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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

R. Gudena, N. Khetan, S. Luwemba and L.R. Jenkinson

The purpose of this paper is to show how the implementation of the European Working Time Directive in August 2004 has dramatically decreased junior doctors' working hours, as a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how the implementation of the European Working Time Directive in August 2004 has dramatically decreased junior doctors' working hours, as a consequence of which new ways of working will need to be found. Traditionally both doctors and nurses record the same generic history (past medical history, social and family history, drug history and allergies) in their own notes. This is unnecessary duplication and maybe only nursing staff should record this information. This study is undertaken to identify the differences between junior doctors' and nurses' clerking to assess whether they are comparable.

Design/methodology/approach

A prospective study of 100 case notes from elective and emergency admissions was undertaken. The completeness of various parts of the history and the recording of the vital signs were compared between nurses and house officers.

Findings

The Past Medical History was complete in only 30 per cent of the house officers' notes and 42 per cent of nursing records. The social history was complete in all the nursing records but only 35 per cent of the doctors' notes. Nurses recorded a complete personal history more than doctors (62 per cent v. 13 per cent respectively). The drug history was poorly recorded in house officers' notes, being complete in 22 per cent, whereas this was complete in 73 per cent of nursing records. The record of the history of allergies was poor in both groups at just over 10 per cent. Finally 87 per cent of nurses managed to record vital signs but these were missing from nearly half of the house officers' notes.

Originality/value

The study has shown that details of the generic medical history are recorded more completely by the nursing staff and only they should record this information. This will allow junior doctors more time to deal with the increased demands and reduced hours of work.

Details

Leadership in Health Services, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1879

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Priti Yadav and Anupama Prashar

The purpose of this article is to explore the phenomena of board gender diversity and its consequences for sustainability performance, as measured by the environment, social and…

2476

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to explore the phenomena of board gender diversity and its consequences for sustainability performance, as measured by the environment, social and governance (ESG) disclosure score, in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The positivist paradigm influenced the research design for this study. The relationship between firm's ESG performance and female participation on the corporate boards was explored using panel data regression with a fixed effect approach. A total of 712 data points covering the Nifty 100 companies of the National Stock Exchange (NSE) were included in the data set. To add robustness to the findings and to overcome endogeneity bias, authors employed the Dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM).

Findings

The results showed that, a relatively small, percentage of women directors has little impact on ESG performance, but when at least three women directors are in place, these relationships become more favourable. Despite the fact that Indian firms trail behind many developed and developing countries in promoting board gender equality, authors conclude that critical mass theory partially applies in the Indian context.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the field of corporate governance in the twenty-first century by investigating the subject of women's participation on boards in the context of a rising market and its potential influence on sustainability performance. The use of critical mass theory adds a fresh perspective to the literature.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 72 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

AMM Ahsan, Ruinan Xie and Bashir Khoda

The purpose of this paper is to present a topology-based tissue scaffold design methodology to accurately represent the heterogeneous internal architecture of tissues/organs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a topology-based tissue scaffold design methodology to accurately represent the heterogeneous internal architecture of tissues/organs.

Design/methodology/approach

An image analysis technique is used that digitizes the topology information contained in medical images of tissues/organs. A weighted topology reconstruction algorithm is implemented to represent the heterogeneity with parametric functions. The parametric functions are then used to map the spatial material distribution following voxelization. The generated chronological information yields hierarchical tool-path points which are directly transferred to the three-dimensional (3D) bio-printer through a proposed generic platform called Application Program Interface (API). This seamless data corridor between design (virtual) and fabrication (physical) ensures the manufacturability of personalized heterogeneous porous scaffold structure without any CAD/STL file.

Findings

The proposed methodology is implemented to verify the effectiveness of the approach and the designed example structures are bio-fabricated with a deposition-based bio-additive manufacturing system. The designed and fabricated heterogeneous structures are evaluated which shows conforming porosity distribution compared to uniform method.

Originality/value

In bio-fabrication process, the generated bio-models with boundary representation (B-rep) or surface tessellation (mesh) do not capture the internal architectural information. This paper provides a design methodology for scaffold structure mimicking the native tissue/organ architecture and direct fabricating the structure without reconstructing the CAD model. Therefore, designing and direct bio-printing the heterogeneous topology of tissue scaffolds from medical images minimize the disparity between the internal architecture of target tissue and its scaffold.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Horn‐Chern Lin and Tao Zeng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the distributional impact of personal income tax in Canada and China over the most recent decade.

1981

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the distributional impact of personal income tax in Canada and China over the most recent decade.

