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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Jeffrey W. Lucas, Kristin Kerns-D'Amore, Michael J. Lovaglia, Shane D. Soboroff and Jasmón Bailey

To use a behavioral measure of legitimacy to study how differences in negotiating style and status affect the legitimacy of persons in high-power network positions…

Abstract

Purpose

To use a behavioral measure of legitimacy to study how differences in negotiating style and status affect the legitimacy of persons in high-power network positions. Predictions include (1) that powerful network actors who negotiate using a pro-group style will maintain legitimacy better than will those who negotiate selfishly and (2) those higher in status will be granted more legitimacy both before and after exchange than powerful actors lower in status.

Method

An experimental study in which participants were connected in networks to powerful partners who were portrayed as consistently high or low on several status characteristics. Both before and after exchange, participants evaluated partners on a number of dimensions and made decisions on whether to vote to join a coalition to take the partner's power away, a direct behavioral indicator of legitimacy.

Findings

High-power partners lost legitimacy over the course of exchange irrespective of whether they negotiated in pro-group or selfish ways, and irrespective of whether they were high or low in status. This effect was pronounced for partners who negotiated selfishly. Although partner status predicted legitimacy prior to exchange, legitimacy evaluations after exchange appeared entirely driven by the partner's negotiating style (how the power was used) and not by status.

Research Implications

The project introduces a new behavioral measure of legitimacy that correlated highly with self-report items and should be of value in future research. The study also indicates promising directions for future research that might disentangle effects of power and status on legitimacy, along with adjudicating among explanations for why this study did not find status effects on legitimacy.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-153-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 December 2021

Nathaniel Ayinde Olatunde

Advocates of structured stakeholder management (SM) processes have emphasized the use of the appropriate strategies as the most important process in SM. Yet, research…

Abstract

Purpose

Advocates of structured stakeholder management (SM) processes have emphasized the use of the appropriate strategies as the most important process in SM. Yet, research effort in this regard in developing countries has been inadequate. The purpose of the study was to examine the SM strategies used on building projects procured by private corporate organisations in south-western Nigeria to enhance project performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a census survey to select 30 projects managers who indicated (from 106 who responded to a first stage questionnaire) that they have participated in structured SM in the study area between 2008 and 2017. A second-stage questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the respondents. Data analysis was done with the use of frequency, percentile and mean score (MS) and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

Stakeholders with high power and high interest were managed with the use of “collaborate/partner” strategy (MS = 3.86), stakeholders with high power and low interest were “kept satisfied” (MS = 4.09), stakeholders with low power and high interest were managed by using “keep them informed regularly” strategy (MS = 4.10) and stakeholders with low power and low interest were managed using “monitor and respond when necessary” strategy (M = 3.94). Further results show that static stakeholders with high power were managed by using the “monitor constantly” strategy (MS = 4.11), stakeholders with high power, high legitimacy and high urgency were managed by adopting the “keep satisfied” strategy (MS = 4.26), to manage non-supportive stakeholders, project managers adopted the “keep satisfied” strategy (MS = 4.18) and supportive stakeholders were managed by using “involved” strategy (MS = 4.02). More results showed that there is no significant difference in the opinion of project managers on SM strategies employed irrespective of procurement method.

Practical implications

The study provided a guide to project managers on the appropriate SM strategies to use for future projects.

Originality/value

The study was an attempt to appraise the SM strategies in relation to the procurement methods and their relationship with project performance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

Kalyani Menon and Harvir S. Bansal

This research seeks to investigate consumer experiences of social power during service consumption. Specifically, this research examines the causes and consequences…

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Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to investigate consumer experiences of social power during service consumption. Specifically, this research examines the causes and consequences (cognition, expectations, emotions, and emotion expression) of consumer experiences of high and low power; and, given the key role of emotions in the experience and outcome of services, examines how emotions and emotion expression impacted satisfaction for high and low power consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 195 adult consumers of a range of services responded to a self‐administered survey with a mix of qualitative and quantitative measures.

Findings

The data show that most experiences of power occurred in high contact services, underlining the social nature of consumer power. While high power experiences occurred due to consumer knowledge, service failure accounted for low power experiences. High power consumers have greater self‐oriented action thoughts while low power consumers have greater ruminative thoughts. There was no statistical difference in the provider‐oriented cognition for high and low power consumers. High power consumers expect providers to focus on the core service while low power consumers have expectations regarding the interpersonal component of service delivery. High power consumers feel more positive emotions, less negative emotions and greater satisfaction than low power consumers, but there was no difference in the expressivity of emotions. Emotion expression mediated the relationship between emotions and satisfaction for high power consumers but not for low power consumers.

