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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Robert J. Emmerling and Richard E. Boyatzis

Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied…

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Abstract

Purpose

Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. While the field has continued to expand over the preceding decades, research has often trailed application, especially as it relates to cross‐cultural validity. The purpose of this introductory essay to this special issue of CCM serves to focus on cultural issues related to applied use of competencies in diverse cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Emotional and social intelligence competencies are defined and an overview provided for the papers that will follow, with original research linking these constructs to performance in various occupations and cultures, as well as issues related to their development.

Findings

Emotional and social intelligence competencies are found to represent a practical and theoretically coherent, reliable and valid approach to assessing and developing individuals in diverse cultures.

Research limitations/implications

As an introductory essay, the paper lays the foundation for the following articles in this special issue.

Originality/value

Although competencies are in widespread use around the world, issues related to cross‐cultural validation are seldom studied empirically. This introductory essay and subsequent articles will help clarify emotional and social competencies as a behavioral approach to applying emotional intelligence to the practical needs of organizations.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Geoff Ryan, Robert J. Emmerling and Lyle M. Spencer

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive competencies in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, to add to the empirical literature related to the validity and practical utility of emotional, social, and cognitive competencies in the workplace. Second, using data from two different European samples, to demonstrate the methods for validating competency models for applied use. Third, to discuss the impact of role demands and culture on the manifestation of competencies most predictive of performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The basic design used in both studies is to compare data from outstanding performers against data from typical or average performers in order to determine competencies which predict performance. The data presented here are based on operant assessment of competencies using critical incident interviews, which are then systematically coded using thematic analysis to yield behavioural evidence of specific competencies.

Findings

The results indicate that, while some competencies such as achievement orientation and team leadership are consistently linked to performance in both studies, the correlation of other specific competencies with performance varies among the samples. Moreover, the relative importance of specific competencies in terms of the amount of variance in performance explained also varies across the two samples.

Research limitations/implications

The criterion measures available, i.e. client ratings of performance, did not provide the continuous objective performance data that are generally considered preferable so as to provide a clearer picture of the value added by superior performance. A further limitation was that there was no opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the various initiatives which were put in place to improve managers' competencies after their initial assessment.

Originality/value

This is one of the few articles that explore the validity of competencies within the European Union across different organizations using a common competency framework and methodology. Both studies were originally initiated as applied consulting projects and the findings of the research applied to human resource practices within each organization. Although competencies are ubiquitous in today's global workplace, the number of published studies with data to support the validity of competency‐modelling techniques has been limited. The current research adds to the growing literature in this area and adds to one's confidence in the ability of emotional, social and cognitive competencies to predict performance in a variety of settings and cultures.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

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Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Deepak Jadhav and T.V. Ramanathan

An investor is expected to analyze the market risk while investing in equity stocks. This is because the investor has to choose a portfolio which maximizes the return with a…

Abstract

Purpose

An investor is expected to analyze the market risk while investing in equity stocks. This is because the investor has to choose a portfolio which maximizes the return with a minimum risk. The mean-variance approach by Markowitz (1952) is a dominant method of portfolio optimization, which uses variance as a risk measure. The purpose of this paper is to replace this risk measure with modified expected shortfall, defined by Jadhav et al. (2013).

Design/methodology/approach

Modified expected shortfall introduced by Jadhav et al. (2013) is found to be a coherent risk measure under univariate and multivariate elliptical distributions. This paper presents an approach of portfolio optimization based on mean-modified expected shortfall for the elliptical family of distributions.

Findings

It is proved that the modified expected shortfall of a portfolio can be represented in the form of expected return and standard deviation of the portfolio return and modified expected shortfall of standard elliptical distribution. The authors also establish that the optimum portfolio through mean-modified expected shortfall approach exists and is located within the efficient frontier of the mean-variance portfolio. The results have been empirically illustrated using returns from stocks listed in National Stock Exchange of India, Shanghai Stock Exchange of China, London Stock Exchange of the UK and New York Stock Exchange of the USA for the period February 2005-June 2018. The results are found to be consistent across all the four stock markets.

