Search results

1 – 10 of over 5000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Alison Reid, Dawn Wood and David Kinney

The issues of microbial food poisoning are never far from the headlines. Of particular concern is the emergence of strains of increased virulence, for example Escherichia

Abstract

The issues of microbial food poisoning are never far from the headlines. Of particular concern is the emergence of strains of increased virulence, for example Escherichia coli 0157. As we are likely to be faced with a succession of food hygiene challenges in our kitchens, do consumers have access to the information they need and is it presented in such a way that it encourages and motivates towards good food handling and food hygiene practices? This paper concentrates on a range of food hygiene information provided by the Government, the Health Education Authority and the media. The information is examined with respect to availability, content and context. Observations are made from sociological, scientific and visual communications perspectives.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 98 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Roger Smith

In September this year, the Government issued its draft Regulations onFood Safety (General Food Hygiene) 1995, which acknowledges for thefirst time the importance of a…

Abstract

In September this year, the Government issued its draft Regulations on Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) 1995, which acknowledges for the first time the importance of a programme to make food handlers, their supervisors and managers, properly aware of the importance of food hygiene for the protection of the consumer and what they can do to prepare food safely. However, the regulation is specific neither about how training should best be implemented nor on the most important aspect of the policy, its end result. The standards of food hygiene awareness to be achieved through training have not been specified. The Department of Health, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) cannot delegate their responsibility to protect the public health. Therefore, levels of food hygiene awareness, regardless of industrial sector, should be their prime concern. If the departments could set their minimum required standard of food hygiene awareness, the national framework of training which has evolved could naturally regulate the quality of training itself.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Georgina Holt and Spencer J. Henson

Directive 93/43/EEC introduced the concept of good hygiene practice, in response to a pan‐European increase in the incidence of food poisoning, to foster a preventive…

Abstract

Directive 93/43/EEC introduced the concept of good hygiene practice, in response to a pan‐European increase in the incidence of food poisoning, to foster a preventive approach to food safety. UK legislation reinforces the EU position that food businesses are responsible for the implementation of good hygiene practices. The response of the food industry has been to develop audited standards of hygiene, higher than explicit legal requirements. Small businesses have, however, been slow to adopt industry hygiene standards. A case study of small manufacturers of ready to eat meat products investigated the reasons for this. Businesses were first audited to the EFSIS[1] standard, to compare current practice with recommended best practice. Second, technical managers or owner‐managers were interviewed, to gain an insight into their knowledge of industry standards in particular, and the process of hygiene management in general. The analysis found significant differences in the knowledge of technical managers and owner‐managers, with the latter often unaware of the existence of audited standards. It is argued, therefore, that, in order to increase the implementation of good hygiene practices, further programmes to inform small food businesses about industry standards are required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 102 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jeremy Leach, Heather Mercer, Graham Stew and Stephen Denyer

The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. However to effectively use it as a tool to improve food hygiene standards, proprietors of eating‐places must know…

Abstract

The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. However to effectively use it as a tool to improve food hygiene standards, proprietors of eating‐places must know what customers look for to assess those standards. It is also important that customers demonstrate their unwillingness to buy from unhygienic premises. This article summarises research, using the “Delphi Technique”, backed up by semi‐structured interviews which has established a body of new knowledge about the subject. Conclusions are drawn about the relevance of food hygiene standards to running an effective business and the need for a public education campaign. The results also challenge current views about the importance of food hygiene standards to customers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 103 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Denise Worsfold, Chris Griffith and Philip Worsfold

In both their enforcement and training role environmental health officers (EHOs) may influence businesses' attitudes to hygiene training. A survey was conducted to examine…

Abstract

In both their enforcement and training role environmental health officers (EHOs) may influence businesses' attitudes to hygiene training. A survey was conducted to examine EHOs' experience and perceptions of the provision and effectiveness of food hygiene training in small food businesses. The results indicate that officers had concerns about the content and the delivery of hygiene courses and about the quality of other hygiene trainers. Officers use the industry guides to advise on training but receive limited guidance on the assessment of hygiene training in the workplace. The checking of training records was considered to be less important than the use of observation and questioning for assessing hygiene training effectiveness. Environmental factors, such as supervisor support and situational aids were judged by officers to be important factors in the implementation of workplace hygiene training. They reported low levels of formal refresher training and active support of training by management.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 106 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Jan Mei Soon

Appropriate hand hygiene technique is a simple and effective method to reduce cross contamination and transmission of foodborne pathogens. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Appropriate hand hygiene technique is a simple and effective method to reduce cross contamination and transmission of foodborne pathogens. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the frequency of hand hygiene activities among food handlers and consumers in fast food restaurants (FFRs).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 FFRs and cafes were visited between May and August 2017 in North West England. A hand hygiene observational tool was adapted and modified from previous studies. The observational tool was designed to record 30 sequential hand activities of consumers and employees. Each transaction consisted of an observed action (e.g. touch with bare hands), object (e.g. exposed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods) and observed hand hygiene practice (e.g. handwashing or cleaning with wipes or sanitisers). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swabs of hand-contact surfaces of restaurants’ restrooms were carried out.

