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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2007

Madhu Ranjan Kumar and Shankar Sankaran

This paper seeks to argue against the conventional wisdom in the current TQM literature that hierarchy is not conducive for TQM. It aims to identify the cultural dynamics…

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8113

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to argue against the conventional wisdom in the current TQM literature that hierarchy is not conducive for TQM. It aims to identify the cultural dynamics that can aid TQM implementation in a hierarchical country like India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reflects on the existing literature on culture and TQM and develops a mechanism that explains why hierarchy hinders TQM implementation in Western culture and how it can support TQM implementation in Indian culture.

Findings

In a people oriented culture like those of Japan and India, nurturance is the juice that sustains hierarchy that finally morphs into collectivism. In these social systems, there need not be conflicting impact of hierarchy and collectivism on TQM implementation if the nurturance aspect of hierarchy is understood. Thus, in the Indian context, hierarchy, operationalised through the guru‐shishya (teacher‐student) relationship between the boss and the subordinate can develop a learning orientation among the organisational members and facilitate TQM implementation. Similarly, by superimposing the element of “equity” on the “personalised relationship” dimension of hierarchy, in a collectivistic society like India, it is possible to elevate the aspect of “personalised relationship” between superior and subordinate to the status of “individualised consideration” dimension of transformational leadership provided it is bestowed only upon the satisfactory completion of “task” by the subordinate.

Practical implications

This paper shows how the cultural aspect of TQM implementation should be handled in a high power distance country like India.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the two Indian cultural aspects that can facilitate TQM implementation in India notwithstanding the hierarchical Indian values.

Details

The TQM Magazine, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Saikat Banerjee

Behavior of a consumer largely depends on interplay between inner self and outer stimuli. Consumption decisions made in the market cannot be viewed as an independent event…

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18658

Abstract

Purpose

Behavior of a consumer largely depends on interplay between inner self and outer stimuli. Consumption decisions made in the market cannot be viewed as an independent event – it is closely related with values and social relationship and cultural allegiance. With globalization, culture becomes predominantly important strategic issue in market that has to be faced and properly managed. But, in different settings, management of cultural diversity could be seen as a threat, or an opportunity. As culture and values vary country to country, a close insight about country‐specific culture and core values is almost essential for a smooth sailing in any market. The purpose of this paper is to discuss overall fundamental dimensions of Indian culture and core values and resultant marketing implications.

Design/methodology/approach

The major task is to identify specific culture and core values at the time of marketing in a cross‐cultural setup. In this backdrop, an attempt has been made in this paper to discuss overall fundamental dimensions of Indian culture and core values with the help of a verbal model. The model has further been examined with the help of empirical marketing evidences from Indian market with an objective to help marketers to address those cultural and value dimensions at the time of their brand marketing in India.

Findings

Inputs about Indian culture and value dimensions can be of immense use to brand managers to strategies their marketing road map to minimize chances of erroneous decision‐making. A table summarizing the aspects that have to be considered at the time of building brands in India has been proposed to facilitate useful marketing decisions to penetrate the Indian market. At the time of starting its journey in a new country like India, the best approach a firm can adopt is to accept major issues involved with culture and values.

Practical implications

The verbal model about core culture and values of India, and proposed strategic roadmap, facilitate marketers to devise more accurate marketing strategies for India.

Originality/value

This paper presents a country‐specific approach that may be useful to marketers busy with consumer marketing in India. A verbal model of “Culture and Value Dimensions of Indian consumer” is of immense help in charting marketing strategies to win over Indian consumers.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Sagi Mathew and Greig Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to explore how cultural differentiation can affect the successful transplantation of lean management and production techniques from the parent…

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1349

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how cultural differentiation can affect the successful transplantation of lean management and production techniques from the parent country to subsidiary countries in the developing world. In particular, the focus will be on car manufacture in India and the role of hierarchy in Indian society, with reflection on how this seeps into workplace and power relations.

Design/methodology/approach

Lean production techniques have been hailed as revolutionising modern manufacturing, particularly in the automotive sector. In developed world countries, car manufacturers have made significant gains in efficiency and productivity as a result of their implementation. However, as many of these multinational companies (MNCs) have expanded production into rapidly-developing nations to take advantage of both their market and low-labour costs, the introduction of lean production practices have met some resistance. This is because certain underpinning concepts and values of the lean system, such as team work, delegation of authority and upward communication can be considered incompatible with aspects of local culture and employees’ attitude towards work and their superiors. The analysis presented is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with managers and workers from an India-based subsidiary of a MNC car manufacturer and engagement with the existing literature.

Findings

It concludes that paternal relationships, religious values and group orientation in Indian society have a significant impact on the dynamics of the workplace and result in a brand of power distance that is specific to this national context, raising questions about the suitability of universal implementation of lean production practices.