Design/methodology/approach

The Urban Household Survey in China and the Canadian Socio‐Economic Information Management System data are employed.

Findings

It was found that, in both Canada and China, the personal income taxes are progressive, that is, tax payments and average tax rates are increasing in the income share of high‐income taxpayers.

Research limitations/implications

This paper does not explore the connection between tax progressivity differences and social, political, and cultural differences in the two countries.

Practical implications

This paper is of interest to policy makers, economists, and academics, who seek to design an income tax system which can mitigate income inequity efficiently. Given that income taxes have changed in China in recent years, future studies should be conducted to compare the distributional impacts of the new tax system against those of the old tax system.

Originality/value

This is the first study of distributional impact of income tax in China. This is also the first study to compare tax distribution between China and a developed country.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Benjamin Blair, Jenny Kehl and Rebecca Klaper

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and phosphorus are pollutants that can cause a wide array of negative environmental impacts. Phosphorus is a regulated pollutant…

Abstract

Purpose

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and phosphorus are pollutants that can cause a wide array of negative environmental impacts. Phosphorus is a regulated pollutant in many industrial countries, while PPCPs are widely unregulated. Many technologies designed to remove phosphorus from wastewater can remove PPCPs, therefore the purpose of this paper is to explore the ability of these technologies to also reduce the emission of unregulated PPCPs.

Design/methodology/approach

Through meta-analysis, the authors use the PPCPs’ risk quotient (RQ) to measure and compare the effectiveness of different wastewater treatment technologies. The RQ data are then applied via a case study that uses phosphorus effluent regulations to determine the ability of the recommended technologies to also mitigate PPCPs.

Findings

The tertiary membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration processes recommended to remove phosphorus can reduce the median RQ from PPCPs by 71 and 81 percent, respectively. The ultrafiltration technology was estimated to reduce the median RQ from PPCPs by 28 percent with no cost in addition to the costs expected under the current phosphorus effluent regulations. RQ reduction is expected with a membrane bioreactor and the cost of upgrading to this technology was found to be $11.76 per capita/year.

Practical implications

The authors discuss the management implications, including watershed management, alternative PPCPs reduction strategies, and water quality trading.

Originality/value

The evaluation of the co-management of priority and emerging pollutants illuminates how the removal of regulated pollutants from wastewater could significantly reduce the emission of unregulated PPCPs.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Yang Guo, Huseini S. Patanwala, Brice Bognet and Anson W.K. Ma

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to provide…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to provide practitioners a self-contained review of how the performance of inkjet and inkjet-based three-dimensional (3D) printing is fundamentally influenced by the properties of inkjet fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is written for practitioners who may not be familiar with the underlying physics of inkjet printing. The paper thus begins with a brief review of basic concepts in inkjet fluid characterization and the relevant dimensionless groups. Then, how drop impact and contact angle affect the footprint and resolution of inkjet printing is reviewed, especially onto powder and fabrics that are relevant to 3D printing and flexible electronics applications. A future outlook is given at the end of this review paper.

Findings

The jettability of Newtonian fluids is well-studied and has been generalized using a dimensionless Ohnesorge number. However, the inclusion of various functional materials may modify the ink fluid properties, leading to non-Newtonian behavior, such as shear thinning and elasticity. This paper discusses the current understanding of common inkjet fluids, such as particle suspensions, shear-thinning fluids and viscoelastic fluids.

Originality/value

A number of excellent review papers on the applications of inkjet and inkjet-based 3D printing already exist. This paper focuses on highlighting the current scientific understanding and possible future directions.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Balasubramaniyan Viswanathan

The purpose of this paper is to study the counterfeit currency network in India. This research is an endeavour to bring out various layers which act as source, collection and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the counterfeit currency network in India. This research is an endeavour to bring out various layers which act as source, collection and distribution points in a counterfeit currency network in India. This paper also deals with the fake currency network and its linkages to terrorism.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology adopted is a descriptive one which conducts a content analysis on materials derived from secondary sources supported by information from primary source data acquired through the Right to Information Act.

Findings

This paper argues that the existing measure of calculating the incidence of counterfeit notes per million is understated by the relevant stakeholders in India. This measure changes drastically when other factors such as high denomination notes and police seizures are taken into account, which has not been attempted, though it is duly acknowledged by the stakeholders. This paper has attempted to map the locations in India which act as ingress, distribution and circulation points based on evidentiary data derived from the seizure records. This paper also highlights the fact that criminal gang-operated networks of fake currency are compartmentalised, while the networks operated by terror groups are de-compartmentalised.