Findings

Findings revealed that both food handlers and consumers have low-hand hygiene compliance rate in FFRs. Consumers were more likely to clean their hands with napkins after handling exposed RTE food. Food handlers were observed to change into new gloves without washing their hands before handling exposed RTE food. The mean results for all hand-contact surfaces in restrooms were higher than 30 Relative Light Units indicating unhygienic surfaces. Male restroom exit doors’ ATP levels were significantly higher than females.

Originality/value

This study revealed the lack of hand hygiene practices among food handlers and consumers at FFRs and cafes. Restroom hand-contact surfaces revealed high ATP level indicating unhygienic surfaces. This can potentially re-contaminate washed hands upon touching unhygienic surface (e.g. exit door panel/handle) when leaving the restroom.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Gill Bielby, Bernadette Egan, Anita Eves, Margaret Lumbers, Monique Raats and Martin Adams

The purpose of this research is to show how a nation‐wide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in primary schools. The survey determined which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to show how a nation‐wide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in primary schools. The survey determined which information sources were known and used by those responsible for teaching food hygiene.

Design/methodology/approach

Postal questionnaires were distributed to 3,806 primary schools throughout the UK (response rate 23 per cent). The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in‐depth interviews with school teachers and included topics such as where teachers gained up‐to‐date food hygiene messages, methods used to teach food hygiene, and how key food hygiene messages are reinforced. Teachers cited most preferred resources for teaching food hygiene, influences on the choice of these resources, and limitations on use.

Findings

Overall, the results indicated that food hygiene is taught in a number of subject areas, with handwashing and personal hygiene being the principal topics. Teachers use a combination of methods to teach food hygiene and to reinforce food safety messages. The principal limitations of teaching this topic were identified as a lack of suitable space and curriculum time. Teachers across the UK also identified new resources that would support the teaching of food hygiene.

Originality/value

The study identified how primary school teachers deliver food hygiene messages through the curriculum, daily routines and whole school initiatives. Ways in which primary school teachers could be supported when delivering food hygiene education have been suggested.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Anita Eves, Gill Bielby, Bernadette Egan, Margaret Lumbers, Monique Raats and Martin Adams

The purpose of this research is to show the evaluation of food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of school children, assessment of children's attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to show the evaluation of food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of school children, assessment of children's attitudes towards food hygiene and evaluation of barriers to the adoption of appropriate food hygiene behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of pupils (4 and 14 years; Key Stages 1‐3 in the English system – or Scottish equivalent) were determined using age‐appropriate knowledge quizzes completed by 2,259 pupils across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Attitudes towards food hygiene and barriers to performing desirable hygiene‐related behaviours were established through semi‐structured interviews with 82 pupils who completed knowledge tasks in South East England.

Findings

Children generally had good knowledge of food hygiene. However, there were misconceptions about the nature of micro‐organisms and how they affect food. In addition, a lack of reminders and practical food activities, especially at Key Stage 2 (7‐11 years), coupled with poor hand‐washing facilities, meant that children did not always adopt desirable behaviours. Children gave suggestions for ways to help others to remember good practice.

Originality/value

The study identified areas of weakness in pupils' hygiene knowledge and understanding and has determined barriers to adoption of desirable behaviours at all times. It has also suggested ways in which food hygiene education could be made more engaging for pupils, and other methods to encourage good practice.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Denise M. Rennie

Education of food industry personnel in hygiene matters has beenrecommended as a means of improving food handling practices and thus thesafety of food. Provision has been…

Abstract

Education of food industry personnel in hygiene matters has been recommended as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food. Provision has been made within the Food Safety Act 1990 for the making of regulations to specify the nature and extent of such training. There is, however, a lack of documentary evidence of improvements in food hygiene standards which can be directly related to education or training. Evaluations of formal food hygiene education courses have identified increased knowledge levels of course participants, and improvements in the relationship between food industry and enforcement personnel by the development of common understanding. Reported evaluations of food hygiene training programmes indicate that formal courses operated in settings divorced from the food handling environment are limited in effectiveness. While course participants have increased knowledge, evidence of consequential improved food handling behaviour is not clearly demonstrated. Training programmes more closely associated with the work site are potentially more effective especially if supported by practical reinforcement of hygiene messages.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Denise Worsfold and Christopher J. Griffith

Describes a survey of food safety training for staff in the retail, care and catering industry. Training provisions were evaluated against the guidance in the relevant…

Abstract

Describes a survey of food safety training for staff in the retail, care and catering industry. Training provisions were evaluated against the guidance in the relevant industry guides. Additional information was collected on the managers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards hygiene training. The extent and level of training of the retail butchers, who had to comply with the licensing regulations, was better than care homes and caterers of an equivalent size. Some of the care homes were not compliant with the training requirements of the Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations. There was a similar lack of hygiene management systems in most of the catering businesses in this study but senior staff were better trained and were able to provide in‐house training to greater effect. All the businesses carried out on‐the‐job training, although in some this was restricted to induction training, the content of which was often ill defined. There was a lack of documented hygiene procedures, reinforcement strategies and very little refresher training activity. Many managers failed to provide feedback on performance, to test hygiene knowledge or praise good hygienic performance. Half of the managers were not trained to train, and often were untrained in elementary hygiene themselves. Some managers recognised that conditions in the workplace and time pressures could contribute to poor hygiene performances.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000