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1 – 10 of 634
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Gerard Cummins and Marc P.Y. Desmulliez

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a detailed literature survey of research carried out in inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Findings

This article explains the inkjet printing process and the various types of conductive inks. It then examines the various factors that affect the quality of inkjet printed interconnects such as printing parameters, materials and substrate treatments. Methods of characterising both the inkjet printing process and the electrical properties of printed conductive materials are also presented. Finally relevant applications of this technology are described.

Originality/value

Inkjet printing is currently one of the cheapest direct write techniques for manufacturing. The use of this technique in electronic manufacturing, where interconnects and other conductive features are required is an area of increasing relevance to the fields of electronics manufacturing, packaging and assembly. This review paper would therefore be of great value and interest to this community.

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Yang Guo, Huseini S. Patanwala, Brice Bognet and Anson W.K. Ma

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to…

1886

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the latest developments both in terms of theoretical understanding and experimental techniques related to inkjet fluids. The purpose is to provide practitioners a self-contained review of how the performance of inkjet and inkjet-based three-dimensional (3D) printing is fundamentally influenced by the properties of inkjet fluids.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is written for practitioners who may not be familiar with the underlying physics of inkjet printing. The paper thus begins with a brief review of basic concepts in inkjet fluid characterization and the relevant dimensionless groups. Then, how drop impact and contact angle affect the footprint and resolution of inkjet printing is reviewed, especially onto powder and fabrics that are relevant to 3D printing and flexible electronics applications. A future outlook is given at the end of this review paper.

Findings

The jettability of Newtonian fluids is well-studied and has been generalized using a dimensionless Ohnesorge number. However, the inclusion of various functional materials may modify the ink fluid properties, leading to non-Newtonian behavior, such as shear thinning and elasticity. This paper discusses the current understanding of common inkjet fluids, such as particle suspensions, shear-thinning fluids and viscoelastic fluids.

Originality/value

A number of excellent review papers on the applications of inkjet and inkjet-based 3D printing already exist. This paper focuses on highlighting the current scientific understanding and possible future directions.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2020

Jayaraman Kathirvelan

This paper aims to encompass the technological advancements in the area of flexible sensing electronics fabrication particularly for wearable device development…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to encompass the technological advancements in the area of flexible sensing electronics fabrication particularly for wearable device development applications. In the recent past, it is evident that there is a tremendous growth in the field of flexible electronics and sensors fabrication technologies all around the world. Even though, there is a significant amount of research has been carried in the past decade, but still there is a huge need for exploring novel materials for low temperature processing, optimized printing methods and customized printing devices with accurate feature control.

Design/methodology/approach

The author has done an extensive literature survey in the proposed area and found that the researchers are showing significant interest in exploring novel materials, new conductive ink processing methods suitable for additive manufacturing, and fabrication technologies for developing the plastic substrate-based flexible electronics for the on growing demands of wearable devices in the market.

Findings

The author has consolidated some of the recent advancements in the area of flexible sensing electronics using the inkjet-printing platform carried out by the researchers. The novel customized inkjet-printing technology, materials selections for device development, compatibility of the materials for the inkjet-printing process and the interesting results of the devices fabricated are highlighted in this paper.

Originality/value

The author has reported the novel inkjet-printing platforms explored by researchers in the recent past for various applications which primarily includes gas sensing. The author has consolidated in a crisp manner about the technology, materials compatible for inkjet-printing, and the exciting results of the printed devices. The author has reported the advantages and challenges of the proposed methods by the researchers. This work will bridge the technical gap in the inkjet-printing technology and will be useful for the researchers to take forward the research work on this domain to the next level.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

S. Daplyn and L. Lin

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains…

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Abstract

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains, large advertising posters, flags and banners. As a result of the need for such inkjet printed products to have a greater durability, especially for outdoor applications, inks containing pigments as the colourants are gaining more interests. However, pigments may give rise to logistical problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. This paper reports methods for the preparation of pigment dispersions and of inkjet printing ink formulations and the methods for the evaluation of the suitability of pigmented ink formulations for jet printing on textile materials. In particular, the suitability of three magenta pigments for inkjet inks were assessed and reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Alaaldeen Al-Halhouli, Hala Qitouqa, Abdallah Alashqar and Jumana Abu-Khalaf

This review paper aims to introduce the inkjet printing as a tool for fabrication of flexible/wearable sensors. It summarizes inkjet printing techniques including various…

