This paper proposes a scheme to estimate the technical efficiency at child care centers for the less‐than‐three‐year‐old infants by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and to…
This paper proposes a scheme to estimate the technical efficiency at child care centers for the less‐than‐three‐year‐old infants by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and to manage the quality of care service through implementing flexible and efficient government subsidy system. The result of technical efficiency estimation shows that there exists the heterogeneity in technical efficiency a substantial opportunity for improvement in technical efficiency across child care centers. This result implies that government may bring up the competition by giving subsidy differentially based on efficiency and use the money which has been used inefficiently other purposes. Both can improve the quality of child care service.
This paper is to develop a quality measure to evaluate the quality level of child care service in the regional level. By utilizing the biannual intensive child care…
This paper is to develop a quality measure to evaluate the quality level of child care service in the regional level. By utilizing the biannual intensive child care statistical reports, ten variables are integrated and summarized as a quality measure for child care service in regional level by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Conclusively, it is possible to get a comprehensive measure and the measure obtained from data between 2003 and 2008 illustrates the difference in child care service quality among regions over years. With the measure developed by this research, each region can also get very good insight into what kinds of factors of child care service should be paid more attention to in order to improve the quality of its child care service. Moreover, the measure obtained in this paper is proven reliable and robust in that it reflects the quality of child care service in each region and gives us statistically uniform quality scores with a different data set.
For many people, the word “family brings to mind the traditional stereotype—Dad goes off to work while Mom stays home to run the house and mind the children. However, in…
For many people, the word “family brings to mind the traditional stereotype—Dad goes off to work while Mom stays home to run the house and mind the children. However, in today's society less than ten per cent of all families fall into this category. The majority of families in the United States are composed of a dual‐income couple or dual‐income parents. While many books and articles glorify the new “super‐family”—Dad and Mom both work and manage the house, while the children troop angelically and obediently to day‐care or school, and everyone enjoys “quality time”—these superhuman figures do not exist in reality. In fact, many working parents suffer guilt and anxiety because they believe that the “super‐family” is an achievable goal. The average working parent is pulled by work and by family responsibilities, while struggling to maintain both sanity and a sense of self in the process.
The purpose of this chapter is to examine how the paid care of children, and assisting with their development, is increasingly coming to resemble a professional activity…
The purpose of this chapter is to examine how the paid care of children, and assisting with their development, is increasingly coming to resemble a professional activity in Australia. The commodification of child care has tended to create a profession of carers of children, not only by virtue of more formalized qualifications and role descriptions for carers, but also by establishing a potential framework within which a profession may be practiced. I examine how paid child caring in Australia increasingly conforms in many respects with various criteria commonly associated with a professional activity. This evolution within the child care field however is creating tension between the traditional nurturing role of child care and the more formal requirements of a “professional” carer. This process of professionalisation also has significant implications, not only for the care providers, but also for those who are receiving care – the children and their families. It also has important implications for society itself.
Identifying the qualities of primary care that have the potential to produce optimal health outcomes is only half the story. The Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA…
Identifying the qualities of primary care that have the potential to produce optimal health outcomes is only half the story. The Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) project has not only explored how to transfer these to other national contexts, but also which successful components should be transferred. It is important to assess the population criteria of the identified sociodemographic, cultural and social characteristics and the population perspectives on a care system’s components. The project analysed public experiences and perceptions of the quality of primary care for children from a representative sample of the general public in five European Union member states. The public perception of children’s primary care services, in particular the perceived quality of care and expectations with regard to care for children, is important to understand before MOCHA lessons can be effectively adopted in a country. We found that the socio-cultural characteristics of a country inform the population perceptions and preferences with regard to the care system. In the five countries surveyed, there was agreement about aspects of quality of care – such as accessible opening hours, confidential consultations for children and timeliness of consultation for an illness, but there was a difference in opinion about giving priority to items such as making an appointment without a referral, or a child’s right to a confidential consultation. The cultural context of transferability and the means of addressing this such as defining the target audience and the different means of disseminating important messages to the wider community to address contextual factors can act as barriers or facilitators to the introduction of new components of primary care models.
Given current demographic changes in the nature of the population, employers are increasingly attempting to find ways of retaining or attracting women into the workforce. A number of companies have now taken steps to provide child‐care arrangements which will hopefully encourage women with children to remain in or re‐enter employment. Developments in a number of countries are reported, and four separate options available to employers for resolving the child‐care dilemma are outlined.
