- and micro- nutrients. Anthropometric and biochemical nutritional status indicators (stunting, wasting, underweight, skinfolds for fat and muscle protein reserves, and hemoglobin levels) were compared within and between the bean and the cereal groups pre- and post-intervention separately for children six to nine years and ten to 15 years.

Findings

Older children (ten to 15 years) fared worse overall compared to those who were younger (six to nine years) children in anthropometric and protein status indicators both at baseline and post-intervention. Among children six to nine years, the mid arm circumference and blood hemoglobin levels improved significantly in both the bean and cereal groups (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Although the BMI for age z-score and the triceps skinfold decreased significantly in the bean group, the post-intervention subscapular skinfold (fat stores) was significantly higher for the bean group compared to the cereal group (p < 0.05). Among children ten to 15 years, both the bean and the cereal groups also showed improvement in mid arm circumference (p < 0.001), but only those in the bean group showed improvement in hemoglobin (p < 0.01) post-intervention.

Originality/value

Similar significant nutritional status findings and trends were found for both food interventions and age within group pre- vs post-comparisons, except hemoglobin in the older children. Post-intervention hemoglobin levels for the type food supplement was higher for the “bean” vs the “cereal” food in the younger age group. The fact that all children, but especially those who were older were in poor nutritional status supports the need for nutrition intervention in conjunction with ARV treatment in children with HIV/AIDS, perhaps using a scaled up future approach to enhance desired outcomes.

Details

Health Education, vol. 115 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Julie A. Deisinger

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and

Abstract

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/CDC, 2007; Desmon, 2007). In the past such disorders usually were not identified until a child was school-aged, but these disorders are now more likely to be diagnosed in affected individuals during the preschool years (McConachie, Le Couteur, & Honey, 2005; Rutter, 2006). For example, Mandell, Novak, and Zubritsky (2005) surveyed over 900 caregivers of children with ASDs and learned that on an average, children with autistic disorder were diagnosed at 3.1 years of age. These researchers also reported that children who exhibited such characteristics as severe language impairment, toe walking, hand flapping, and sustained unusual play behaviors were diagnosed earlier than children without these features.

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Sarah Moore, Patricia Sikora, Leon Grunberg and Edward Greenberg

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether empirical support exists for two commonly held beliefs about the work‐home interface: women, and particularly managerial…

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1675

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether empirical support exists for two commonly held beliefs about the work‐home interface: women, and particularly managerial women, are prone to “super‐mother” or “super‐manage” in an effort to balance both career and child‐rearing, and these demands diminish markedly when children reach school age.

Design/methodology/approach

Via a survey mailed to their home, 1,103 managerial and non‐managerial men and women completed measures of work‐home and home‐work conflict, work‐related stress and strain, and reported their number of work, domestic, and leisure hours per week.

Findings

Somewhat consistent with the popular beliefs, the authors found that managerial women reported working significantly more in the home; measures of conflict and strain, however, while showing some effect were not impacted to the degree that managerial women's combined number of work and home hours per week might suggest. The authors also found that measures of hours, conflict, and strain did not diminish abruptly when children entered school, due perhaps in part to manager's increased work hours and managerial women's renewed work emphasis when children entered school. Measures of hours, conflict, and strain did show some reduction for parents of teenaged children, although they were still significantly higher than those of nonparents.

Originality/value

Aside from being one of the few empirical papers to examine the impact of child rearing on managerial women, our data show how these demands are not confined to working parents of preschoolers.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Carolyn Bryant and Brian H. Kleiner

For many people, the word “family brings to mind the traditional stereotype—Dad goes off to work while Mom stays home to run the house and mind the children. However, in…

Abstract

For many people, the word “family brings to mind the traditional stereotype—Dad goes off to work while Mom stays home to run the house and mind the children. However, in today's society less than ten per cent of all families fall into this category. The majority of families in the United States are composed of a dual‐income couple or dual‐income parents. While many books and articles glorify the new “super‐family”—Dad and Mom both work and manage the house, while the children troop angelically and obediently to day‐care or school, and everyone enjoys “quality time”—these superhuman figures do not exist in reality. In fact, many working parents suffer guilt and anxiety because they believe that the “super‐family” is an achievable goal. The average working parent is pulled by work and by family responsibilities, while struggling to maintain both sanity and a sense of self in the process.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2012

Jing Liu

This study is designed to identify the policy shift on migrant children's11There are various definitions of migrant children in urban China. In this research, migrant…

Abstract

This study is designed to identify the policy shift on migrant children's11There are various definitions of migrant children in urban China. In this research, migrant children refer to the children from rural areas who have resided with their parents at the urban areas for at least six months without local household registration status. education at national level in urban China22With the rapid socioeconomic development and urbanization in China, the definition of urban China is changing. In this research, urban China refers to the major cities in China, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Chongqing, and so forth. during the past decades. Meanwhile, it is expected to explore the policy limitations reflected by the practice at school level regarding accommodating migrant children's education.

This study is conducted through policy review regarding education for migrant children and analysis of data collected through questionnaires and interviews at one public junior high school in Beijing.

This study identifies a positive change of involving migrant children in urban public schools. However, there is a need for flexible mechanism that can fully accommodate various needs regarding migrant children's education in urban public schools.

The study argues the necessity of a multipartnership for establishing a sustainable public education system for accommodating migrant children education in urban public schools.

Being different from other research on the same issue in urban China, this study leads a new round of discussion on the quality education for migrant children.

Details

Living on the Boundaries: Urban Marginality in National and International Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-032-2

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Liana Christin Landivar

Purpose – Although most mothers are currently in the labor force, mothers’ labor supply varies by race and ethnicity. However, most of the discourse on mothers…

Abstract

Purpose – Although most mothers are currently in the labor force, mothers’ labor supply varies by race and ethnicity. However, most of the discourse on mothers’ employment, particularly recent media coverage and research on mothers opting out of the labor force, focuses on the experiences of White women in managerial and professional occupations. I address the lack of diversity in the opt- out discussion by comparing the prevalence of opting out of the labor force and scaling back on work hours among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White mothers in 20 occupations.Methodology/approach – This research employs hierarchical logistic models and hierarchical linear models using 2009 American Community Survey data.Findings – Although mothers of all racial and ethnic backgrounds are more likely to opt out when they have young children, opting out is more prevalent among White mothers. Racial and ethnic disparities are particularly salient when examining work hours. White and Asian mothers are more likely to scale back compared with Black mothers who do not appear to scale back at all when they have children.Social implications – These results show that work–family strategies differ by race, ethnicity, and occupation, and work–family solutions need to address the specific needs of women in different occupations.Originality/value – This study provides evidence suggesting that the opt-out discourse surrounding mothers’ employment has not been sufficiently nuanced and that policy solutions that are based on the experiences of women in managerial and professional occupations are likely to fall short of meeting the needs of most women.

Details

Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000