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Abstract

Purpose

This review paper aims to introduce the inkjet printing as a tool for fabrication of flexible/wearable sensors. It summarizes inkjet printing techniques including various modes of operation, commonly used substrates and inks, commercially available inkjet printers and variables affecting the printing process. More focus is on the drop-on-demand printing mode, a strongly considered printing technique for patterning conductive lines on flexible and stretchable substrates. As inkjet-printed patterns are influenced by various variables related to its conductivity, resistivity, durability and dimensions of printed patterns, the main printing parameters (e.g. printing multilayers, inks sintering, surface treatment, cartridge specifications and printing process parameters) are reported. The embedded approaches of adding electronic components (e.g. surface-mounted and optoelectronic devices) to the stretchable circuit are also included.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, inkjet printing techniques for fabrication of flexible/stretchable circuits will be reviewed. Specifically, the various modes of operation, commonly used substrates and inks and variables affecting the printing process will be presented. Next, examples of inkjet-printed electronic devices will be demonstrated. These devices will be compared to their rigid counterpart in terms of ease of implementation and electrical behavior for wearable sensor applications. Finally, a summary of key findings and future research opportunities will be presented.

Findings

In conclusion, it is evident that the technology of inkjet printing is becoming a competitor to traditional lithography fabrication techniques, as it has the advantage of being low cost and less complex. In particular, this technique has demonstrated great capabilities in the area of flexible/stretchable electronics and sensors. Various inkjet printing methods have been presented with emphasis on their principle of operation and their commercial availability. In addition, the components of a general inkjet printing process have been discussed in details. Several factors affect the resulting printed patterns in terms of conductivity, resistivity, durability and geometry.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on flexible/stretchable optoelectronic devices which could be implemented in stretchable circuits. Furthermore, the importance and challenges related to printing highly conductive and highly stretchable lines, as well as reliable electronic devices, and interfacing them with external circuitry for power transmission, data acquisition and signal conditioning have been highlighted and discussed. Although several fabrication techniques have been recently developed to allow patterning conductive lines on a rubber substrate, the fabrication of fully stretchable wearable sensors remains limited which needs future research in this area for the advancement of wearable sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Simon James Ford, Michèle J. Routley, Rob Phaal and David R. Probert

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate how supply and demand interact during industrial emergence.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how supply and demand interact during industrial emergence.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on previous theorising about co-evolutionary dynamics, exploring the interaction between supply and demand in a study of the industrial emergence of the commercial inkjet cluster in Cambridge, UK. Data are collected through 13 interviews with professionals working in the industry.

Findings

The paper shows that as new industries emerge, asynchronies between technology supply and market demand create opportunities for entrepreneurial activity. In attempting to match innovative technologies to particular applications, entrepreneurs adapt to the system conditions and shape the environment to their own advantage. Firms that successfully operate in emerging industries demonstrate the functionality of new technologies, reducing uncertainty and increasing customer receptiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The research is geographically bounded to the Cambridge commercial inkjet cluster. Further studies could consider commercial inkjet from a global perspective or test the applicability of the findings in other industries.

Practical implications

Technology-based firms are often innovating during periods of industrial emergence. The insights developed in this paper help such firms recognise the emerging context in which they operate and the challenges that need to overcome.

Originality/value

As an in depth study of a single industry, this research responds to calls for studies into industrial emergence, providing insights into how supply and demand interact during this phase of the industry lifecycle.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Haojia Su, Zhengchun Cai, Zhengwei lv, Yongkang Chen and Yongxin Ji

In this work, the authors used reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization to develop a new cationic acrylate modified epoxy resin emulsion for…

Abstract

Purpose

In this work, the authors used reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization to develop a new cationic acrylate modified epoxy resin emulsion for water-borne inkjet which have the advantages of both polyacrylate and epoxy resin. The emulsion was successfully used in the canvas coating for inkjet printing. This paper aims to contribute to the development of novel cationic emulsions for inkjet printing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the epoxy acrylate was synthesized from RAFT agent and epoxy resin firstly. Cationic macromolecular emulsifier was prepared by RAFT polymerization, using 2,2’-Azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and styrene as monomer, which was directly used to prepare the emulsion. The influences of the amount of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate on particle size, zeta potential and water contact angle were studied. Finally, the cationic emulsion was used to print images by inkjet printing.

Findings

The emulsion has the smallest particle size, the highest potential and the highest water contact angle when the DM content is 13 Wt.%. The transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the latex particles is core-shell sphere with the diameters in the range 120–200 nm. The emulsion was successfully used in the canvas coating for inkjet printing. This work will contribute to the development of novel cationic emulsions for inkjet printing industry.