Originality/value

This is assumed to be the first investigation of consumer experiences of power, an important construct in understanding of consumer‐service provider interactions during service consumption.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Pianpian Yang and Qingyu Zhang

This research aims to investigate how consumers’ authentic pride versus hubristic pride affects different construal levels of mind-sets and subsequent product evaluation…

1177

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate how consumers’ authentic pride versus hubristic pride affects different construal levels of mind-sets and subsequent product evaluation by activating local versus global cognitive appraisal tendencies. Furthermore, this research also examines how lay theories impact the effects of pride on construal levels and how power moderates the effect of hubristic versus authentic pride on product preferences varying in construal levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on cognitive appraisal and construal level theories, this research conducts eight experimental studies to test the hypotheses with an ANOVA, bootstrap analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. The details of the experiments are presented in the paper.

Findings

The results show that people feeling authentic (hubristic) pride dominantly adopt a lower (higher) level of construal, and consequently put more weight on feasibility over desirability (desirability over feasibility) attributes. Authentic pride’s inclination to appeal behavior-specific appraisals triggers local appraisal tendencies and bestows lower construal levels, whereas hubristic pride’s inclination to connect the entire self triggers global appraisal tendencies and confers higher construal levels. Incremental (vs entity) theorists are likely to attribute the pride experience to their efforts (traits), and thus feel authentic (hubristic) pride. Furthermore, the product preferences of people experiencing authentic vs hubristic pride depend on their power state.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding the importance of this research, it is worthwhile to note some of its limitations to encourage future research. First, eight studies in the lab were conducted, but no real behavior study was conducted. Although there is a high correlation between the results of lab studies and those of real behavior studies, the authors encourage future researches to elicit the consumers’ pride in the actual consumption situation using a real behavior study. Furthermore, this research mainly focuses on pride, and does not examine other positive emotions, e.g. happiness. Therefore, the authors encourage future research to examine other positive emotions.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that it is appropriate to use construal levels to match consumers’ pride types. In fact, marketers can induce hubristic pride or authentic pride in ads by simply using words or sentences (“feeling proud because of your hard work” or “feeling proud, you are so superior and remarkably unique”), and present either higher- or lower-level construal of desired behaviors to improve advertising effects.

Originality/value

The research contributes to literature by documenting how hubristic/authentic pride can affect distinct construal levels via activating global/local appraisal tendencies. And this research thoroughly illustrates the mechanism by which hubristic/authentic pride activates global versus local appraisal tendencies. More importantly, this research finds how lay theories affect construal level given a pride experience and it also corroborates the moderating effects of power in the proposed relationship, which establish the boundary conditions of the effects of prides on construal levels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Arif Nazir Butt and Jin Nam Choi

This paper aims to enrich the literature on negotiation by theorizing and empirically validating that power is an important moderator of the relationship between…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to enrich the literature on negotiation by theorizing and empirically validating that power is an important moderator of the relationship between negotiator emotion and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 322 students of an MBA program and executive education programs. The students participated in a two‐stage, mixed‐motive negotiation simulation during which they reported pre‐negotiation emotion, as well as their negotiation behavior.

Findings

The empirical analyzes showed that the relationship between negotiator emotion and behavior was stronger for high‐power negotiators than for their lowpower counterparts. Interestingly, high‐ and lowpower negotiators' emotions were more predictive of their dominating and yielding behavior, respectively. Perhaps, because of their dependence, lowpower negotiators were more sensitive and responsive to the emotions of their high‐power counterparts than vice versa. The results also showed that lowpower negotiators' gratitude substantially reduces their distributive outcome.

Originality/value

The analysis revealed that the strength and the nature of the relationship between emotions and negotiator behavior depend on the power of the negotiator. The paper highlights the need for further theoretical specification with regard to boundary conditions for understanding the role of emotional states in the negotiation context.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Kyriaki Fousiani, Kiki Margaretha Maria De Jonge and Georgios Michelakis

The literature regarding the effect of power on negotiation strategies remains scattered and inconsistent. This study aims to propose that the effect of power on…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature regarding the effect of power on negotiation strategies remains scattered and inconsistent. This study aims to propose that the effect of power on negotiation strategies is contingent on contextual variables but also on individual differences among negotiators. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that creativity moderates the effect of power such that low-power, as compared to high-power negotiators, use more collaborative and less competitive strategies and further report lower fixed-pie perception (i.e. perception of a counterpart’s goals and interests as diametrically opposite to one’s own goals and interests) when they can be creative. Moreover, the authors hypothesize that negotiators’ age buffers the moderated effect of power.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two experiments and a cross-sectional field study. Participants in Studies 1 and 2 played a negotiation game in dyads. Study 1 manipulated power as status (manager vs employee), whereas Study 2 manipulated power as Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (i.e. power to exit the negotiation without a deal). Accordingly, participants in Study 2 had strong vs weak Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. In both studies, power was manipulated within dyads. Moreover, in both studies, the authors manipulated creativity (high vs low) between dyads. The chronological age of negotiators was measured in both studies and served as an additional moderator. Study 3 (preregistered) aimed to replicate the experiment results in the field.

