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Book part
Publication date: 12 February 2013

Manu Goswami

This essay seeks to extend the original gambit of this forum, of thinking possible modes of postcolonial sociology, unto a more relational terrain. It takes as its point…

Abstract

This essay seeks to extend the original gambit of this forum, of thinking possible modes of postcolonial sociology, unto a more relational terrain. It takes as its point of departure the vexed status of history in sociology and the hermeneutic suspicion of comparison in postcolonial theory. Any potential rapprochement between postcolonial theory and sociology must engage with the deeply incongruent status of history and comparison across these fields. I attempt to bridge this divide historically by revisiting an anti-imperial internationalist sociology forged in interwar colonial India. I seek thereby to show what Pierre Bourdieu called a “particular case of the possible” and to participate in ongoing efforts to “provincialize” sociology.

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Postcolonial Sociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-603-3

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Case study
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Sonu Goyal and Sanjay Dhamija

The case “Corporate Governance Failure at Ricoh India: Rebuilding Lost Trust” discusses the series of events post disclosure of falsification of the accounts and violation…

Abstract

Subject area

The case “Corporate Governance Failure at Ricoh India: Rebuilding Lost Trust” discusses the series of events post disclosure of falsification of the accounts and violation of accounting principles, leading to a loss of INR 11.23bn for the company, eroding over 75 per cent of its market cap (Financial Express, 2016). The case provides an opportunity for students to understand the key components of corporate governance structure and consequences of poor corporate governance. The case highlights the responsibility of the board of directors, audit committee and external auditors and discusses the changes required in the corporate governance structure necessary to ensure that such incidents do not take place. The case also delves into the classic dilemma of degree of control that needs to be exercised by the parent over its subsidiaries and freedom of independence given to the subsidiary board, which is a constant challenge all multinationals face. Such a dilemma often leads to the challenge of creating appropriate corporate governance structures for numerous subsidiaries.

Study level/applicability

The case is intended for MBA courses on corporate governance, business ethics and also for the strategic management courses in the context of multinational corporations. The case can be used to develop an understanding of the essential of corporate governance with special focus on the role of the board of directors, audit committee and external auditors. The case highlights the consequences and cost of poor corporate governance. The case can also be used for highlighting governance challenges in the parent subsidiary relationship for multinational corporations. The case can be used for executive training purposes on corporate governance and leadership with special focus on business ethics.

Case overview

This case presents the challenges faced by the newly appointed Chairman Noboru Akahane of Ricoh India. In July 2016, Ricoh India, the Indian arm of Japanese firm Ricoh, admitted that the company’s accounts had been falsified and accounting principles violated, leading to a loss of INR 11.23 bn for the financial year 2016. The minority shareholders were agitating against the board of directors of Ricoh India and were also holding the parent company responsible for not safeguarding their interest. Over a period of 18 months, Ricoh India had been in the eye of a storm that involved delayed reporting of financials, auditor red flags regarding accounting irregularities, a forensic audit, suspension of top officials and a police complaint lodged by Ricoh India against its own officials. Akahane needed to ensure continuity of Ricoh India’s business and also act quickly and decisively to manage the crisis and ensure that these incidents did not recur in the future.

Expected learning outcomes

The case provides an opportunity for students to understand the key components of corporate governance structure and consequences of poor corporate governance. More specifically, the case addresses the following objectives: provide an overview of corporate governance structure; highlight the role of board of directors, audit committee and external auditors; appreciate the rationale behind mandatory auditor rotation; appreciate the consequences of poor corporate structure; explore the interrelationship between sustainability reporting and transparency in financial disclosures of a corporation; understand management and governance of subsidiaries by multinational companies; and understand the response to a crisis situation.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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Abstract

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Messy Data
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-303-8

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

S. Sarkar

Probiotics are known to extend health benefits and therefore may be included during yoghurt manufacture to enhance its prophylactic properties. Different probiotic strains…

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Abstract

Purpose

Probiotics are known to extend health benefits and therefore may be included during yoghurt manufacture to enhance its prophylactic properties. Different probiotic strains may exhibit diverse biotechnological behaviour in association with yoghurt cultures, therefore interactive behaviour amongst probiotic and yoghurt cultures must be evaluated prior to their commercial application. This paper aims to assess the effect of inclusion of different probiotic cultures on various biotechnological (technological, dietetic and prophylactic) characteristics of yoghurt cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Yoghurt was assessed for technological characteristics based on acidification and flavour production, dietetic characteristics based on proteolytic activity, vitamin synthesis and L (+) lactic acid production and prophylactic characteristics based on β‐galactosidase activity, antibacterial spectrum, viability in product as well as during gastro‐intestinal transit, intestinal colonization, immunomodulation, anti‐carcinogenicity and hypocholesterolemic effect.

Findings

Different probiotic cultures exhibited diverse technological, dietetic and prophylactic behaviour in association with yoghurt cultures. Functional properties of traditional yoghurt could be enhanced with the combined introduction of probiotic cultures such as Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and the resultant product may be recommended for consumption as a dietary adjunct.

