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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

S. Kiyota, T. Koizumi and S. Kobayashi

This paper presents a new roll‐to‐roll (R‐R) production system modified for fine line patterning of flexible printed circuits (FPCs) using the subtractive method. The R‐R…

Abstract

This paper presents a new roll‐to‐roll (R‐R) production system modified for fine line patterning of flexible printed circuits (FPCs) using the subtractive method. The R‐R system is especially suited to production of FPCs because the material used—copper‐clad laminate (CCU—can be handled as it is rolled. Consideration has been given to methods and materials in designing the machines. They are now operating successfully and are used in single‐sided flexible circuit manufacture. A liquid photosensitive etch resist and a collimated light source are recommended for the system and several factors necessary for achieving R‐R working conditions are discussed. Judging from the experimental results of these systems, using narrower width materials with chemical surface preparation is an effective technique for improving the yield rate. The selection of a liquid photoresist is not so common in the case of rigid printed circuit boards because of the difficulty of the coating process. On the other hand, in the case of flexible PCBs, it is successful not only in terms of resolution characteristics but also of productivity under several different types of coating conditions. It should be noted that use of the conventional subtractive method in the printed circuit field is still advantageous as some semiconductor technologies are applicable.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Yasuhiko Watanabe, Ryo Nishimura and Yoshihiro Okada

This paper aims to report a QA system that can answer how‐type questions based on confirmed knowledge acquired from mails, posted to a mailing list. It aims to propose a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report a QA system that can answer how‐type questions based on confirmed knowledge acquired from mails, posted to a mailing list. It aims to propose a method of detecting incorrect information in mails posted to a mailing list (ML) by using mails that ML participants submitted for correcting incorrect information in previous mails.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses a problem of acquiring knowledge from natural language documents, then proposes a method to give these mails three kinds of confirmation labels, positive, negative, and other, depending on their credibility.

Findings

The paper shows a QA system based on the confirmed knowledge. It finds mail questions that are similar to the user's question and gives answers and their confirmation labels to the user. By using the confirmation labels, the user can easily choose the information that can solve his or her problem.

Originality/value

The study describes a method of detecting incorrect information in mails posted to a mailing list and acquiring confirmed knowledge from them.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Shumei Chen and Dandan Li

The purpose of this paper is to predict the likely economic effects of a free trade area (FTA) on both China and the United Kingdom (hereafter the UK).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict the likely economic effects of a free trade area (FTA) on both China and the United Kingdom (hereafter the UK).

Design/methodology/approach

Following literature review and trade relationship briefing, this paper uses the Global Trade Analysis Project simulation to predict the economic effects of such a FTA on both China and the UK.

Findings

The simulation results indicate that a China-UK free trade area (hereafter CUFTA) will bring more benefits than harm to both China and the UK, and achieving zero tariff or reducing technological barriers to trade (TBT) is mutually beneficial for both China and the UK, with the growth in GDP, economic welfare as well as import and export. Combining zero tariff and the reduction of TBT in exceptional departments is the most favorable way to improve the macroeconomic effects without bringing damaging effects on the comparative disadvantage industries such as transport equipment, chemicals industries for China and textiles and apparel industry for the UK.

Originality/value

After the UK voted to leave the European Union, CUFTA is put on the agenda by both the governments, yet there are fewer studies on CUFTA, with this paper being one of the early trials. Besides, based on the simulation results, some policy suggestions will be put forward for future negotiations and industrial policies’ adjustment.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Pervez N. Ghauri and Rebecca Firth

This study focuses on the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on local firms in host economies. We examine both backward and forward linkages and their effects on…

Abstract

This study focuses on the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on local firms in host economies. We examine both backward and forward linkages and their effects on domestic firms. Data collection was undertaken over a three-year period whereby qualitative in-depth interviews were carried out with senior managers in UK headquarters, subsidiaries and ‘linked’ local firms in order to facilitate a multi-perspective approach to examining this topic. Results indicate that linkages do exist, contrary to earlier belief. The main factors which facilitate linkage formation were found to be subsidiary-related variables, mainly the mode of entry into the local market, subsidiary autonomy, level of embeddedness and subsidiary role. It was also found that government regulation and policy had some impact on the formation of linkages. Over time the impact on local firms was found to be positive with increased employment, productivity and significant upgrading of skills and competencies. The key contribution of this chapter is to extend the literature on linkages to consider services while developing a conceptual framework in this area. Overall, our study confirms the importance of the subsidiary in linkage formation and also shows how the externalities occurring from linkage formation in the service sector may benefit local firms and subsequently aid local economic development as a whole.

