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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Joost Bücker, Olivier Furrer and Tanja Peeters Weem

The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the cross-cultural equivalence of the four-dimensional 20-item Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) and the two-dimensional 12-item cultural intelligence (CQ) short scale. Furthermore, the study elaborates on the results by discussing the differences between culturally equivalent and culturally non-equivalent items.

Design/methodology/approach

Data gathered from 607 students with a Chinese or Dutch background and mature international experience serve to test the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS.

Findings

This study addresses the lack of clarity concerning the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS in the extended domain of empirical research involving CQ. Furthermore, the consequences of the cultural equivalence tests are discussed.

Practical implications

Comparing CQ scores across cultures is only meaningful with the use of the adjusted, two-dimensional scale. Practitioners must be aware of the emic-etic character of the measurement instrument they use.

Originality/value

This study addresses the lack of clarity concerning the cross-cultural equivalence of the CQS in the extended domain of empirical research involving CQ. Furthermore, the consequences of the cultural equivalence tests are discussed.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2010

Leah Watkins

Crosscultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the…

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3466

Abstract

Purpose

Crosscultural research in marketing has been dominated by survey‐based quantitative approaches; however, the assumption of prior validity required for the adoption of the survey approach to values in crosscultural research has yet to be established. This paper aims to review the literature and outlines the problems of the survey‐based approach to crosscultural values research. These criticisms relate both to the choice of the method and its execution. The paper outlines the multiplicative effects of these problems, that threaten the validity of the survey methodology in this context, and suggests a methodological alternative.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and synthesises the relevant literature on conceptual and methodological issues pertinent to the survey approach to values research in a crosscultural context.

Findings

A review of the literature suggests numerous methodological problems that threaten the validity and reliability of the survey approach to crosscultural values research. This review exposes a methodological gap that can be filled by a qualitative approach to the study of values in crosscultural research. In particular, the paper advocates means‐end methodology as offering significant strengths and addressing several of the weaknesses of the survey‐based approach to crosscultural values research.

Originality/value

The paper synthesises the literature on methodological issues in crosscultural values research, bringing together disparate criticisms which reveal the range of unresolved problems with the empirical, survey‐based approach to crosscultural values research; the paper also offers a suggestion for an alternative methodological approach. The means‐end approach is increasingly being used in various research areas; this paper highlights its appropriateness in a crosscultural context, as an alternative to predefined and culturally determined measures that limit our understanding of crosscultural values. Means‐end addresses many of the specific weaknesses of the survey method identified in the literature review. This discussion of methodological issues has implications for the field of crosscultural research more generally and suggests a critical re‐assessment of crosscultural methods is needed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Ayalla Ruvio, Aviv Shoham and Maja Makovec Brenčič

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate cross‐culturally a short‐form, consumers' need for uniqueness (CNFU) scale. The length of the original scale (31…

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7120

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate cross‐culturally a short‐form, consumers' need for uniqueness (CNFU) scale. The length of the original scale (31 items) might have hindered its diffusion in research when questionnaire length and respondent fatigue are major considerations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses survey‐based data from Israel, Slovenia, and the Palestinian Authority and uses a combination of statistical techniques, such as EFA, CFA, and structural equation modeling.

Findings

In general, support was found for the crosscultural reliability and validity of the new, short‐form CNFU scale.

Research limitations/implications

Future research can use the short‐form scale with additional confidence in its crosscultural reliability and validity.

Practical implications

First, since CNFU appears not to be culturally bound, marketers can identify cross‐country segments of high‐CNFU individuals and use standardized marketing campaigns to reach them. Second, marketers of unique products can use the antecedents identified in this study to develop and encourage CNFU. Third, the findings can be used to design advertising campaigns such as by emphasizing the social context of consumption of high‐uniqueness products.

Originality/value

An original and first presentation of a crosscultural validation of a parsimonious CNFU scale.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Ryan W. Tang

To address three issues of survey-based methods (i.e. the absence of behaviors, the reference inequivalence, and the lack of cross-cultural interaction), the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

To address three issues of survey-based methods (i.e. the absence of behaviors, the reference inequivalence, and the lack of cross-cultural interaction), the purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of using the behavioral experiment method to collect cross-cultural data as well as the possibility of measuring culture with the experimental data. Moreover, challenges to this method and possible solutions are elaborated for intriguing further discussion on the use of behavioral experiments in international business/international management (IB/IM) research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper illustrates the merits and downside of the proposed method with an ultimate-game experiment conducted in a behavioral laboratory. The procedure of designing, implementing, and analyzing the behavioral experiment is delineated in detail.

Findings

The exploratory findings show that the ultimate-game experiment may observe participants’ behaviors with comparable references and allow for cross-cultural interaction. The findings also suggest that the fairness-related cultural value may be calibrated with the horizontal and vertical convergence of cross-cultural behaviors (i.e. people’s deed), and this calibration may be strengthened by incorporating complementary methods such as a background survey to include people’s words.

