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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Andrea Runfola, Simone Guercini and Matilde Milanesi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate pharmaceutical market access (MA) and the interaction between the pharmaceutical company and other business and non-business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate pharmaceutical market access (MA) and the interaction between the pharmaceutical company and other business and non-business actors (NBAs) involved in the MA of ethical drugs, to identify the main categories of actors, their role for MA and the content of the interaction, adopting an industrial marketing approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative interpretivist approach is adopted, with interviews as the primary data collection method: 36 interviews have been conducted with 16 key informants from the pharmaceutical industry.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal that (i) MA can be seen as a relational-driven activity with specific features owing to the highly regulated nature of the pharmaceutical industry, (ii) there is a multiplicity of business, and NBAs involved in the MA activities with whom pharmaceutical companies interact to acquire knowledge, legitimacy and make MA timely and effective, and (iii) the interaction with each category of actors has specific content.

Originality/value

This paper advances the debate on the marketing and management of pharmaceutical companies by emphasizing the importance of MA and the need to conceptualize it according to an industrial marketing perspective, revealing the interdependencies among actors for MA and the content of the interaction. It also contributes to the industrial marketing literature that has recently stressed the importance of NBAs as part of the extended business network of a company by identifying different categories of actors, their role in terms of knowledge and legitimization and the features and the trade-off of the extended business network in highly regulated markets.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Giuseppe Festa, Ashutosh Kolte, Maria Rosaria Carli and Matteo Rossi

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to access, analyze and highlight opportunities and problems of the Indian pharmaceutical sector in the broader national health-care industry. The recent changes in the field, at the institutional and corporate levels, have placed India in the spotlight of the global pharmaceutical market, but several threats and weaknesses could limit this expansion.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive and inferential analyses have been based on empirical data extracted from authenticated data sources. Subsequently, a narrative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was performed based on the results of prior investigations and on qualitative data that were retrieved from a marketing intelligence examination to generate an overall scenario analysis.

Findings

Indian pharmaceutical companies have faced several challenges on various fronts. In the home market, drug prices are controlled by the drug price control order; therefore, there is strong pressure on revenues and subsequently on costs. In the international market, threats derived from pharmaceutical multinational companies are emerging as tough obstacles to overcome.

Practical implications

More focus on patents for innovative drugs is required, instead of concentrating primarily on generic drugs. There is a need for policymakers to work on the sustainability and development of the industry, while the companies must redesign their orientation toward enhancing innovation capabilities. In addition, at the level of corporate strategy, firms should establish collaborations and alliances and expand their industrial marketing vision.

Originality/value

This study provides a global overview of the potential growth and development of the Indian pharmaceutical sector, comparing it with internal trends and external competition. The most relevant contribution of the research relies on the shift to innovative production that Indian companies must adopt (after years of focusing only on generic drugs), and in this vein, appropriate industrial marketing solutions are indispensable.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Harjit Kaur and Sanjay Kaushik

The objective of the study is to examine the extent to which pharmaceutical companies in India rely on traditional planning approaches rather than the new learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the study is to examine the extent to which pharmaceutical companies in India rely on traditional planning approaches rather than the new learning approach to strategic planning. In addition to that, the study also seeks to examine the perceived ability of the pharmaceutical companies in India to integrate continuous improvement goals and product quality into the overall strategic planning and success in implementing total quality management (TQM) programs examined through three particular continuous improvement mindsets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study collected data from select pharmaceutical companies in India through survey technique using a standardized questionnaire through online mode. A descriptive statistical analysis is performed to examine the extent of integration of strategic planning and continuous improvement in the select pharmaceutical companies in India.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that pharmaceutical companies in India still rely greatly on traditional planning methods for strategic planning. However, a shift is also observed toward adoption of best practice management and modern strategic management techniques. The study also demonstrates that continuous improvement goals and strategies are included into the corporate strategic planning.

Research limitations/implications

The study employs only descriptive statistics, and no hypotheses are generated in the study because the objective is not to generalize the findings. The process of formulating quality goals and integrating them with strategy is typical to any company. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized. The findings of the study do not given any insights into the strategic quality management process due to online mode of data collection. Also, the focus on the study is on the internal management of quality in an organization and factors in the external environment or in the value chain outside the firm, influencing strategic management of quality are beyond the scope of present study.

Practical implications

Considering the significance of quality of products, an understanding of the link between quality and strategic goals helps the managers in pharmaceutical industry to align the strategic planning goals with quality goals ensuring that the entire organization moves in same strategic direction.

Originality/value

The strong focus quality in pharmaceutical industry in India has given impetus to development of well-managed quality programs on the shop-floor to remain competitive and survive in the highly competitive global markets. However, no such study is conducted so far to understand the extent to which continuous improvement or TQM practices are integrated into strategic planning in the pharmaceutical companies in India.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Kanika Saxena, Sunita Balani and Pallavi Srivastava

This study aims to review the extant literature in pharmaceutical sector on corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and organizational performance to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the extant literature in pharmaceutical sector on corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability and organizational performance to explore if a relationship exists among these three elements.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 301 research articles were collected from online databases. A new ECG framework representing environment, community and growth was used to classify the collected literature under the three elements: CSR, sustainability and organizational performance.

