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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2012

Sami J. Habib and Paulvanna N. Marimuthu

Energy constraint is always a serious issue in wireless sensor networks, as the energy possessed by the sensors is limited and non‐renewable. Data aggregation at intermediate base…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy constraint is always a serious issue in wireless sensor networks, as the energy possessed by the sensors is limited and non‐renewable. Data aggregation at intermediate base stations increases the lifespan of the sensors, whereby the sensors' data are aggregated before being communicated to the central server. This paper proposes a query‐based aggregation within Monte Carlo simulator to explore the best and worst possible query orders to aggregate the sensors' data at the base stations. The proposed query‐based aggregation model can help the network administrator to envisage the best query orders in improving the performance of the base stations under uncertain query ordering. Furthermore, it aims to examine the feasibility of the proposed model to engage simultaneous transmissions at the base station and also to derive a best‐fit mathematical model to study the behavior of data aggregation with uncertain querying order.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers small and medium‐sized wireless sensor networks comprised of randomly deployed sensors in a square arena. It formulates the query‐based data aggregation problem as an uncertain ordering problem within Monte Carlo simulator, generating several thousands of uncertain orders to schedule the responses of M sensors at the base station within the specified time interval. For each selected time interval, the model finds the best possible querying order to aggregate the data with reduced idle time and with improved throughput. Furthermore, it extends the model to include multiple sensing parameters and multiple aggregating channels, thereby enabling the administrator to plan the capacity of its WSN according to specific time intervals known in advance.

Findings

The experimental results within Monte Carlo simulator demonstrate that the query‐based aggregation scheme show a better trade‐off in maximizing the aggregating efficiency and also reducing the average idle‐time experienced by the individual sensor. The query‐based aggregation model was tested for a WSN containing 25 sensors with single sensing parameter, transmitting data to a base station; moreover, the simulation results show continuous improvement in best‐case performances from 56 percent to 96 percent in the time interval of 80 to 200 time units. Moreover, the query aggregation is extended to analyze the behavior of WSN with 50 sensors, sensing two environmental parameters and base station equipped with multiple channels, whereby it demonstrates a shorter aggregation time interval against single channel. The analysis of average waiting time of individual sensors in the generated uncertain querying order shows that the best‐case scenario within a specified time interval showed a gain of 10 percent to 20 percent over the worst‐case scenario, which reduces the total transmission time by around 50 percent.

Practical implications

The proposed query‐based data aggregation model can be utilized to predict the non‐deterministic real‐time behavior of the wireless sensor network in response to the flooded queries by the base station.

Originality/value

This paper employs a novel framework to analyze all possible ordering of sensor responses to be aggregated at the base station within the stipulated aggregating time interval.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Sami Habib and Maytham Safar

The purpose of this paper is to propose a four‐level hierarchy model for multimedia documents representation to be used during the dynamic scheduling and altering of multimedia…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a four‐level hierarchy model for multimedia documents representation to be used during the dynamic scheduling and altering of multimedia contents.

Design/methodology/approach

The four‐level hierarchy model (object, operation, timing, and precedence), offers a fine‐grain representation of multimedia contents and is embedded within a research tool, which is called WEBCAP. WEBCAP utilizes the four‐level hierarchy to synchronize the retrieval of objects in the multimedia document employing Allen's temporal relations, and then applies the Bellman‐Ford's algorithm on the precedence graph to schedule all operations (fetch, transmit, process, and render), while satisfying the in‐time updating and all web workload's resources constraints.

Findings

The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model in scheduling the periodical updating multimedia documents while considering a variety of workloads on web/TCP.

Research limitations/implications

WEBCAP should be enhanced to automatically measure and/or approximate the available bandwidth of the system using sophisticated measurement of end‐to‐end connectivity. In addition, WEBCAP should be expanded and enhanced to examine system infrastructure for more real‐time applications, such as tele‐medicine and e‐learning.

Practical implications

WEBCAP can be used as an XML markup language for describing multimedia presentations. It can be used to create online presentations similar to PowerPoint on desktop environment, or used as an interactive e‐learning tool. An HTML browser may use a WEBCAP plug‐in to display a WEBCAP document embedded in an HTML/XML page.