Practical implications

In the process, this paper attempts to enlighten stakeholders like law enforcement agencies, banking regulators and counter terrorism community on the penetration levels of the fake Indian currency note (FICN) networks in India and the need to target these important nodes or points or layers to break up the FICN network. This also highlights fund-raising mechanisms of terror groups, where FICN acts as the main funding resource for groups like the Indian Mujahideen for carrying out low-cost terror attacks.

Originality/value

The key findings of this research lie in its originality of presentation of facts in a systematic fashion.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Surjit Kumar Kar and Munmun Samantarai

The purpose of this case study is to understand effect of Indian ethos, socio‐cultural setup, etc. on growth of family‐based business; impact of ethnicity and genetic intelligence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this case study is to understand effect of Indian ethos, socio‐cultural setup, etc. on growth of family‐based business; impact of ethnicity and genetic intelligence on development of entrepreneurial traits, etc. in family business contexts in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes a single case study on an organized retail firm named Bothra Megabazar Private Limited in Rourkela, India to comprehend the established theories and literature on emergence and spread of business community/class in India known for its own ethos and values as a country. As a part of narrative enquiry method in qualitative research, it collects the narratives of central and peripheral characters in the respective business house through “story telling” and by “restorying” the same, understands and explains the family‐based entrepreneurial journey amidst business dynamics.

Findings

The important findings of this case study are manifold. It finds that there is inter‐connectedness of different aspects amounting for success/growth of family business entrepreneurs and enterprises. Some of these factors are deep‐seated Indian ethos and values, multiple family and social networks, joint and undivided family structure, inheritance of family business down the generations, financial backing from members of family and social networks, long standing experience in trade, genetic intelligence across generations, internal capacity building with unique style of leadership and high‐risk appetite, etc.

Research limitations/implications

With its focus on one specific community like Bani(y)as or Marwaris in Indian business society, the case may not justify the understandings on genetic intelligence in case of other communities/class. However, the study elaborates scope of future studies in the same direction.

Practical implications

Practicing managers and research scholars can use this case for understanding of the key success/growth factors behind socio‐culturally guided family‐based business enterprises.

Originality/value

The paper presents a case that is original.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Haider Ilyas, Ahmed Anwar, Ussama Yaqub, Zamil Alzamil and Deniz Appelbaum

This paper aims to understand, examine and interpret the main concerns and emotions of the people regarding COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, the USA and India using Data Science…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand, examine and interpret the main concerns and emotions of the people regarding COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, the USA and India using Data Science measures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study implements unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods, i.e. topic modeling and sentiment analysis on Twitter data for extracting the topics of discussion and calculating public sentiment.

Findings

Governments and policymakers remained the focus of public discussion on Twitter during the first three months of the pandemic. Overall, public sentiment toward the pandemic remained neutral except for the USA.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a Data Science-based approach to better understand the public topics of concern during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Akash K. Gupta, Rahul Yadav, Malay K. Das and Pradipta K. Panigrahi

This paper aims to present the implementation of a multi-layer radiation propagation model in simulations of multi-phase flow and heat transfer, for a dissociating methane hydrate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the implementation of a multi-layer radiation propagation model in simulations of multi-phase flow and heat transfer, for a dissociating methane hydrate reservoir subjected to microwave heating.

Design/methodology/approach

To model the induced heterogeneity due to dissociation of hydrates in the reservoir, a multiple homogeneous layer approach, used in food processes modelling, is suggested. The multi-layer model is incorporated in an in-house, multi-phase, multi-component hydrate dissociation simulator based on the finite volume method. The modified simulator is validated with standard experimental results in the literature and subsequently applied to a hydrate reservoir to study the effect of water content and sand dielectric nature on radiation propagation and hydrate dissociation.

Findings

The comparison of the multi-layer model with experimental results show a maximum difference in temperature estimation to be less than 2.5 K. For reservoir scale simulations, three homogeneous layers are observed to be sufficient to model the induced heterogeneity. There is a significant contribution of dielectric properties of sediments and water content of the reservoir in microwave radiation attenuation and overall hydrate dissociation. A high saturation reservoir may not always provide high gas recovery by dissociation of hydrates in the case of microwave heating.

Originality/value

The multi-layer approach to model microwave radiation propagation is introduced and tested for the first time in dissociating hydrate reservoirs. The multi-layer model provides better control over reservoir heterogeneity and interface conditions compared to existing homogeneous models.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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