Findings

Key findings under the identified categories are: A) Environment: Strict legislation and green chemistry have revolutionized the pharmaceutical sector by decreasing manufacturing costs, minimizing the environmental footprint and improving compliance with regulations. B) Community: Community goodwill and organization’s image have gained importance under the influence of external and internal stakeholders. C) Growth: A weak relationship exists between CSR and organizational performance but increases engagement in sustainability practices which has led to increased market performance. Effective integration of social and environmental goals with strategic business processes could result in long-term profits.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the extant literature to identify the significance of CSR and sustainability on the organizational performance of the pharmaceutical sector. The propositions developed in this study will help in identifying the interdependency of the aforementioned three elements opening further possibilities of in-depth sector specific studies.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Seyed Alireza Otobideh, Shahram Moeeni, Yousef Mohammadzadeh, Bahlol Rahimi, Hosein Shabaninejad and Hasan Yusefzadeh

Investigating the import of pharmaceutical products, as one of the essential goods of the country to improve health and medical conditions, is important in accelerating…

Abstract

Purpose

Investigating the import of pharmaceutical products, as one of the essential goods of the country to improve health and medical conditions, is important in accelerating the economic growth and enhancing the welfare of the community. This paper aims to estimate the income and price elasticity of pharmaceutical import demand in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the function of Iran's pharmaceutical import demand was estimated and calculated using the co-integration method and error correction techniques with the seasonal data of 2005–2016 to identify factors related to import, as well as relevant price, and income elasticity.

Findings

The research results showed that the price elasticity of Iran's long-term pharmaceutical import demand was 0.04; that is, the rate of pharmaceutical import demanded by Iran was not sensitive to change in relative price. Additionally, the long-term income elasticity of Iran's pharmaceutical demand was 0.69, meaning that an increase in Iran's income did not have a highly positive impact on the volume of Iran's pharmaceutical import.

Originality/value

Estimating the function of the demand for pharmaceutical import may pave the way to adopt appropriate economic policies. Furthermore, estimating this function and calculating income and price elasticity is a step toward minimizing government expenditures and can be a great contribution in designing trade policies.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

An Xia Wan, Zhaoqiang Zhong, Chaoyu Zheng, Xuan Zhao and Ehsan Elahi

Based on the perspective of stakeholders, this paper aims to construct the corporate social responsibility (CSR) evaluation system, aiming at encouraging enterprises to…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the perspective of stakeholders, this paper aims to construct the corporate social responsibility (CSR) evaluation system, aiming at encouraging enterprises to actively undertake social responsibility, formulating targeted countermeasures to improve the performance level of social responsibility and realizing its sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data from 2014 to 2018 of pharmaceutical companies in China to estimate the CSR system. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, the coefficient of variation uses to determine the weight of each index. Moreover, the cloud model uses for empirical evaluation.

Findings

The results reveal that social responsibility evaluation of pharmaceutical companies is poor to average to good and it maintains a good development trend. The order of the weight of corporate stakeholders is shareholders, employees, consumers, creditors, suppliers and government. The importance of internal stakeholders is higher than that of external stakeholders. The comprehensive cloud evaluation value of the social responsibility evaluation of pharmaceutical companies are “ordinary,” and the effect of comprehensive social responsibility performance is not good.

Originality/value

The current study not only considers the uncertainty of the concept of CSR but also reflects the connection between the randomness of pharmaceutical companies and the ambiguity of CSR. Moreover, this study develops a three-dimensional evaluation of “enterprise-year-indicator” by studying the data of multiple companies in different years. In terms of the modeling concept, the two-way cognition between the connotation and conceptual extension of the cloud model is fully used to realize the uncertainty mapping between the evaluation set and the indicator set.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Pedro Pita Barros

Purpose – Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main…

Abstract

Purpose – Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers.

Methodology – To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies.

Findings – Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a “silver bullet” to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

Details

Pharmaceutical Markets and Insurance Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-716-5

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Uma Maheswari Devi Parmata and Surya Prakash Chetla

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for the measurement of service quality at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain and to study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for the measurement of service quality at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain and to study the impact of service quality on doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior. Doctors from two major states of South India were selected for the study. A doctor perceived service quality scale with three dimensions having eight items was developed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the pharmaceutical context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to show the relationship between service quality, satisfaction and prescribing behavior. The critical factors of service quality were identified, and a model was developed showing the relationship between service quality, doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior which has not been explored in any research. This model will be helpful in further development of new concepts and for analyzing the reasons for the failure of doctors in providing quality service. 

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 200 doctors from three major cities of South India were selected. A doctor perceived service quality scale with three dimensions having eight items was developed through CFA using Parasuraman Service quality scale (Parasuraman, 1985, 1986, 1988) as the basis in the pharmaceutical context after focus group discussions with company experts, retailers, doctors and academicians. SEM technique was used to examine the impact of service quality on doctor’s satisfaction and prescribing behavior.

