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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang and Samantha K. Baard

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological…

Abstract

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological states. This review focuses on the stressor–strain relationships within the context of cross-cultural and cross-national studies. Using research findings from the United States as a baseline, we identify common and unique themes concerning the stressor–strain relationships between different countries, and clarify the differences between cross-national and cross-cultural studies. Furthermore, we consider cross-cultural and cross-national occupational stress research from an individual differences perspective. We encourage future studies to adopt this perspective and carefully consider the implications of cultural values on occupational stress research at the individual, group, and country levels.

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Sumeet Kour and Jeevan Jyoti

Organisations operate in diverse cultural environment, which is a challenging task due to absence of cultural knowledge and difficulty in adapting the native culture that…

Abstract

Purpose

Organisations operate in diverse cultural environment, which is a challenging task due to absence of cultural knowledge and difficulty in adapting the native culture that usually leads to expatriate failure. In this context cultural intelligence plays an important role in the adjustment of employees. The purpose of the study is to examine the mediating role played by cultural intelligence between cross-cultural training and cross-cultural adjustment relationship. It further analyses the moderating role of cross-cultural training and types of expatriate between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Set in a large culturally diverse emerging economy context, data have been gathered from 530 managers working in banking sector. Data have been duly assessed for reliability and validity.

Findings

The results revealed that cultural intelligence mediates cross-cultural training and cross-cultural adjustment relationship. Evidence from the analysis further suggests that cross-cultural training and types of expatriate moderate the relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment. Lastly, the managerial and theoretical implications have been put forth for practical and academic perusal.

Research limitations/implications

The study is cross-sectional in nature and data have been collected from single source.

Practical implications

Organisations should design such training programmes, which motivate the managers to successfully complete out of home state assignment and help them to adapt in the cross-cultural situations.

Social implications

Culturally intelligent employees/managers are able to communicate with people belonging to diverse culture, which results in building trust, loyalty and cordial relationship amongst the people. This will create the feeling of unity in the society thereby bringing national as well as global peace.

Originality/value

The study develops the extant literature on cross-cultural training and types of expatriate as effective intercultural instruments to enhance the capability of the managers to interact and adjust in host region environment.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7656-1306-6

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Katherine C. Cotter and Rebecca J. Reichard

The ability to effectively engage in cross-cultural interactions is imperative for leaders in our increasingly globalized world. Those who possess certain key…

Abstract

The ability to effectively engage in cross-cultural interactions is imperative for leaders in our increasingly globalized world. Those who possess certain key psychological resources are more likely to engage in cross-cultural interactions successfully. Psychological resources include cross-cultural hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, which together comprise cross-cultural psychological capital (CC PsyCap). Previous research has indicated that CC PsyCap predicts cultural competence, yet the pathways underlying this relationship remain unexplored. We examined the relationships among CC PsyCap, engagement in cross-cultural interactions, stress during cross-cultural interactions, and cultural competence. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a sample of 135 undergraduate students (76% female) participating in study abroad programs. Participants completed measures of cultural competence, CC PsyCap, engagement, and stress approximately one month into their study abroad. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that CC PsyCap and stress influence cultural competence directly and indirectly through engagement level during cross-cultural interactions. Furthermore, the results suggest that CC PsyCap indirectly influences engagement through stress during cross-cultural interactions. We discuss the implications of these results for people preparing to enter cross-cultural environments.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Paula Caligiuri and Ibraiz Tarique

In this chapter we examine the individual-level accelerators of global leadership development as they affect the acquisition of cross-cultural competencies through both…

Abstract

In this chapter we examine the individual-level accelerators of global leadership development as they affect the acquisition of cross-cultural competencies through both cross-cultural training and developmental cross-cultural experiences. Individuals’ cognitive ability, prior knowledge, and personality traits will accelerate the knowledge they gain from cross-cultural training. Their personality characteristics, language skills, motivation, and prior experience will facilitate the development of cross-cultural competencies from high-quality international experiences. We highlight an aptitude × treatment interaction approach whereby the level of a given individual-level attribute affects how global leaders will respond to instructional methods, cross-cultural experiences, or developmental opportunities. The chapter suggests that global leaders’ individual differences can accelerate (or possibly impede) the developmental gains in their cross-cultural competencies.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Van Thac Dang, Thinh Truong Vu and Phuoc-Thien Nguyen

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between workplace learning and organizational commitment with the mediating role of cross-cultural adjustment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between workplace learning and organizational commitment with the mediating role of cross-cultural adjustment and the moderating role of supervisor trust for the case of foreign workers in a new cultural setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses structural equation modeling to analyze a sample data of 367 Vietnamese and Philippine workers in Taiwan.