Details

The Future of Foreign Direct Investment and the Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-555-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

I.R. Ramos, S.B. Valdez, K.R. Zlatev, W.M Schorr, B.M. Carrillo, M.S. Stoytcheva, I.R. Garcia and M.M. Martinez

– The purpose of this investigation was to develop a digital instrument for the quantitative evaluation of pitting corrosion in metals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a digital instrument for the quantitative evaluation of pitting corrosion in metals.

Design/methodology/approach

This investigation comprised two central parts: research, testing and monitoring of the formation of pitting by conventional methods and applying American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards, and the development of a virtual instrument based on the LabVIEW 2010 platform.

Findings

The methodology used was suitable for the analysis of pitting on carbon steel and aluminum alloy UNS A96061, used in the aerospace industry.

Practical implications

This technique allows pits to be to localized, measured and quantified on metallic surfaces, for corrosion evaluation in atmospheric and industrial environments.

Originality/value

This combination of conventional and digital methods can assist in corrosion control of pitting in industrial equipment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Sabien Dobbelaere, Rodolfo Lauterbach and Jacques Mairesse

Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutions, social norms and the nature of industrial relations vary greatly between Latin American and Western European countries. Such institutional and organizational differences might shape firms’ operational environment in general and the type of competition in product and labor markets in particular. The purpose of this paper is to identify and quantify industry differences in product and labor market imperfections in Chile and France.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on two extensions of Hall’s econometric framework for estimating price-cost margins by nesting three labor market settings (LMS) (perfect competition (PC) or right-to-manage bargaining, efficient bargaining (EB) and monopsony). Using an unbalanced panel of 1,737 firms over the period 1996-2003 in Chile and 14,270 firms over the period 1994-2001 in France, the authors first classify 20 comparable manufacturing industries in six distinct regimes that differ in the type of competition prevailing in product and labor markets. The authors then investigate industry differences in the estimated product and labor market imperfection parameters.

Findings

Consistent with differences in institutions and in the industrial relations system in the two countries, the authors find regime differences across the two countries and cross-country differences in the levels of product and labor market imperfection parameters within regimes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to compare the type and the degree of industry-level product and labor market imperfections inferred from consistent estimation of firm-level production functions in a Latin American and a Western European country. Using firm-level output price indices, the microeconomic production function estimates for Chile are not subject to the omitted output price bias, as is often a major drawback in microeconometric studies of firm behavior.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Drusilla K. Brown, Kozo Kiyota and Robert M. Stern

We have used the Michigan computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of World Production and Trade to calculate the aggregate welfare and sectoral employment effects of…

Abstract

We have used the Michigan computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of World Production and Trade to calculate the aggregate welfare and sectoral employment effects of the menu of U.S.–Japan trade policies. The menu of policies encompasses the various preferential U.S. and Japan bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated and in process, unilateral removal of existing trade barriers by the two countries, and global (multilateral) free trade. The U.S. preferential agreements include the FTAs approved by the U.S. Congress with Chile and Singapore in 2003, those signed with Central America, Australia, and Morocco and awaiting Congressional approval in 2004, and prospective FTAs with the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), Thailand, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The Japanese preferential agreements include the bilateral FTA with Singapore signed in 2002 and prospective FTAs with Chile, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, and Thailand. The welfare impacts of the FTAs on the United States and Japan are shown to be rather small in absolute and relative terms. The sectoral employment effects are also generally small in the United States and Japan, but vary across the individual sectors depending on the patterns of the bilateral liberalization. The welfare effects on the FTA partner countries are mostly positive though generally small, but there are some indications of potentially disruptive employment shifts in some partner countries. There are indications of trade diversion and detrimental welfare effects on nonmember countries for some of the FTAs analyzed. Data limitations precluded analysis of the welfare effects of the different FTA rules of origin and other discriminatory arrangements.

