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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Bengi Aygün and Vehbi Cagri Gungor

The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state‐of‐the‐art in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for structure health monitoring (SHM…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state‐of‐the‐art in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for structure health monitoring (SHM) applications and discuss the still‐open research issues in this field and, hence, to make the decision‐making process more effective and direct.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a comprehensive review of WSNs for SHM. It also introduces research challenges, opportunities, existing and potential applications. Network architecture and the state‐of‐the‐art wireless sensor communication technologies and standards are explained. Hardware and software of the existing systems are also clarified.

Findings

Existing applications and systems are presented along with their advantages and disadvantages. A comparison landscape and open research issues are also presented.

Originality/value

The paper presents a comprehensive and recent review of WSN systems for SHM applications along with open research issues.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Maulin Patel, S. Venkateson and R. Chandrasekaran

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy…

Abstract

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy supply. Many routing schemes proposed in the literature try to minimize the energy consumed in routing or maximize the lifetime of the sensor network without taking into consideration limited capacities of nodes and wireless links. This can lead to congestion, increased delay, packet losses and ultimately to retransmission of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper presents a Minimum‐cost Capacity‐constrained Routing (MCCR) protocol which minimize the total energy consumed in routing while guaranteeing that the total load on each sensor node and on each wireless link does not exceed its capacity. The protocol is derived from polynomial‐time minimum‐cost flow algorithms. Therefore protocol is simple and scalable. The paper improves the routing protocol in (1) to incorporate integrality, node capacity and link capacity constraints. This improved protocol is called Maximum Lifetime Capacity‐constrained Routing (MLCR). The objective of MLCR protocol is to maximize the time until the first battery drains its energy subject to the node capacity and link capacity constraints. A strongly polynomial time algorithm is proposed for a special case of MLCR problem when the energy consumed in transmission by a sensor node is constant. Simulations are performed to analyzed the performance of the proposed protocols.

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International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Qinglan Li, Jonathan Beaver, Ahmed Amer, Panos K. Chrysanthis, Alexandros Labrinidis and Ganesh Santhanakrishnan

Wireless sensor networks are expected to be an integral part of any pervasive computing environment. This implies an ever‐increasing need for efficient energy and resource…

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks are expected to be an integral part of any pervasive computing environment. This implies an ever‐increasing need for efficient energy and resource management of both the sensor nodes, as well as the overall sensor network, in order to meet the expected quality of data and service requirements. There have been numerous studies that have looked at the routing of data in sensor networks with the sole intention of reducing communication power consumption. However, there has been comparatively little prior art in the area of multi‐criteria based routing that exploit both the semantics of queries and the state of sensor nodes to improve network service longevity. In this paper, we look at routing in sensor networks from this perspective and propose an adaptive multi‐criteria routing protocol. Our algorithm offers automated reconfiguration of the routing tree as demanded by variations in the network state to meet application service requirements. Our experimental results show that our approach consistently outperforms, in terms of Network Lifetime and Coverage, the leading semantic‐based routing algorithm which reconfigures the routing tree at fixed periods.

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International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

Kiran Modukari, Salim Hariri, Nader V. Chalfoun and Mazin Yousif

Programming Sensor Networks currently is a subtle task not because of enormous amount of code but due to inherent limitations of embedded hardware like the power, memory…

Abstract

Programming Sensor Networks currently is a subtle task not because of enormous amount of code but due to inherent limitations of embedded hardware like the power, memory, network bandwidth and clock speed. In addition, there are very few programming abstractions and standards available which lead to close coupling between the application code and the embedded OS requiring understanding of low‐level primitives during implementation. A Middleware can provide glue code between the applications and the heterogeneity of devices by providing optimized set of services for autonomously managing the resources and functionality of wireless nodes in a distributed wireless sensor network. This paper presents an autonomous middleware framework for low power distributed wireless sensor networks that support adaptive sensor functionality, context aware communications, clustering, quality of service and faulttolerance. Finally an application on how to use the autonomous middleware is illustrated on the Envelope System Research Apparatus (ESRA).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Chirihane Gherbi, Zibouda Aliouat and Mohamed Benmohammed

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches…

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Abstract

Purpose

In particular, this paper aims to systematically analyze a few prominent wireless sensor network (WSN) clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to the taxonomy and several significant metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have summarized recent research results on data routing in sensor networks and classified the approaches into four main categories, namely, data-centric, hierarchical, location-based and quality of service (QoS)-aware, and the authors have discussed the effect of node placement strategies on the operation and performance of WSNs.