Originality/value

The paper shows that combined introduction of probiotic cultures such as B. bifidum, B. infantis and L. acidophilus, as microbial additives during the manufacture of yoghurt would result in a product with enhanced functional properties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

S. Sarkar and A.K. Misra

Prophylactic characteristics of plain acidophilus milk could be further enhanced with the incorporation of certain probiotic or beneficial organisms. This research…

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431

Abstract

Purpose

Prophylactic characteristics of plain acidophilus milk could be further enhanced with the incorporation of certain probiotic or beneficial organisms. This research undertakes to evaluate the technological and dietetic characteristics of probiotic acidophilus milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii during storage.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of incorporation of Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 as microbial additives during the manufacture and storage of acidophilus milk made from skimmed milk at 8±1 °C for seven days were evaluated. Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated on the basis of various technological (titratable acidity, volatile acidity, diacetyl and acetoin production and extent of proteolysis) and dietetic (lactic acid content, lactose hydrolyzing activity, antibacterial activity, viable population of lactobacilli, propionibacteria, bifidobacteria) characteristics.

Findings

Probiotic acidophilus milk obtained with the conjugated application of Lactobacillus acidophilus R, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI retained its dietetic characteristics up to seven days of storage at 8±1 °C and its consumption may be advantageous over plain acidophilus milk due to its enhanced prophylactic features.

Research limitations/implications

Mineral and vitamin estimation of probiotic acidophilus milk, animal and infant feeding trials must be conducted.

Practical implications

Conjugated application of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI as microbial additives during the manufacture of acidophilus milk may be suggested to enhance its prophylactic features.

Originality/value

Conjugated application of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and B. bifidum NDRI as microbial additives with L. acidophilus R during the manufacture of acidophilus milk is suggested to enhance the prophylactic features of plain acidophilus milk. Consumption of probiotic acidophilus milk as a dietary adjunct can be recommended.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2018

S. Sarkar

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic…

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2351

Abstract

Purpose

Yoghurt is most popular and more acceptable throughout the world because of its general positive image among consumers because of its diverse nutritional and therapeutic properties and can be the most suitable probiotic carrier. Key factors for consumer’s inclination towards functional foods are increased awareness for healthy foods because of health deterioration resulting from busy lifestyles, growing healthcare cost and the aspiration for an improved quality life in later years. Yoghurt is still not consumed in certain parts of the world because of a lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt and further people are not aware of the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption. In this study an attempt has been to project probiotic yoghurt as a functional food in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and their behavior in association with diverse probiotic cultures. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures in association with probiotics and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with fortification of minerals and vitamins or inclusion of probiotic cultures. Diversity in biochemical behavior yoghurt cultures in association with different probiotic cultures has been reported. Conjugated application of probiotics with yoghurt cultures would result in a product with enhanced functional properties to extend health benefits.

Originality/value

Inclusion of probiotic cultures in yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt, thus providing necessary nutrients, improving health and preventing or reducing nutrition-related diseases. Regular intake of probiotic yoghurt is suggested for healthy lifestyles, as it will help in retaining their health and reduce the potentially long-term risk of disease. Food industries can have profit-driven business by projecting the probiotic yoghurt as a functional food.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Sudipta Ghosh, P. Venkateswaran and Subir Kumar Sarkar

High packaging density in the present VLSI era builds an acute power crisis, which limits the use of MOSFET device as a constituent block in CMOS technology. This leads…

Abstract

Purpose

High packaging density in the present VLSI era builds an acute power crisis, which limits the use of MOSFET device as a constituent block in CMOS technology. This leads researchers in looking for alternative devices, which can replace the MOSFET in CMOS VLSI logic design. In a quest for alternative devices, tunnel field effect transistor emerged as a potential alternative in recent times. The purpose of this study is to enhance the performances of the proposed device structure and make it compatible with circuit implementation. Finally, the performances of that circuit are compared with CMOS circuit and a comparative study is made to find the superiority of the proposed circuit with respect to conventional CMOS circuit.

Design/methodology/approach

Silicon–germanium heterostructure is currently one of the most promising architectures for semiconductor devices such as tunnel field effect transistor. Analytical modeling is computed and programmed with MATLAB software. Two-dimensional device simulation is performed by using Silvaco TCAD (ATLAS). The modeled results are validated through the ATLAS simulation data. Therefore, an inverter circuit is implemented with the proposed device. The circuit is simulated with the Tanner EDA tool to evaluate its performances.

Findings

The proposed optimized device geometry delivers exceptionally low OFF current (order of 10^−18 A/um), fairly high ON current (5x10^−5 A/um) and a steep subthreshold slope (20 mV/decade) followed by excellent ON–OFF current ratio (order of 10^13) compared to the similar kind of heterostructures. With a very low threshold voltage, even lesser than 0.1 V, the proposed device emerged as a good replacement of MOSFET in CMOS-like digital circuits. Hence, the device is implemented to construct a resistive inverter to study the circuit performances. The resistive inverter circuit is compared with a resistive CMOS inverter circuit. Both the circuit performances are analyzed and compared in terms of power dissipation, propagation delay and power-delay product. The outcomes of the experiments prove that the performance matrices of heterojunction Tunnel FET (HTFET)-based inverter are way ahead of that of CMOS-based inverter.

