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Board gender diversity: implications for environment, social, and governance (ESG) performance of Indian firms

Priti Yadav (Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, India)
Anupama Prashar (Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, India)

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management

ISSN: 1741-0401

Article publication date: 31 May 2022




The purpose of this article is to explore the phenomena of board gender diversity and its consequences for sustainability performance, as measured by the environment, social and governance (ESG) disclosure score, in the Indian context.


The positivist paradigm influenced the research design for this study. The relationship between firm's ESG performance and female participation on the corporate boards was explored using panel data regression with a fixed effect approach. A total of 712 data points covering the Nifty 100 companies of the National Stock Exchange (NSE) were included in the data set. To add robustness to the findings and to overcome endogeneity bias, authors employed the Dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM).


The results showed that, a relatively small, percentage of women directors has little impact on ESG performance, but when at least three women directors are in place, these relationships become more favourable. Despite the fact that Indian firms trail behind many developed and developing countries in promoting board gender equality, authors conclude that critical mass theory partially applies in the Indian context.


This study contributes to the field of corporate governance in the twenty-first century by investigating the subject of women's participation on boards in the context of a rising market and its potential influence on sustainability performance. The use of critical mass theory adds a fresh perspective to the literature.



Yadav, P. and Prashar, A. (2022), "Board gender diversity: implications for environment, social, and governance (ESG) performance of Indian firms", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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