Originality/value

Performance-controlled planned networks, where placement and routing must be intertwined and everything from delays to throughput to energy requirements is well-defined and relevant, is an interesting subject of current and future research. Real-time, deadline guarantees and their relationship with routing, mac-layer, duty-cycles and other protocol stack issues are interesting issues that would benefit from further research.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Jenhui Chen and Chien‐Chun Joe Chou

Wireless sensor networks consist of a large number of nodes with limited battery power and sensing components, which can be used for sensing specified events and gather…

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks consist of a large number of nodes with limited battery power and sensing components, which can be used for sensing specified events and gather wanted or interesting information via wireless links. It will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. There is a need of energy‐efficient message collection and power management methods to prolong the lifetime of the sensor network. Many methods, such as clustering algorithm, are investigated for power saving reason, however, they only consider reducing the amount of message deliveries by clustering but not the load balance of the clusters to extend the maximum lifetime of the network. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a fully distributed, randomized, and adaptable clustering mechanism named autonomous clustering and message passing (ACMP) protocol for improving energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks. Sensor nodes, according to ACMP, can cluster themselves autonomously by their remaining energy and dynamically choose a corresponding cluster head (CH) to transfer the collected information. Sensor nodes adjust an appropriate power level to form clusters and use minimum energy to exchange messages. The network topology is changed dynamically depending on the CH's energy. Moreover, by maintaining the remaining energy of each node, the traffic load is distributed to all nodes and thus prolong the network lifetime efficiently. Simulation results show that ACMP can achieve a highly energy saving effect as well as prolong the network lifetime.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Brendan O'Flynn, S. Bellis, K. Mahmood, M. Morris, G. Duffy, K. Delaney and C. O'Mathuna

To describe the development of a three dimensional programmable transceiver system of modular design for use as a development tool for a variety of wireless sensor node…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the development of a three dimensional programmable transceiver system of modular design for use as a development tool for a variety of wireless sensor node applications.

Design/methodology/approach

As a stepping‐stone towards the development of wireless nodes, sensor networks programme was put in place to develop a 25 mm cube module, which was modular in construction, programmable and miniaturised in form factor. This was to facilitate the development of wireless sensor networks for a variety of different applications. The nodes are used as a platform for sensing and actuating through various parameters, for use in scalable, reconfigurable distributed autonomous sensing networks in a number of research projects currently underway in the Tyndall Institute, as well as other institutes and in a variety of research programs in the area of wireless sensor networks.

Findings

The modular construction enables the heterogeneous implementation of a variety of technologies required in the arena of wireless sensor networks: Intelligence, numerical processing, memory, sensors, power supply and conditioning, all in a similar form factor. This enables rapid deployment of different sensor network nodes in an application specific fashion.

Research limitations/implications

Characterisation of the transceiver module is ongoing, particularly in the field of the wireless communication platform utilized, and its capabilities.

Practical implications

A rapid prototyping and development cycle of application specific wireless sensor networks has been enabled by the development of this modular system.

Originality/value

This paper provides information about the development work and some potential application areas made available by the implementation of a miniaturised modular wireless sensor node for use in a variety of application scenarios.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Kate A. Remley, Galen Koepke, Chris Holloway, Dennis Camell and Chriss Grosvenor

The purpose of this paper is to describe common methods for evaluating the performance of wireless devices such as wireless sensors in harsh radio environments.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe common methods for evaluating the performance of wireless devices such as wireless sensors in harsh radio environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes how measurements of real‐world propagation environments can be used to support the evaluation process, then presents representative measurement data from multipath environments where sensor networks are likely to be deployed: a fixed‐infrastructure, process‐control environment (here an oil refinery), and a heavy industrial environment (here an automotive assembly plant).

Findings

Results on the characterization of multipath in the propagation channel are summarized and how these results may be used in the performance evaluation of sensor networks is discussed.

Originality/value

The paper describes measurement results from environments where little open‐literature data exists on point‐to‐point propagation, specifically high‐multipath environments. These highly reflective scenarios can present difficulties for deployment of sensor networks.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Zhen Cao, Jianbin Hu, Zhong Chen, Maoxing Xu and Xia Zhou

Wireless sensor networks, due to their potentially wide application perspectives, may proliferate in future. Two major stumbling blocks are the dynamic variance of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Wireless sensor networks, due to their potentially wide application perspectives, may proliferate in future. Two major stumbling blocks are the dynamic variance of the network caused by both the capacity constraint of sensor nodes and uncertainties of wireless links, and secure routing in the special security sensitive environment. Therefore, adaptable and defendable routing mechanism is in urgent need for the deployment of sensor networks. This paper aims to propose a feedback‐based secure routing protocol (FBSR).

Design/methodology/approach

Feedback from the neighboring nodes serves as the dynamic information of the current network, with which sensor nodes make forwarding decisions in a secure and energy aware manner. Feedback message is included in the MAC layer acknowledgement frame to avoid network congestion, and it is authenticated with the proposed Keyed One Way Hash Chain (Keyed‐OWHC) to avoid feedback fabrication. FBSR's resilience to node compromise is enhanced by statistic efforts accomplished by the base station.