Findings

Results show that workplace learning enhances foreign workers' organizational commitment. Cross-cultural adjustment is found to have a mediating effect in the link between workplace learning and organizational commitment. Furthermore, supervisor trust moderates the link between cross-cultural adjustment and organizational commitment. In addition, supervisor trust moderates the indirect effect of workplace learning on organizational commitment through cross-cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

Prior literature often focuses on expatriates who are high-skilled employees. This study investigates low-skilled workers who come from less-developed country working in a more developed economy. This study is one of the first researches examining the issue of foreign workers' commitment in new cultural environment. Our findings shed a new light to the effect of workplace learning on organizational commitment. Our findings also help to clarify the roles of cross-cultural adjustment and supervisor trust into the workplace learning–organizational commitment relationship. This study provides implications for researchers and managers regarding to management and development of foreign workers for local organizations.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol and Arti Pandey

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of the cultural intelligence (CQ) of salespeople, who engage in cross-cultural selling, on the quality of cross-cultural sales presentations (CSSP) they demonstrate. Based on the self-efficacy theory, this research proposes that the effect of CQ on the quality of CSSP is mediated by sales self-efficacy (SSEF). Moreover, this research explores whether the effect of CQ on SSEF and the quality of CSSP can be moderated by the level of challenge orientation (CHO) that salespeople exhibit.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 282 salespeople who work at international tradeshows in Japan, India and Vietnam. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results support the significant effect of sales-efficacy that partially mediates the association between CQ and CSSP. Moreover, the analysis of the moderating effect of CHO significantly shows that the positive association between CQ and CSSP is stronger for salespeople who possess low levels of CHO than those who possess high levels of CHO.

Originality/value

From the theoretical perspective, this research contributes to CQ literature by using the self-efficacy theory as a framework to provide a theoretical explanation as to why CQ could allow salespeople to perform better in sales communication with foreign customers. Moreover, this research broadens the knowledge of previous CQ research by showing that CQ might be particularly more important for individuals who lack CHO attitude toward the tasks they perform.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Saied Reza Ameli and Ehsan Shahghasemi

For about four decades, Iran and the USA have continued to be two most stubborn enemies and this has drawn much research on this subject. Yet, only a very small fraction…

Abstract

Purpose

For about four decades, Iran and the USA have continued to be two most stubborn enemies and this has drawn much research on this subject. Yet, only a very small fraction of this body of research has been allocated to studying the perceptions that the people of the two countries have of each other. Using a mixed method survey, the purpose of this paper is to explore cross-cultural schemata US American people have of Iranians.

Design/methodology/approach

By way of an e-mail survey, the authors collected 1,752 responses from American citizens across 50 American states. The open ended responses were codified and categorized. Three out of six categories were further sub-categorized.

Findings

The outcomes showed that about 40 percent of Americans had negative cross-cultural schemata of Iranians with the media being the main source of negative cross-cultural schemata. Conversely, personal contact and communication with Iranians proved to be the source of positive cross-cultural schemata toward Iranians. Other results showed that US American exceptionalism and negative attitudes toward Iranians had a direct and positive relationship with having negative cross-cultural schemata of Iranians.

Originality/value

As the authors have explained in this paper, very few scholars have taken up the issue of cross-cultural schemata Iranian and American people have of each other. By doing this and several other works, the authors have tried to create a new research interest in academic circles.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Diana Farcas and Marta Gonçalves

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 Portuguese emerging adult SIEs, aged between 18 and 29 years, residing in the UK from 5 months to 2 years. The analysis of these interviews through a grounded theory, using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (Atlas.ti), allowed describing what constitutes participants’ cross-cultural adaptation and what are its determinants.

Findings

Five dimensions of cross-cultural adaptation emerged (cultural, emotional, social, practical and work), along with 18 determinants related with four different levels: personal, interpersonal, societal and situational. These determinants are related with the pre- and post-relocation phases of participants’ expatriation experience and some of them act as buffers, capturing a more integrative picture of the cross-cultural adaption process.

Research limitations/implications

In order to enhance the validity of the inductively identified relationships between cross-cultural adaptation and its determinants, the authors consider that they could be empirically tested.

Originality/value

This study points to several contributions in the fields of cross-cultural adaptation, emerging adulthood and self-initiated expatriation. By considering this study’s sample, the authors contributed to Farcas and Gonçalves’ (2016) call for more research focusing on emerging adult SIEs. In doing so, the authors simultaneously addressed the gap in the emerging adulthood literature regarding the focus on non-university samples of emerging adults. The methodology of this study can also be considered a contribution. By conducting interviews with emerging adult SIEs and analyzing them through a grounded theory approach, the authors were able to develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first model which was inductively developed, enabling a broad understanding of emerging adult SIEs’ cross-cultural adaptation, in terms of what constitutes and influences it.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

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