Originality/value

This paper proposed a dynamic scheduling of multimedia documents with frequent updates taking into consideration the network's workload to reduce the packet lost ratio in the TCP flow, especially in the early stages. WEBCAP can be used to guide distributed systems designers/managers to schedule or tune their resources for optimal or near optimal performance, subject to minimizing the cost of document retrieval while satisfying the in time constraints.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1989

Ghazi Habib and Sami Kassem

Despite the importance of the service sectors in the world economy,research related to services only recently attracted the attention ofmarketers. As a result, far more research…

Abstract

Despite the importance of the service sectors in the world economy, research related to services only recently attracted the attention of marketers. As a result, far more research and writings have been concerned with goods than services. This would not really matter if the problems encountered in services marketing were identical to their counterparts in goods marketing. This article highlights the importance and characteristics of the service sector in the Western world and the Arab Gulf. It has been argued that the Arab Gulf States are service societies where more than 60 per cent of their labourforce is employed in service‐related industries. Intangibility, functional inseparability, perishability, and difficulty of controlling quality are universal features which differentiate service from goods‐producing industries. Service establishments in the Arab Gulf States are unique, however. They are characterised by the absence of service tradition, high operating costs, poor marketing, uneven quality, a regulated market environment, and a lack of indigenous innovations.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 23 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Sami J. Habib and Paulvanna N. Marimuthu

Continuous exposure and over‐utilization of sensors in harsh environments can lead some sensors to fail, and thereby not covering the service area effectively and efficiently. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Continuous exposure and over‐utilization of sensors in harsh environments can lead some sensors to fail, and thereby not covering the service area effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this paper is to propose a two‐level coverage restoration scheme for the failing sensors by the existing sensors deployed in the immediate neighborhood of the failing sensors. The restoration scheme extends the search process to the set of failed sensors' corner neighbors at a second stage, with non‐available immediate active neighboring sensors at its first stage. Thus, the coverage restoration scheme attempts to sustain a maximum area of coverage with failed sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have considered a wireless sensor network (WSN), comprised of sensors deployed in a grid‐based arrangement in an inaccessible arena. The authors have formulated the coverage restoration problem as an optimization problem, to find the nearest and most apt neighbor sensors to reach solutions of maximizing the coverage area with failed sensors, while minimizing the energy consumption. Simulated annealing has been utilized as a search algorithm to find out the neighboring sensors with maximal energy in the vicinity of the failed node to cover its area.

Findings

The experimental results within the optimization algorithm have demonstrated that the restoration scheme shows a better trade‐off in maximizing the coverage area up to 90 per cent with a decrease of 26 per cent lifespan. The performance of the algorithm is further improved with extended search space including the corner neighbors in addition to the immediate neighbors.

Practical implications

The proposed coverage restoration can be embedded within applications using WSN to restore the coverage and maintain its functionality with optimized energy consumption.

Originality/value

The paper employs a novel framework to restore the coverage of the failed sensors by doubling the sensing area of the neighborhood sensors, and it utilizes an optimization scheme to search for neighborhood sensors with maximal energy to extend the lifespan of WSN.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

Ghazi Habib, Ugur Yavas, Sami Kassem and Khalid Al‐Modaifer

The macro‐environment of the banking industry in Saudi Arabia is considered, the development of commercial banking is discussed, and present banking activities with regard to…

Abstract

The macro‐environment of the banking industry in Saudi Arabia is considered, the development of commercial banking is discussed, and present banking activities with regard to branches, services and promotion are examined. This comprehensive look at the Saudi bank marketing scene draws on the work of published writers, interviews with banking officials and the authors' own observations and experiences.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Ismail Khalil

429

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Mushtaq Luqmani, Ghazi M. Habib and Sami Kassem

This articles provides a managerial framework to examine and analyse factors that may influence government decision making in less developed countries. In order to market…