Originality/value

“Power distance” has become a catch-all term for cultures with an orientation towards hierarchy and status in society. However, this categorisation masks some of the factors belying the phenomenon and intricacies relating to how it plays out in the workplace. It is simplistic to postulate that high power distance cultures might be incompatible with management approaches that decentralise authority and increase worker participation. Rather than rely on overgeneralisations, the analysis provided has attempted to deconstruct the composition of power distance in the Indian context and document systematically how features of Indian culture conflict with the principles of lean production techniques, using a case study from an Indian subsidiary of a MNC. In particular, the study finds that religion, caste and paternalism create an India-specific power distance that manifests itself in worker behaviour and workplace relationships.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Ramya Rajagopalan and Jeanne Heitmeyer

The purpose of this study is to explain the level of involvement of Asian‐Indian consumers residing in the US when purchasing Indian ethnic apparel and contemporary…

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4464

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the level of involvement of Asian‐Indian consumers residing in the US when purchasing Indian ethnic apparel and contemporary American clothing at different levels of acculturation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered by a questionnaire administered to 254 Asian‐Indian consumers from the southeastern United States.

Findings

Low levels of acculturation among Asian‐Indians did result in a higher level of involvement in Indian ethnic apparel. Consumers who were moderately acculturated to western culture were less involved in Indian ethnic apparel but became increasingly involved as they became more acculturated to the US culture. In conclusion, Asian‐Indians, who were new to the US, may try to identify with the new culture leading to a decline in involvement with Indian ethnic apparel. As these consumers became more comfortable in their new environment they may have felt a need to connect with their original culture, and this could have led to a renewed interest in Indian ethnic apparel.

Originality/value

This study fulfills a need for literature on how ethnic groups residing in a foreign land view products indigenous to their original culture across the stages of acculturation. Understanding consumer interests of targeted market segments and their impact on the overall population may benefit fashion marketers.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Swagata Chakraborty and Amrut Sadachar

The present study compared Indian consumers' attitude (AT) toward and purchase intention (PI) from Western apparel brands, as a function of their Western acculturation…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study compared Indian consumers' attitude (AT) toward and purchase intention (PI) from Western apparel brands, as a function of their Western acculturation (WA), consumer ethnocentrism (CE) in apparel consumption, consumer cosmopolitanism (CC) and country of residence (India vs the USA).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample included Indians residing in India and the USA, who were 19 years or older, and visited online or brick-and-mortar apparel stores. An online survey was administered through Amazon Mechanical Turk to collect the data. The data was analyzed through multi-group structural equation modeling.

Findings

WA engenders CE among Indian consumers, especially among Indians residing in India. WA and CC positively influence AT. CE did not have a significant negative influence on AT. Although a high CE lowers the PI, a high WA, CC and positive AT can translate into high PI.

Research limitations/implications

The study did not use an experimental design. Therefore, causal relationships between the research variables could not be explained. Majority of the respondents were male. This might have confounded the findings with potential gendered effects.

Practical implications

Western apparel brands targeting Indian consumers in India and the USA should focus on projecting their cosmopolitan and pro-Indian image to target this population's cosmopolitan and ethnocentric outlook, thereby enhancing PI.

Originality/value

The study proposed and empirically tested a conceptual model indicating the relationship between some of the important predictors of Indian consumers' PI in the context of Indians residing in the USA and India.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Nitin Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to study the extent of behavioral acculturation of consumer culture (B‐ACC) and attitudinal acculturation of consumer culture (A‐ACC) among…

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1738

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the extent of behavioral acculturation of consumer culture (B‐ACC) and attitudinal acculturation of consumer culture (A‐ACC) among the urban, educated, middle class Indian consumers. It also aims to test if B‐ACC and A‐ACC among various demographic segments of Indian consumers differ on the basis of their ownership/usage of foreign brands vis‐à‐vis Indian brands.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study has been conducted to address the above mentioned objectives. Data have been collected from urban, educated, middle class Indian consumers using structured questionnaire and following snowball and judgment sampling methods. Data analysis has been done using ANOVA and T‐test.

Findings

The results show that highly educated Indian consumers who fall under the age group of 16‐25 years and belong to upper‐middle class show greater levels of B‐ACC as well as A‐ACC vis‐à‐vis other demographic segments of Indian consumers. In the total sample as well as among all the demographic segments, it was observed that B‐ACC is significantly higher than A‐ACC. Indian consumers who own/use foreign brands show significantly higher B‐ACC across most of demographic segments.

Practical implications

The research clearly identifies the segment which would be most receptive to the globalized marketing strategies of various multinational corporations.

Originality/value

The paper shows the extent of B‐ACC and A‐ACC among the Indian consumers. It provides empirical support to the contention in the extant literature that B‐ACC would be greater than A‐ACC among consumers in the emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Andrew Lindridge

Religion's influence in consumer research remains under‐researched. This paper aims to explore religiosity's effect on culture and consumption by comparing Indians living…

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7502

Abstract

Purpose

Religion's influence in consumer research remains under‐researched. This paper aims to explore religiosity's effect on culture and consumption by comparing Indians living in Britain, with Asian Indians and British Whites. The paper is relevant to both academics and practitioners who wish to understand the role of religion's influence regarding culturally determined consumer behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire measuring family, self‐identity, materialism, possessions as status symbols and reference groups was administrated in London and Mumbai. Religiosity was measured by religious institution attendance and the importance of religion in daily life. A total of 415 questionnaires were submitted to factor analysis, identifying six factors. These factors were then submitted to Multinomial Logistical Regression (MLR), with the two religiosity themes used as influencing variables on the factors.