Originality/value

The behavioral experiment method illustrated and discussed in this study contributes to the IB/IM literature by addressing three methodological issues that are not widely recognized in the IB/IM literature.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Naresh K. Malhotra, James Agarwal and Mark Peterson

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of crosscultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems…

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15646

Abstract

Notes that methodological problems are hampering the growth of crosscultural marketing research and presents a review of methodological issues to address these problems. Organizes these issues around a six‐step framework which includes elements such as problem definition, the development of an approach and research design formulation. Notes that the marketing research problem can be defined by comparing the phenomenon or behaviour in separate cultural contexts and eliminating the influence of the self‐reference criterion. Discusses issues in data analysis such as treatment of outliers and standardization of data. Concludes with an interpretation of results and report presentation.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

James Reardon and Chip Miller

Methodological advances in crosscultural scale development have addressed many concerns regarding the development of valid scales. However, several issues remain to be…

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3370

Abstract

Purpose

Methodological advances in crosscultural scale development have addressed many concerns regarding the development of valid scales. However, several issues remain to be examined – including the potential problems of using language to measure communication phenomena using self‐reported studies and addressing the effect of response scale type on the validity of resultant measures. The purpose of this paper is to expand the crosscultural measurement paradigm by comprehensively examining these issues and suggesting a new response scale type that may potentially produce more valid crosscultural measures of communication‐based phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Measures of Hall's concept of context were developed using three types of response scales – Likert, semantic differential, and conceptual metaphoric. The last response scale type is developed within this research. Samples were gathered in 23 countries using existing scale development procedures. The response scales were compared for psychometric properties and validity based on reliability, metric invariance, response styles, and face validity.

Findings

Overall all three response scale types adequately measured the construct of context. The newly developed conceptual metaphoric scale performed marginally better on most comparative metrics.

Practical implications

International marketers measure a host of variables related to culture for many purposes. The new response scale type may provide slightly better measures to more accurately reflect communication based constructs – many of which are central to marketing.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that the new conceptual metaphoric response scale type may overcome some existing biases inherent in standard response scale types. In addition, this research provides the first viable and parsimonious measure of Hall's concept of context.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Elizabeth Weldon and Karen A. Jehn

Studies of crosscultural differences in conflict management behavior are reviewed. This review shows that existing studies are difficult to interpret, because researchers…

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1562

Abstract

Studies of crosscultural differences in conflict management behavior are reviewed. This review shows that existing studies are difficult to interpret, because researchers applied Western theories and Western measures to non‐Western cultures, without testing the crosscultural equivalence of the constructs and the measures and without searching for emic constructs that might contribute to an understanding of non‐Western behavior. These three problems are discussed, and guidelines to help researchers avoid these problems are proposed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Xiu Chen Cravens

The purpose of this paper is to select a theoretical framework for effective school leadership that is connected with research, standards and current practices in the USA…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to select a theoretical framework for effective school leadership that is connected with research, standards and current practices in the USA, and examine its validity and generalizability cross-culturally.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses both qualitative and quantitative methods through expert panel evaluation, cognitive interviews, and field testing of the instrument. The author asks: How well does the Learning-Centered Leadership (LCL) framework align with the professional standards and current practices of principals in urban Chinese schools in the opinion of the experts? Is there evidence that its leadership assessment instrument has construct validity in Chinese urban schools based on the re-examination of its content and measurement criteria? And is there evidence that the instrument is yielding consistent results when taken by the intended participants? How effective are the analytic strategies employed by this study in detecting the equivalences and discrepancies in how educational leadership is defined and evaluated, between two vastly different educational systems?

Findings

The paper finds evidences that give support to the claim that there is strong cross-cultural alignment on the overarching goal of improving student learning. However, the US framework and assessment will need to be modified to reflect the Chinese reform priorities that emphasize the balance between academic and social learning.

Originality/value

The belief that there are common elements in contemporary international educational policy has brought growing interest in sharing leadership theories and successful models cross-culturally. This paper addresses the challenges in understanding the complexity of cross-cultural translation of theories and applications, and explores viable solutions to meaningful adaptation.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Saul Fine

The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of pre‐employment integrity testing in culturally distinct samples.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of pre‐employment integrity testing in culturally distinct samples.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrity test scores from a total of 1,632 job applicants from three large banking corporations in Colombia, Israel, and Ukraine were studied and matched against a standard criterion of self‐reported counterproductive work behaviors.

Findings

Mean test scores differed significantly across the countries, as hypothesized, while no evidence of adverse impact was found for age or gender in any of the samples. In addition, consistently significant validities were maintained in each country, resulting in the potential utility for mitigating counterproductive work behaviors among employees.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study are believed to make theoretical and practical contributions to our current understanding of integrity testing in personnel selection in crosscultural settings. As such, the findings may be of particular importance to the numerous organizations and practitioners around the world administering integrity tests today. These results notwithstanding, future crosscultural studies of this kind should include external performance measures in order to investigate possible method biases related to the use of self‐reported criteria.

Originality/value

Despite extensive research on integrity testing in recent decades, this is one of the few studies to look at crosscultural integrity testing, and one of the first to examine integrity testing in the specific countries studied here.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Dheeraj Sharma, Varsha Verma and Subhash Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a five-country study of consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNFU) and examine its research and practical implications. Most studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a five-country study of consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNFU) and examine its research and practical implications. Most studies examining CNFU have used single country or US-based samples. To promote cross-cultural research, the authors test the cross-cultural reliability and validity of the CNFU scale using data from the USA, a developed economy, Brazil, India, Thailand, and Mexico, all emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The original CNFU scale was developed in the USA. Therefore, to cross-validate the scale, data were collected from consumers in the USA, Brazil, India, Thailand, and Mexico as these countries demonstrate important socio-economic and cultural differences. The scale was tested using confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The scale was estimated and validated in all five countries and the analysis reveals that the CNFU scale has sound psychometric properties. Further, the authors find that CNFU is a cross-cultural phenomenon that has a significant impact on market mavenism (MM), and this relationship is moderated by usage variety (UV).

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate generality of all the scale items, and demonstrate that CNFU is a cross-cultural phenomenon. Greater nomological validity of the CNFU construct could be established by investigating its relationship with more constructs.

Originality/value

The authors provide empirical evidence on the cross-cultural validity of the CNFU scale; examine its effect on MM; and role of UV on the relationship between CNFU and MM.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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