Abstract

This articles provides a managerial framework to examine and analyse factors that may influence government decision making in less developed countries. In order to market successfully to these buyers, a series of hurdles has to be cleared. These include meeting eligibility, following procedures, establishing critical linkages, developing competitive offers and exerting appropriate influence. International firms can enhance their success and profits by taking a serious, long‐term approach to these markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2024

Nian Lim (Vic) Lee, Mohamed Sami Khalaf, Magdy Farag and Mohamed Gomaa

This paper aims to investigate the impact of the implementation of the critical audit matters (CAMs) disclosure requirement and the subsequent relationship between CAM disclosures…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of the implementation of the critical audit matters (CAMs) disclosure requirement and the subsequent relationship between CAM disclosures and audit report lag, as well as audit fees in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used difference-in-differences analyses to investigate the impact that the implementation of the requirement for auditors to report CAMs on their audit report has on the audit process. It also used levels regression models to examine the relationship that CAM disclosures have with audit report lag and audit fees.

Findings

This study found that the implementation of the CAM disclosure requirement in the USA reduced audit report lag while not significantly affecting audit fees. This suggests that the CAM disclosure requirement may increase the cooperation between auditors and managers and improve the efficiency of the audit process.

Practical implications

This study’s results are informative for assessing the economic impact of requiring CAM disclosures, which should be of importance to regulators, auditors and accounting researchers.

Originality/value

This study used different approaches to investigate two aspects of the CAM disclosure requirement – the effect of the implementation of the disclosure requirement and the subsequent effects related to CAM reporting outcomes. Unlike many previous studies investigating CAM disclosures, which relied on experiments and questionnaires, this study used actual CAM disclosure data in the USA to investigate the impact on audit report lag and audit fees.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2024

Puteri Aina Megat, Fahd Al-Shaghdari, Besar Bin Ngah and Sami Samir Abdelfattah

The purpose of this study is to investigate the adoption of waqf technology (Waqftech) using blockchain smart contracts for corporate waqf crowdfunding. Despite the growing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the adoption of waqf technology (Waqftech) using blockchain smart contracts for corporate waqf crowdfunding. Despite the growing interest in Waqftech, Malaysian enterprises have not fully embraced this emerging technology because of uncertainty regarding the benefits it offers to contributors. The research incorporates two theoretical frameworks: the electronic data interchange (EDI) model for firms’ technology adoption, and the triple bottom line theory (TBL) for corporate social responsibility.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative method using a cross-sectional survey design with a five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used. Data was collected from 210 decision-makers representing small and medium-sized enterprises and analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings from this research suggest that Malaysian enterprises are influenced by both corporate and social predictive benefits when using blockchain crowdfunding, but not by environmental benefits. The adoption of blockchain smart contracts does not correlate with predictive environmental benefits because of misconceptions about the disruptive technology’s impact on biological and digital environmental preservation.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on organizational behavior rather than individual users of waqf crowdfunding, and it is limited, primarily focusing within Malaysia and regions with similar waqf structures.

Practical implications

The Waqftech framework allows innovative mechanisms for executing corporate waqf investment returns to the intended beneficiaries through the smart contracts’ platform. In addition, this study supports relevant corporate social responsibility and creating shared value technology adoption theories, including EDI and TBL. Aside from this, the study provides empirical implications for waqf management using fintech platforms.

Originality/value

This groundbreaking study focuses on creating a Waqftech model for corporate waqf crowdfunding. The results of this study are important for the development of government policies that support the use of Waqftech in charitable fundraising. More research on biological and digital environmental perspectives is proposed to foster investors’ confidence in the visibility of digital tracking and lead to swift investments in future metaverse fundraising platforms.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

M. Sami Kassem

Aims to fill the gap in understanding about services marketing inthe East. Uses an eclectic methodology in surveying services marketingin the Arabian Gulf, offering some East‐West…

Abstract

Aims to fill the gap in understanding about services marketing in the East. Uses an eclectic methodology in surveying services marketing in the Arabian Gulf, offering some East‐West comparison, including explanation for and implications of differences. Demonstrates that environmental constraints have great effects on services produced in a society, concluding that services mirror their society and its culture, history and socioeconomic circumstances.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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