Originality/value

The mean-modified expected shortfall portfolio approach presented in this paper is new and is a natural extension of the Markowitz’s mean-variance and mean-expected shortfall portfolio optimization discussed by Deng et al. (2009).

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Thomas Emmerling, Robert Jarrow and Yildiray Yildirim

Whereas much of previous literature focuses upon the impact on yields from the Federal Reserve’s large-scale asset purchases (LSAPs), the purpose of this paper is to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

Whereas much of previous literature focuses upon the impact on yields from the Federal Reserve’s large-scale asset purchases (LSAPs), the purpose of this paper is to study the changes to expected returns.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical investigation offers support for changes to risk premia coincident with LSAPs.

Findings

For both equity and bonds, the authors find evidence for supply/demand LSAPs effects; the equity effects are consistent with a substitution effect from bonds to equities, whereas the bond effects appear to be an anomaly.

Originality/value

The findings represent new insight for weighing the efficacy and identifying the scope of LSAPs.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Segundo Vito Aliaga Araujo and Scott N. Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of emotional and social competence (ESC) on job performance by considering self‐ratings and the ratings of others…

1774

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of emotional and social competence (ESC) on job performance by considering self‐ratings and the ratings of others (supervisor, peer and subordinate) using a multisource feedback assessment of ESC.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilized the 2004‐2006 performance evaluations of 36 staff members of the Ilo Copper Refinery, owned by the Southern Peru Corporation. To assess ESC, the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI 2.0) was administered to the Ilo staff.

Findings

The study reinforces the importance of ESC to workplace performance and provides evidence of ESC's positive influence. The results reveal that 70 percent of the variance of working performance is explained linearly by the total average of ESC, with four significant competencies – self‐confidence, achievement orientation, optimism, and teamwork & collaboration – accounting for 63 percent of the variance.

Research limitations/implications

As an initial study in Peru, the authors had a small sample size. There is limited independence in the performance evaluations because the evaluators of performance were repeated in several cases. Job performance ratings were based on the following computerized objective assessment: use of abilities, work organization planning, interpersonal relations, results, initiative, aptitude to the work, and creativity.

Originality/value

The paper is aimed at improving understanding of the links between ESC and performance. It is the first study the authors are aware of to examine these relationships in a Peruvian organization. The approach used in this study contributes to and provides evidence of the importance of emotional competence in the workplace.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Gilles E. Gignac, Richard J. Harmer, Sue Jennings and Benjamin R. Palmer

The purpose of this paper is to examine statistically the efficacy of an emotional intelligence (EI) training program on sales performance and emotional intelligence in a group of…

1635

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine statistically the efficacy of an emotional intelligence (EI) training program on sales performance and emotional intelligence in a group of salespeople.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental, repeated measures/between‐groups design was used (training group (n=29) and a control group (n=21)). The dependent variables were sales performance, self‐report EI and rater‐report EI. The data were analysed based on a series of split‐plot ANOVAS.

Findings

Rater‐reported EI correlated with sales performance at r=0.32. The EI training group also demonstrated increases in both self‐ and rater‐report EI equal to approximately a Cohen's d=−0.45, in comparison to the control group. Finally, the EI training group outperformed the control group by approximately 9 per cent (p<0.05) in sales performance.

Research limitations/implications

The long‐term beneficial effects of the EI training program on sales performance are not known.

Practical implications

Human resource practitioners and coaches may consider implementing an EI training program to facilitate performance in sales people.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the effects of an EI training program using a rigorous experimental methodology and an objective measure of sales performance.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Radha Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to determine the cross‐cultural reliability and validity of the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI‐2) in a cross‐cultural context.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the cross‐cultural reliability and validity of the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI‐2) in a cross‐cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a competency‐based approach to social and emotional intelligence (EI), the paper presents data on Indian managers from the manufacturing and service industries collected using self‐report and multi‐rater assessments. Factor analysis explored the latent structure of social and emotional intelligence competencies on the Indian sample. Divergent validity was assessed using a Stress Personality test. Internal reliability of the ECI‐2 was also determined for a sample of 400 Indian managers.