With a global recession impacting employers in most industrialised nations, the management of most large organisations has been forced to trim the number of workers…
With a global recession impacting employers in most industrialised nations, the management of most large organisations has been forced to trim the number of workers, reduce benefits and in some cases, eliminate entire divisions of their company. A surprising survivor during this difficult period is employer‐provided day care, a relatively new employment benefit that emerged just within the past two decades.
Child care research has progressed over the past several decades to a level of sophistication and depth that begins to give some answers to the question, “what is the…
Child care research has progressed over the past several decades to a level of sophistication and depth that begins to give some answers to the question, “what is the impact of child care on young children?” This paper provides a model within which this complex body of literature can be viewed and presents a comprehensive review of the literature. The Child Care Quality Model, based on ecological theory, helps to organize and conceptualize the relationship among the salient components of the child care research literature. Central to the model is the relationship of child care quality to child outcomes. In addition, both proximal and distal influencing variables are considered.The examination of the literature expands on these aspects of the model by first reviewing the elements of structural and process quality, and how these are measured. It then considers studies that report the impact of child care on child outcomes in social, behavioral/emotional, and cognitive/language development. Research that focuses on additional influencing factors, which interact with child care to impact child outcomes, are also reviewed. These include proximal variables such as family characteristics, child characteristics, and program characteristics, and more distal community and societal variables, including child care licensing standards. A summary synthesizes the literature in the context of the Child Care Quality Model, and points out some of the gaps in the current level of understanding of how child care influences young children.
The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptually and empirically grounded new understanding of childcare arrangements for cross-national and longitudinal…
The purpose of this paper is to formulate a conceptually and empirically grounded new understanding of childcare arrangements for cross-national and longitudinal micro-level empirical research by drawing on theoretical discussions about the social, spatial and temporal dimensions of embodied childcare and empirical data in the form of parental narratives from a Romanian qualitative study.
The paper builds on a critique of an extensive body of empirical literature on the micro-level organisation of childcare and the thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with Romanian parents. The paper combines a critical literature review with findings from a qualitative study on childcare.
The paper formulates a new understanding of household-level childcare arrangements that is context-insensitive, yet reflects the social, spatial and temporal concerns that the organisation of embodied childcare often raises. The paper expands on six real-life care arrangements in Romanian households represented as different combinations of care encounters.
As the paper draws on parental narratives from a single country, Romania, the mapping of childcare arrangements in other jurisdictions and/or at different times would strengthen the case for the proposed understanding of care arrangements as a valuable tool to represent, compareand contrast household-level care routines.
The idea that parents (especially mothers) make work-care decisions in the light of what is best for their child has been widely documented. However, taxonomies of care arrangements have failed to reflect this. The proposed conceptualisation of childcare arrangements addresses this issue by articulating a conceptually coherent approach to developing empirically grounded childcare typologies that “travel well” cross-nationally and over time.
Purpose – This study examines parents’ financial stress associated with obtaining care for young children while employed in unstable low-wage jobs. The child care subsidy…
Purpose – This study examines parents’ financial stress associated with obtaining care for young children while employed in unstable low-wage jobs. The child care subsidy program aims to both improve child care quality and support employment, and we expect that a substantial infusion of resources into this program would reduce parents’ financial stress.
Methodology/approach – We use a mixed-methods research design to study parents’ financial costs of child care, how predictable the cost of child care is to a parent, and what strategies parents employ to manage child care costs.
Findings – We find that parents perceive the subsidy program essential to their ability to manage the needs of their children and working. Yet, receiving subsidies does not appear to alleviate parents’ financial stress because child care costs continue to consume a large share of the family's income and subsidy policies make it difficult for parents to predict their portion of the costs. Parents manage the large and unpredictable expense of child care by decreasing other expenditures and increasing debt.
Practical implications – Changing subsidy policies so they better fit the reality of these families’ lives could result in a more substantive stress reduction. States can reduce unpredictability by reducing and stabilizing participants’ child care cost burden and revising eligibility policy.
Originality/value of paper – This research project fills an important gap in our knowledge about financial stress of low-income working families, provides insights into the role subsidy program participation plays in these parents’ lives, and informs discussion of subsidy policy.