Findings

There is no universal set of dimensions and items that determine service quality in manufacturing industries, especially at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the pharmaceutical supply chain though service quality plays a very important role in affecting the performance of manufacturing industries. The critical factors affecting the quality of service for a pharmaceutical company at the manufacturer–doctor interface of the supply chain were identified, and its impact on doctor’s satisfaction and their prescribing behavior were studied.

Research limitations/implications

This research contributes to the development of service quality scale for measuring service quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing company, especially with reference to manufacturer–doctor interface of the supply chain which was not thoroughly explored earlier. A model was developed showing the positive relationship between service quality and doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior in pharmaceutical supply chain which is a new concept not proved experimentally.

Practical implications

The study is very useful for the pharmaceutical manufacturing companies to identify the service quality factors affecting doctor’s satisfaction and their prescribing behavior thereby leading to development of new measures for improving the performance of the pharmaceutical supply chain. This study can lead to identification of problems involved in pharmaceutical supply chain and also leads to generation of new ideas and development of new concepts for influencing doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior which in turn can help in providing better health.

Social implications

This study actually has a direct impact on the society. If factors affecting doctor’s satisfaction and prescribing behavior are identified automatically, the end consumer, i.e. patient, can be satisfied in a better way, and better medical care can be provided. If doctor’s problems are identified, then better solutions can be provided to patients; this in turn has a lot of positive impact on the pharmaceutical company and society in general.

Originality/value

This research will act as a base for generating ideas relating to how quality service provided by a company will have an impact on doctor’s satisfaction and his prescribing behavior in pharmaceutical supply chain .To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind of the conceptual aspects of service quality, satisfaction and loyalty explained in terms of pharmaceutical supply chain as service quality, doctor’s satisfaction and doctor’s prescribing behavior and proved experimentally.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2017

Martha Gabriela Martinez, Jillian Clare Kohler and Heather McAlister

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to…

Abstract

Using the pharmaceutical sector as a microcosm of the health sector, we highlight the most prevalent structural and policy issues that make this sector susceptible to corruption and ways in which these vulnerabilities can be addressed. We conducted a literature review of publications from 2004 to 2015 that included books, peer-reviewed literature, as well as gray literature such as working papers, reports published by international organizations and donor agencies, and newspaper articles discussing this topic. We found that vulnerabilities to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector occur due to a lack of good governance, accountability, transparency, and proper oversight in each of the decision points of the pharmaceutical supply chain. What works best to limit corruption is context specific and linked to the complexity of the sector. At a global level, tackling corruption involves hard and soft international laws and the creation of international standards and guidelines for national governments and the pharmaceutical industry. At a national level, including civil society in decision-making and monitoring is also often cited as a positive mechanism against corruption. Anticorruption measures tend to be specific to the particular “site” of the pharmaceutical system and include improving institutional checks and balances like stronger and better implemented regulations and better oversight and protection for “whistle blowers,” financial incentives to refrain from engaging in corrupt behavior, and increasing the use of technology in processes to minimize human discretion. This chapter was adapted from a discussion piece published by Transparency International UK entitled Corruption in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Diagnosing the Challenges.

Details

The Handbook of Business and Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-445-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2007

Sandra Diehl, Barbara Mueller and Ralf Terlutter

The purpose of this investigation is to add to the body of knowledge regarding consumer skepticism toward advertising in general, and toward pharmaceutical advertising in…

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation is to add to the body of knowledge regarding consumer skepticism toward advertising in general, and toward pharmaceutical advertising in particular. The study was conducted in the U.S. and in Germany. Skepticism toward advertising for both prescription and non-prescription pharmaceuticals was analyzed. Additional variables explored include: health consciousness, product involvement with pharmaceuticals, satisfaction with information in pharmaceutical advertising, and the importance of pharmaceutical advertising as a source of information. Furthermore, differences in the cultural value of uncertainty avoidance between U.S. and German consumers were examined and related to skepticism toward pharmaceutical advertising. Three hundred and forty-one Americans and 447 Germans were surveyed. A significant finding of this research revealed that skepticism toward pharmaceutical advertising is lower than skepticism toward advertising in general. Results also indicated that consumers showed no difference in their level of skepticism toward advertising for prescription versus non-prescription drugs. This is a particularly relevant finding as it relates directly to the ongoing discussion in Europe regarding whether or not to lift the ban on advertising for prescription drugs. Skepticism toward pharmaceutical advertising was found to be significantly negatively related to involvement with pharmaceuticals, to satisfaction with the informational content of the advertisements, to satisfaction with the comprehensibility of the advertisements, and to the importance placed on advertising as a source of health information. Regarding cultural differences, U.S. consumers appear to be less skeptical toward advertising in general, and toward advertising for prescription and non-prescription drugs in particular, than German consumers. This may be due to the lower degree of uncertainty avoidance in the U.S. Differences between the two countries related to the additional variables examined in the study are addressed as well. Implications for consumer protection policies are discussed, and recommendations for advertisers of pharmaceutical products are provided. The authors provide a cultural explanation for differences in the degree of skepticism between U.S. and German audiences.

Details

Cross-Cultural Buyer Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-485-0

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