Findings

A two‐factor structure has emerged in the cross‐cultural context similar to the latent structure of the construct explored by the test developers of the ECI‐2. However, six items did not have significant loading. ECI‐2 has been found to have statistically significant reliability coefficient and divergent validity with Stress Personality test on the Indian sample.

Research limitations/implications

The competency‐based approach to emotional and social intelligence, with a two‐factor structure, has found empirical evidence on the managerial sample in the Indian context. Future research can test this on other professional groups. Norms can be developed for various professional groups using a competency‐based framework of EI.

Practical implications

ECI‐2 can be used with modification based on the findings for talent management, employee development, counseling and succession planning for Indian managers.

Originality/value

Cross‐cultural validation, in the Indian context, of a competency‐based framework of emotional and social intelligence and its measure is useful for researchers and practitioners and for professional and leadership development of managers.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2022

Dan Li and Michael Patterson

This paper aims to determine whether performing an emotional intelligence (EI) intervention improves employees’ self-perceived emotional–social competencies (ESC) to achieve…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine whether performing an emotional intelligence (EI) intervention improves employees’ self-perceived emotional–social competencies (ESC) to achieve relational outcomes in firms based in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a qualitative, interpretive approach through purposive sampling, this paper explored the impacts the Strengths Deployment Inventory (SDI) 2.0 intervention might have upon Chinese employees regarding ESC and relational outcomes. Data was collected from 18 semi-structured interviews with Chinese executives and individual contributors.

Findings

The findings suggested that ESC could be developed and improved in Chinese employees. The SDI 2.0 intervention may effectively bring about positive EI shifts and relevant attitudinal and behavioral changes related to work relationships.

Practical implications

The developed ESC and relational outcomes provide practitioners with insight to better understand the role training plays in organizational effectiveness, as well as to implement the SDI 2.0 program in human resource practices of Chinese organizations to develop personnel and promote high-quality work relationships.

Originality/value

This study gains significance by highlighting the effectiveness of the SDI 2.0 intervention in enhancing respondents’ ESC with relational outcomes from the perspectives of Chinese firms. Thus, supporting the effectiveness of EI training in the Chinese workplace and introducing the EI training literature the SDI 2.0 tool.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2014

Marjaana Gunkel, Christopher Schlaegel and Robert L. Engle

The study addresses the mechanism of how cultural dimensions influence the different dimensions of emotional intelligence. Building on the cascading model described by Joseph and…

Abstract

Purpose

The study addresses the mechanism of how cultural dimensions influence the different dimensions of emotional intelligence. Building on the cascading model described by Joseph and Newman (2010), we extend our previous findings (Gunkel, Schlaegel, & Engle, 2014) by exploring the influence of cultural dimensions on a cascading model of emotional intelligence.

Methodology

We use survey data from 2,067 business students in nine countries (China, Colombia, Germany, India, Italy, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and the United States), representing 8 of the 11 cultural clusters identified by Ronen and Shenkar (2013).

Findings

We find that uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation have a positive influence on self-emotional appraisal, which in turn influence regulation of emotion, which then has a positive influence on the use of emotion. At the same time, others’ emotional appraisal mediates the relationship between all cultural dimensions except power distance and use of emotion. We also find that uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation directly influence the use of emotion, suggesting a partial mediation effect.

Research limitations

Our findings have to be interpreted in the light of the limitations of our approach owing to the cross-sectional study design and the limited generalizability of the sample.

Originality

We contribute to the existing literature by examining the mechanism through which culture influences the different facets of emotional intelligence and whether and how the different facets affect each other. The proposed influence of culture on a cascading model of emotional intelligence provides a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the mechanism and the pathways in which culture affects emotional intelligence.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

Keywords

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