Findings

Study 1 provided partial support for the hypothesis about collaborative strategies. Study 2 fully supported the hypothesis about the role of power and creativity on FPP and on collaboration (but not on competition). Study 3 did not support the power by creativity hypothesis. Interestingly, Studies 1 and 2 supported the power × creativity × age interaction hypothesis when predicting collaboration, while Study 3 supported the three-way interaction when predicting competition. Furthermore, Study 2 provided full support for the three-way interaction hypothesis when predicting FPP, while Study 3 provided partial support for this hypothesis. Altogether, the three studies largely replicated and complemented each other and revealed the robustness of the examined effects.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this research extend the literature on power on the one hand and negotiation and conflict management on the other and shed light on the inconsistent results regarding the role of power in collaboration and competition (De Dreu, 1995; De Dreu and Van Kleef, 2004; Overbeck and Park, 2001; Overbeck et al., 2006). Additionally, this research reconciles the inconsistent literature on creativity, conflict management and prosocial behavior (Gino and Ariely, 2012; Gino and Wiltermuth, 2014; Wilson and Thompson, 2014). Finally, the findings touch upon the aging literature as well and shed light on the role of age on conflict management (for a review, see Beitler et al., 2018) and on the interconnection between age, power and creativity.

Practical implications

The findings are relevant to organizations characterized by power asymmetries (e.g. employee/manager) and inform practitioners about the main determinants of collaboration-based negotiations at work.

Social implications

The findings extend the literature on power on the one hand and negotiation and conflict management on the other and shed light on the inconsistent results regarding the role of power in collaboration and competition.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study investigating the moderating role of creativity in the relationship between negotiation power and negotiation strategies. Moreover, the moderating role of participant age in such relationships has been, to date, largely uninvestigated.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Ziqiang Lin, Xianchun Liao and Haoran Jia

The decarbonization of power generation is key to achieving carbon neutrality in China by the end of 2060. This paper aims to examine how green finance influences China’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The decarbonization of power generation is key to achieving carbon neutrality in China by the end of 2060. This paper aims to examine how green finance influences China’s low-carbon transition of power generation. Using a provincial panel data set as an empirical study example, green finance is assessed first, then empirically analyses the influences of green finance on the low-carbon transition of power generation, as well as intermediary mechanisms at play. Finally, this paper makes relevant recommendations for peak carbon and carbon neutrality in China.

Design/methodology/approach

To begin with, an evaluation index system with five indicators is constructed with entropy weighting method. Second, this paper uses the share of coal-fired power generation that takes in total power generation as an inverse indicator to measure the low-carbon transition in power generation. Finally, the authors perform generalized method of moments (GMM) econometric model to examine how green finance influences China’s low-carbon transition of power generation by taking advantage of 30 provincial panel data sets, spanning the period of 2007–2019. Meanwhile, the implementation of the 2016 Guidance on Green Finance is used as a turning point to address endogeneity using difference-in-difference method (DID).

Findings

The prosperity of green finance can markedly reduce the share of thermal power generation in total electricity generation, which implies a trend toward China’s low-carbon transformation in the power generation industry. Urbanization and R&D investment are driving forces influencing low-carbon transition, while economic development hinders the low-carbon transition. The conclusions remain robust after a series of tests such as the DID method, instrumental variable method and replacement indicators. Notably, the results of the mechanism analysis suggest that green finance contributes to low-carbon transformation in power generation by reducing secondary sectoral share, reducing the production of export products, promoting the advancement of green technologies and expanding the proportion of new installed capacity of renewable energy.

Research limitations/implications

This paper puts forward relevant suggestions for promoting the green finance development with countermeasures such as allowing low interest rate for renewable energy power generation, facilitating market function and using carbon trade market. Additional policy implication is to promote high quality urbanization and increase R&D investment while pursuing high quality economic development. The last implication is to develop mechanism to strengthen the transformation of industrial structure, to promote high quality trade from high carbon manufactured products to low-carbon products, to stimulate more investment in green technology innovation and to accelerate the greening of installed structure in power generation industry.