Originality/value

The emulsion was successfully used in the canvas coating for inkjet printing. This work will contribute to the development of novel cationic emulsions for inkjet printing industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Đorđe Vujčić, Nemanja Kašiković, Mladen Stančić, Igor Majnarić and Dragoljub Novaković

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the importance of braille for visually impaired people and the possibility of printing it by using the ultra-violet (UV) inkjet printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The vision impairment, definitions and statistics, as well as braille letter and standards, are first reviewed. Then, the methods of printing braille have been discussed, with a focus on UV ink-jet printing. Finally, this study indicates a significant role of UV ink-jet printed Braille, its possibilities and its advantages.

Findings

Research studies in the field of UV ink-jet printed braille are showing that it is possible to print good legible braille of the adequate height of dots. This paper highlights some advantages of printing braille with UV ink-jet, like the possibility of achieving greater dot height than embossing and no need for printing form. Printing of additional elements on top of braille dot has also been tested, and possible use for differentiation of the written notation is shown. This paper also indicates the importance of technological and operating conditions in UV inkjet braille printing. It predicts a significant role of UV inkjet in braille printing.

Originality/value

This paper provides a detailed review of UV ink-jet printed braille: possibilities, advantages and application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2016

Wenchao Zhou, Frederick A List, Chad E Duty and Sudarsanam S Babu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of integrating inkjet printed circuitry with fused deposition modeling (FDM) structures to produce embedded…

1973

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of integrating inkjet printed circuitry with fused deposition modeling (FDM) structures to produce embedded electronics and smart structures. Several of the challenges of combining these technologies are identified, and potential solutions are developed.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach is taken to investigate some of the relevant physical processes for integrating FDM and inkjet deposition, including the printing, drying and sintering processes. Experimental data are collected to assist understanding of the problems, and engineering solutions are proposed and implemented based on the gained understanding of the problems.

Findings

Three challenges have been identified, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process and the slow drying process caused by the “skinning effect”. Two engineering solutions are developed for the discontinuity problem. The non-conductivity issue and the slow drying process are attributed to the motion of the nanoparticles caused by the evaporation flow. The thermally activated drying process for the Cabot ink suggests that the proposed solution is effective. Timescale analysis and experimental data show that the printing conditions do not have a clear influence on the conductivity of the printed lines, and drying and sintering processes are more important.

Research limitations/implications

No quantitative model has yet been developed for simulating the printing, drying and sintering processes associated with inkjet printing on FDM substrates. Quantitative models can be extremely valuable for improvement in understanding the problems, optimizing the proposed solutions and coming up with better solutions.

Practical implications

The research findings in this work have great implications in implementing a hybrid FDM-inkjet deposition machine for fabricating embedded electronics and smart structures. All the proposed engineering solutions for the identified problems can be potentially integrated into one machine.

Social implications

The success of the integration of the FDM and inkjet deposition process will enable the design of compact electro-mechanical structures to replace the large heavy electro-mechanical systems.

Originality/value

This work represents one of the first attempts for integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three critical challenges are identified, and corresponding engineering solutions are proposed and implemented based on analysis of the relevant physical processes, including the printing, drying and sintering processes, which has laid the foundation for integrating the FDM and inkjet deposition processes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Osama Abdel Hakeim, Asmaa Ahmed Arafa, Magdy Kandil Zahran and Laila Abdel Wahab Abdou

The purpose of this paper is to prepare ultra-violet (UV)-curable inkjet inks for textile printing application. The influence of both type and component ratio of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare ultra-violet (UV)-curable inkjet inks for textile printing application. The influence of both type and component ratio of monomer/oligomer on the quality of the desired viscosity range is studied. Moreover, the effect of pigment/resin ratio on the rheological behaviour of the ink has been studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Aqueous dispersions of nanoscale organic pigments were prepared through ball milling and ultrasonication. The dispersed pigments were encapsulated into UV-curable resin via miniemulsion technique, using different types and component ratios of monomers and oligomers.

Findings

It was found that the monomer/oligomer ratio of 2:3 and the pigment/resin ratio of 2:1 gave the most stable miniemulsion dispersions and provided the most suitable rheological range for inkjet printing inks.

Research limitations/implications

As the rheology of the ink is optimised, most of the problems associated with the jetting process could be avoided.

Practical implications

This method of using UV-curable encapsulated inks eliminates the usage of binders, which are the principal factor for nozzle clogging of the print head. In addition, binders are responsible for the coarse handle of the printed textiles.

Social implications

The UV-curable inks were viewed as a green technology by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Originality/value

This method is simple and fast and requires low cost. In addition, it could find numerous applications in surface coating.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 634