Originality/value

Germanium–silicon HTFET with stack gate oxide is analytically modeled and optimized in terms of performance matrices. The device performances are appreciable in comparison with the device structures published in contemporary literature. CMOS-like resistive inverter circuit, implemented with this proposed device, performs well and outruns the circuit performances of the conventional CMOS circuit at 45-nm technological node.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 29 December 2017

Jitendra Kumar Singh, Gauri Shenker Seth and Saikh Ghousia Begum

The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical study on an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a rotating viscoelastic fluid over an infinite…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical study on an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a rotating viscoelastic fluid over an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a uniform porous medium with oscillating free-stream taking Hall and ion-slip currents into account. The unsteady MHD flow in the rotating fluid system is generated due to the buoyancy forces arising from temperature and concentration differences in the field of gravity and oscillatory movement of the free-stream.

Design/methodology/approach

The resulting partial differential equations governing the fluid motion are solved analytically using the regular perturbation method by assuming a very small viscoelastic parameter. In order to note the influences of various system parameters and to discuss the important flow features, the numerical results for fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are computed and depicted graphically vs boundary layer parameter whereas skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number at the plate are computed and presented in tabular form.

Findings

An interesting observation is recorded that there occurs a reversal flow in the secondary flow direction due to the movement of the free stream. It is also noted that a decrease in the suction parameter gives a rise in momentum, thermal and concentration boundary layer thicknesses.

Originality/value

Very little research work is reported in the literature on non-Newtonian fluid dynamics where unsteady flow in the system arises due to time-dependent movement of the plate. The motive of the present analytical study is to analyse the influences of Hall and ion-slip currents on unsteady MHD natural convection flow of a rotating viscoelastic fluid (non-Newtonian fluid) over an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a uniform porous medium with oscillating free-stream.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

S. Sarkar and S. Chandra

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent societal interest in healthful foods has led to the development of functional dairy products that basically provide health benefits in addition to their fundamental nutrients. Yoghurt being most popular fermented milk product due to its healthy image can be an excellent carrier for probiotics. Functional properties of yoghurt can be enhanced with the inclusion of functional ingredients such as probiotics and its conjugate application with prebiotics may be advantageous as it favors probiotic growth. Nutritional and medicinal value of honey coupled with presence of oligosaccharides has projected honey as a functional additive in yoghurt.

Design/methodology/approach

Attempt has been made to review the literature on the biochemical activities of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey. Both review and research papers related to biochemical activities and functional properties of yoghurt cultures and probiotics in presence of honey and their health benefits published in diverse journals under Pub Med and Science Direct have been considered. Keywords used for data search included functional foods, yoghurt, probiotic, health benefits, honey, etc.

Findings

Functional properties of yoghurt can be further enhanced with the inclusion of probiotic cultures and honey. Honey can be safely used in association with different probiotic cultures during yoghurt manufacture for augmenting functional properties of yoghurt to extend health benefits. Honey may not be equally a suitable matrix for all yoghurt cultures or probiotic cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Reviewed literature indicated that limited research on animal or human feeding trials with honey containing yoghurt has been done. Clinical trials with honey containing yoghurt are emerging prior to its marketing as functional food.

Originality/value

Application of honey as a functional additive during the manufacture of probiotic yoghurt is suggested to extend the functional properties of normal yoghurt.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2020

Piyush Gupta, Piyush Pranjal, Sasadhar Bera, Soumya Sarkar and Amit Sachan

Considerable amount of purchases in business-to-business (B2B) markets make through the tendering process. As technology keeps driving B2B procurement, both the…

Abstract

Purpose

Considerable amount of purchases in business-to-business (B2B) markets make through the tendering process. As technology keeps driving B2B procurement, both the supplier/contractor and buyer firms have settled down in their respective roles in the electronic-tendering environment. Researchers have ignored the supplier-side e-tender-driven marketing process that might lead to substantively successful financial performance. The purpose of this study is to improve the performance of an e-tender-driven marketing process of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) incorporating the stakeholder's inputs.

Design/methodology/approach

Discrete event simulation modelling (DESM) has been used as a methodology to model, analyse and improve the process with the involvement of stakeholders at every stage of the study. Different scenarios are analysed to identify the near-optimal scenario based on agreed-upon key performance indicators.

Findings

Scenario that incorporated man-power sharing and eliminating avoidable activities gives the near-optimal solution for implementation.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights that better insights can be gained by adopting the process-oriented view of the marketing–operations interface. Embracing a stakeholder-based consultative approach gives research a more practical outlook and reduces the gap between theory and practice. Suggestions for further research are provided.

Practical implications

B2B organizations, where lines between marketing and operations are blurred, can improve their marketing processes by implementing operations research tools.

Originality/value

This study provides an attempt to improve the performance of a supplier-side e-tender-driven marketing process of an OEM using the DESM methodology incorporating stakeholder's inputs.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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