In comparison with the welfare gains from the U.S. and Japan bilateral FTAs, the gains from both unilateral trade liberalization by the United States, Japan, and the FTA partners and global (multilateral) free trade are shown to be rather substantial and more uniformly positive for all countries in the global trading system. The U.S. and Japan FTAs are based on “hub” and “spoke” arrangements. We show that the spokes emanate out in different and often overlapping directions, suggesting that the complex of bilateral FTAs may create distortions of the global trading system.

Details

New Developments in Computable General Equilibrium Analysis for Trade Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-142-9

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Narelle Haworth and Jacqueline Fuller

Purpose – Bicycle riding provides a sustainable and affordable solution to many of the significant problems associated with motorised transport and physical inactivity…

Abstract

Purpose – Bicycle riding provides a sustainable and affordable solution to many of the significant problems associated with motorised transport and physical inactivity. The provision of infrastructure plays an important role in encouraging people to begin and subsequently continue to ride bicycles and to do so safely.

Methodology – This chapter describes different types of on- and off-road infrastructure and reviews studies of their effects on rider numbers and safety. In addition, it looks at the roles that end-of-trip facilities and bikeshare programs can play in contributing to bicycle use and general transport sustainability.

Findings – Infrastructure characteristics can influence both perceived and objective levels of safety. It is important to identify and avoid treatments that increase perceived safety but are actually less safe. The type of infrastructure needed or desired differs between current and potential riders and according to trip purpose. Well-designed marked bicycle lanes on roads can reduce crash rates. Safety at intersections can be improved by: advanced green lights for cyclists, short cuts for right-hand turns, brightly coloured bicycle paths and advanced waiting positions for cyclists. Off-road facilities are generally safer, but intersections with roads must be carefully treated. Shared paths and footpaths are risky for older pedestrians (and older cyclists).

Implications – In many countries the provision of more infrastructure that increases the perceived safety of riding is needed to encourage cycling, particularly transport cycling and cycling by women.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2016

Valeria Gattai and Piergiovanna Natale

In this chapter, we document the growing importance of FDI from BRIC countries in relation to FDI from both developed and developing countries and investigate the types of…

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, we document the growing importance of FDI from BRIC countries in relation to FDI from both developed and developing countries and investigate the types of firms that are responsible for BRIC FDI.

Methodology/approach

We follow a two-step empirical approach. First, we provide macro evidence on FDI from BRIC countries. We use UNCTAD data to highlight the patterns of FDI flows and stocks. Second, we provide firm-level evidence on FDI. Using ORBIS data, we elaborate a rich taxonomy of FDI that accounts for the decision to invest abroad and for the location, ownership, and number of foreign subsidiaries. Thus, we characterize BRIC multinationals’ involvement in FDI and examine the relationship between FDI and performance at the firm level.

Findings

We unveil new facts about BRIC multinationals. BRIC multinationals are in the minority in their home countries, but they outperform domestic enterprises. Within the group of BRIC investors, those firms that invest in developing countries, that operate in joint ventures, or that have more than five foreign subsidiaries are in the minority, but they outperform those firms that select other FDI strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Our estimates document a positive and robust correlation between FDI and performance; however, the cross-sectional nature of our data does not permit a proper causality analysis.

Originality/value

Our work contributes to the International Economics literature on internationalization and firm performance as well as to the International Business literature on FDI from emerging economies. With respect to the former, we innovate by studying the relation between FDI strategies and firm performance. In relation to the latter, we innovate by introducing firm-level data and a cross-country approach that lets us illustrate the roles and features of FDI from BRIC countries.

Details

The Challenge of Bric Multinationals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-350-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Xiping Liu, Ya Li, Zhangqi Liu, Tao Ling and Zhenhua Luo

The purpose of this paper is to propose a permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) using ferrite magnets with the same power density as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM) using ferrite magnets with the same power density as rare-earth PM synchronous motors used in Toyota Prius 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel rotor structure with rectangular PMs is discussed with respect to the demagnetization of ferrite magnets and mechanical strength. Some electromagnetic characteristics including torque, output power, loss and efficiency are calculated by 2D finite element analysis.

Findings

The results of the analysis show that a high power density and high efficiency for PMASynRM can be achieved using ferrite magnets.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a novel rotor structure of PMASynRM with low-cost ferrite magnets that achieves high power density as permanent machines with rare-earth PMs.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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