Findings

Both mathematical analysis and simulation results show that FBSR is not only reliable but also energy efficient.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a novel routing scheme for wireless sensor networks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Nabeena Ameen, Najumnissa Jamal and Arun Raj

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook, but because of sensor's resource limitations and other prerequisites, optimal dual route discovery becomes an issue of concern. WSN along with central sink node is capable of handling wireless transmission, thus optimizing the network's lifetime by selecting the dual path. The major problem confronted in the application of security mechanisms in WSNs is resolving the issues amid reducing consumption of resources and increases security.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the proposed system, two metrics, namely, path length and packets delivery ratio are incorporated for identifying dual routes amid the source and destination. Thereafter by making use of the distance metric, the optimal dual route is chosen and data transmission is carried out amid the nodes. With the usage of the recommended routing protocol high packet delivery ratio is achieved with reduced routing overhead and low average end to end delay. It is clearly portrayed in the simulation output that the proposed on demand dual path routing protocol surpasses the prevailing routing protocol. Moreover, security is achieved make use of in accord the data compression reduces the size of the data. With the help of dual path, mathematical model of Finite Automata Theory is derived to transmit data from source to destination. Finite Automata Theory comprises Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) that is being utilized for Dual Path Selection. In addition, data transition functions are defined for each input stage. In this proposed work, another mathematical model is 10; introduced to efficiently choose an alternate path between a receiver and transmitter for data transfer with qualified node as relay node using RR Algorithm. It also includes Dynamic Mathematical Model for Node Localization to improve the precision in location estimation using Node Localization Algorithm. As a result a simulator is built and various scenarios are elaborated for comparing the performance of the recommended dual path routing protocol with respect to the prevailing ones.

Findings

Reliability and fault-tolerance: The actual motive in utilizing the approach of multipath routing in sensor network was to offer path resilience in case of a node or link failures thus ascertaining reliable transmission of data. Usually in a fault tolerant domain, when the sensor node is unable to forward the data packets to the sink, alternative paths can be utilized for recovering its data packets during the failure of any link/node. Load balancing: Load balancing involves equalizing energy consumption of all the existing nodes, thereby degrading them together. Load balancing via clustering improves network scalability. The network's lifetime as well as reliability can be extended if varied energy level's nodes exist in sensor node. Quality of service (QoS): Improvement backing of quality of service with respect to the data delivery ratio, network throughput and end-to-end latency stands very significant in building multipath routing protocols for various network types. Reduced delay: There is a reduced delay in multipath routing since the backup routes are determined at the time of route discovery. Bandwidth aggregation: By dividing the data toward the same destination into multiple streams (by routing all to a separate path) can aggregate the effective bandwidth. The benefit being that, in case a node possesses many links with low bandwidth, it can acquire a bandwidth which is more compared to the individual link.

Research limitations/implications

Few more new algorithms can be used to compare the QoS parameters.

Practical implications

Proposed mechanism with feedback ascertains improvised delivery ratio compared to the single path protocol since in case of link failure, the protocol has alternative route. In case there are 50 nodes in the network, the detection mechanism yields packet delivery of 95% and in case there are 100 nodes, the packet delivery is lowered to 89%. It is observed that the packet rate in the network is more for small node range. When the node count is 200, the packet ratio is low, which is lowered to 85%. With a node count of 400, the curve depicts the value of 87%. Hence, even with a decrease in value, it is superior than the existing protocols. The average end-to-end delay represents the transmission delay of the data packets that have been successfully delivered as depicted in Figure 6 and Table 3. The recommended system presents the queue as well as the propagation delay from the source to destination. The figure depicts that when compared to the single path protocol, the end-to-end delay can be reduced via route switching. End-to-end delay signifies the time acquired for the delay in the receival of the the retransmitted packet by each node. The comparison reveals that the delay was lower compared to the existing ones in the WSN. Proposed protocol aids in reducing consumption of energy in transmitter, receiver and various sensors. Comparative analysis of energy consumptions of the sensor in regard to the recommended system must exhibit reduced energy than the prevailing systems.

Originality/value

On demand dual path routing protocol. Hence it is verified that the on demand routing protocol comprises DFA algorithms determines dual path. Here mathematical model for routing between two nodes with relay node is derived using RR algorithm to determine alternate path and thus reduce energy consumption. Another dynamic mathematical model for node localization is derived using localization algorithm. For transmitting data with a secure and promising QoS in the WSNs, the routing optimization technique has been introduced. The simulation software environment follows the DFA. The simulation yields in improvised performance with respect to packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end-to-end delay and routing overhead. So, it is proved that the DFA possesses the capability of optimizing the routing algorithms which facilitates the multimedia applications over WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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