Findings

The analysis indicated that Indians living in Britain and British Whites sample groups were culturally less group‐ and consumption‐oriented than Asian Indians. Declining levels of religiosity produced mixed results for Indians living in Britain, when compared to Asian Indians, indicating that: attendance at a religious institution is not akin to viewing religion as an important aspect of daily life, a diversity of religiosity determined consumer behaviours across the Indian sample groups, and religion is an acculturation agent. The research, however, is limited owing to the small sample group and the need to maintain cross‐cultural methodologies.

Originality/value

Marketing practitioners should recognise the importance of religion in culture in Eastern cultures, while in Western cultures they should focus on the centrality and the need to use consumption to maintain the individual's sense of individuality.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Marissa Joanna Doshi

This study reports on a four-month ethnographic project conducted among young Catholic women in Mumbai, India. Here, the author examines how the media consumption of…

Abstract

This study reports on a four-month ethnographic project conducted among young Catholic women in Mumbai, India. Here, the author examines how the media consumption of participants is implicated in reconstituting Indian national identity. Because Hinduism is closely tied to conceptualizations of Indianness and because women continue to be marginalized in Indian society, Catholic women in India are viewed as second-class citizens or “not Indian enough” or “appropriately Indian” by virtue of their gender and religious affiliation. However, through media consumption that emphasizes hybridity, participants destabilize narrow definitions of Indian identity. Specifically, participants cultivate hybridity as central to an Indian identity that is viable in an increasingly global society. Within this formulation of hybridity, markers of their marginalization are reframed as markers of distinction. By centering hybridity in their media consumption, young, middle-class Catholic women (re)imagine their national identity in translocal cosmopolitan terms that subverts marginalization experienced by virtue of their religion and leverages privileges they enjoy by virtue of their middle-class status. Importantly, this version of Indian identity remains elitist in that it remains inaccessible to poor women, including poor women of minority groups.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Demetris Vrontis and Alkis Thrassou

Chalta hai (it is fine or it is acceptable) is an Indian cultural phenomenon that influences attitude towards work and business and diachronically adversely affects both…

Abstract

Purpose

Chalta hai (it is fine or it is acceptable) is an Indian cultural phenomenon that influences attitude towards work and business and diachronically adversely affects both. The purpose of this study is to explore its impact on the sustainability of business firms operating in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has firstly undertaken a theoretical study towards the development of appropriate hypotheses and a corresponding conceptual model, with emphasis on the effects of chalta hai culture as a moderator of the predictor-sustainability linkages. The model has been validated statistically through partial least square- structural equation modelling analysis of usable feedbacks from 349 respondents.

Findings

The research has concluded that the cultural notion of chalta hai impacts adversely the sustainability of business firms operating in India, with its effects being dominant.

Research limitations/implications

The research has scholarly and executive implications, as well as socio-cultural implications. The sample, however, allows for conclusions to be drawn reliably but with limited generalizability. Additionally, only three predictors have been considered, bestowing upon future research the task of building on the present model through additional pertinent predictors and boundary conditions that will enhance its explanative power.

Practical implications

The research has provided a scientifically developed model that guides Indian firm managers through appropriate steps that dissuade stakeholders from exhibiting the behavioural traits and attitudes of chalta hai culture, highlighting along the way its detrimental effects on Indian business sustainability.

Originality/value

There is little research on the business impacts of chalta hai and regarding the sustainability perspective/focus. In addition, this is in sharp contrast to the spread and impact of the phenomenon. This research and its findings, therefore, are valuable with regard to both their wider context (“chalta hai” business effects) and their specific focus (sustainability).

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Terrill L. Frantz and Ajay K. Jain

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and the culture of the organization within the context of Indian organizations.

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1785

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and the culture of the organization within the context of Indian organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Two five-scale questionnaires were completed by senior executives (n=485) who have interaction with their CEO. The first instrument captured the executives’ perspective of their CEO’s leadership behavior along six dimensions (People Centric, Global Ambitions, Opportunity Sensing, Visionary, Exemplary, and Dependable). The second instrument captured the executives’ perspective of their organization’s culture along six dimensions (Results Focused, Talent Development, Employee Empowerment, Equity and Fairness, Open Communication, and Decentralization). These data were analyzed using factor analysis, correlation analysis, and least-squares regression.

Findings

A correlation analysis indicates that a significant relationship exists between several aspects of CEO leadership behavior and characteristics of the organizational culture. Regression analysis indicated that the overall CEO leadership behavior prominently explains (R2=0.397) the organization’s culture. Notably, two CEO dimensions, People Centricity and Global Ambition, were found to have an exceptionally high degree of association with the culture of the organization.

Research limitations/implications

There is consistency between findings from western academic leader-culture research and the same in the Indian work setting.

Practical implications

Findings of this study can serve as a guidepost for the selection of leaders in an organization.

Originality/value

There is a scarcity of leader-organization research involving national culture features; the Indian context is fundamental to this study and is called for by the growing presence of India-born leadership in western organizations.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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