Originality/value

This paper first attempts to examine the low-carbon transition in power generation from a new perspective of green finance. Second, this paper analyses the mechanism through several aspects: the share of secondary industry, the output of exported products, advances in green technology and the share of renewable energy in new installed capacity, which has not yet been done. Finally, this study constructs a system of indicators to evaluate green finance, including five indicators with entropy weighting method. In conclusion, this paper provides scientific references for sustainable development in China, and meanwhile for other developing countries with similar characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2020

Kyriaki Fousiani, Wolfgang Steinel and Pieter A. Minnigh

The purpose of this study is to examine two opposing approaches to the effects of power on negotiation: a “collaborative approach” of power and a “competitive approach” of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine two opposing approaches to the effects of power on negotiation: a “collaborative approach” of power and a “competitive approach” of power. Accordingly, the authors state oppositional hypotheses based on each approach. This study further investigates the mediating role of the perceived threat of the negotiation and the moderating role of negotiation topic (i.e. topics that touch on one’s power position versus topics that are related to the tasks one needs to perform) in this relationship. Finally, the authors state a moderated mediation hypothesis where they expected that the negotiation topic would moderate the indirect effect of power on negotiation strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

A vignette study (N = 279) and a negotiation game (N = 138) were conducted where the power within dyads was manipulated.

Findings

Study 1 showed that powerholders prefer collaborative strategies, whereas powerless negotiators prefer competitive strategies. Perceived threat of the negotiation mediated this effect. Furthermore, both Studies 1 and 2 showed that the negotiation topic moderates the effect of power on negotiation strategies providing further support for the collaborative approach of power. Finally, Study 1 provided partial support for the moderated mediation hypothesis.

Research limitations/implications

Both Studies 1 and 2 are experimental studies. A field study should try to replicate these results in the future.

Practical implications

This study illuminates the effects of power on negotiation and addresses inconsistent findings in the negotiation literature. The results might be of great importance to large organizations where power asymmetries constitute an integral part of the employee/manager interactions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to show the moderating role of negotiation topic in the relationship between power and negotiation.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Chanki Moon and Ángel Sánchez‐Rodríguez

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of culture. Theoretical considerations for the present research are based on the cultural dimensions of power distance and tightness/looseness because the collective levels of power distance are similar between Korea and Spain, but the collective levels of tightness/looseness are different between the two countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals’ occupational position affects their normative reactions to incivility differently.

Design/methodology/approach

Participant (victim)’s (those who react to uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) and perpetrator’s (those who exhibit uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) were experimentally manipulated; all participants were randomly assigned to one of four perpetrator × victim conditions in relation to hierarchical positions (Ntot = 467).

Findings

The results suggest that the level of social and personal acceptability was greater either among Koreans than Spanish at a collective level or among people who endorsed higher power distance and tightness values. All in all, the findings highlight cultural influences on the importance of social hierarchy as a factor that can impact the people’s normative reactions to incivility.

Originality/value

The findings broaden our understanding of the psychology of employees in relation to incivility, by simultaneously considering the influences of culture (power distance and tightness/looseness) and social power.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Amit Kumar Pandey, Tarun Kumar Gupta and Pawan Kumar Verma

This paper aims to propose a new sleep signal controlled footless domino circuit for reducing the subthreshold and gate oxide leakage currents.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a new sleep signal controlled footless domino circuit for reducing the subthreshold and gate oxide leakage currents.

Design/methodology/approach

In the proposed circuit, a P channel MOSFET (PMOS) sleep switch transistor is inserted between the power supply and the output node. The sleep transistor, the source of the pull-down network, and the source of the N channel MOSFET (NMOS) transistor of the output inverter are controlled by this additional sleep signal to place the footless domino circuit in a low leakage state.

Findings

The authors simulate the proposed circuit by using HSPICE in 45-nm CMOS technology for OR and AND logic gates such as OR2, OR4, OR8, AND2 and AND4 at 25°C and 110°C. The proposed circuit reduces leakage power consumption as compared to the existing circuits.

Originality/value

The proposed circuit significantly reduces the total leakage power consumption up to 99.41 and 99.51 per cent as compared to the standard dual-threshold voltage footless domino circuits at 25°C and 110°C, respectively, and up to 93.79 and 97.98 per cent as compared to the sleep control techniques at 25°C and 110°C, respectively. Similarly, the proposed circuit reduces the active power consumption up to 26.76 and 86.25 per cent as compared to the standard dual-threshold voltage and sleep control techniques footless domino circuits at 25°C and 110°C, respectively.

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