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1 – 10 of over 44000
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Abigail Powell, Barbara M. Bagilhole and Andrew R.J. Dainty

It has been suggested that organisations with a better balance, or critical mass, of women would be more tolerant of difference and foster the inclusion of other women…

2302

Abstract

Purpose

It has been suggested that organisations with a better balance, or critical mass, of women would be more tolerant of difference and foster the inclusion of other women. This paper seeks to investigate whether a strategy of critical mass can really work in the engineering sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The data are based on research funded by the ESRC, and problematise critical mass theory through semi‐structured qualitative interviews and focus groups with female students from a range of engineering disciplines.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that women engineering students accept gender discrimination, view the industry positively, value their “novelty” status, and are critical of other women.

Research limitations/implications

While these attitudes may be a result of women's assimilation into the existing engineering culture, they do little to further women's cause in engineering. Furthermore, it points to both the necessity, and difficulties, of transforming the engineering culture to ensure that the engineering professions are a place where women can not only survive but also thrive.

Originality/value

While previous research has addressed the critical mass of women in science, engineering and technology, this research critiques critical mass theory, not only because women continue to remain isolated within the sector, despite increasing numbers, but also because many women engineers reinforce the masculine culture within engineering.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Xiuyuan Gong, Zhiying Liu, Xiabing Zheng and Tailai Wu

Mobile social apps permeate every facet of daily life through the pervasive use of smartphones. Customer retention with mobile social apps has become extremely important…

1596

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile social apps permeate every facet of daily life through the pervasive use of smartphones. Customer retention with mobile social apps has become extremely important for app-related companies. The purpose of this paper is to explore why experienced users in mobile social apps (e.g. WeChat) are likely to continue using the app.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposed a conceptual model to identify key determinants of continuance intention of WeChat users and highlight the effects of individual experience. Data were collected from WeChat users, which is one of the most popular mobile social apps in China. The study employed partial least squares regression to test the research model based on a survey of 295 valid responses.

Findings

Results showed that trust, which was driven by user satisfaction and perceived critical mass, played a critical role in influencing the continuance intention of WeChat users. Moreover, tie strength exerted a negative moderating effect on the relationship between trust and continuance intention. Specifically, tie strength and perceived critical mass had strong impacts on the continuance intention of low-experience users. In addition, the effect of frequency was closely associated with the continuance intention of high-experience users.

Research limitations/implications

This study addressed the issue of mobile social app continuance intention by providing an innovative means to explore the key antecedents of user continuance intention from the experience perspective. The findings not only prove that trust plays a central role in influencing the continuance intention of experienced users but also reveal that the determinants of continuance intention vary among users with different experience. The results provide insights into the key antecedents of experienced WeChat user continuance intention and contribute to the literature on mobile social apps and individual differences.

Practical implications

The results provide suggestions for mobile social app practitioners to effectively plan mobile social app retention practices and to set up appropriate incentive mechanisms for retaining users with different experiences.

Originality/value

Although abundant studies have focused on the adoption of media users, few studies have investigated the post-adoption behavior of experienced users in the context of mobile social apps. This study revealed the key determinants of the continuance intention of WeChat users and pinpointed the different impacts of these antecedents on users with different levels of experience. It also provides useful guidelines for practitioners to effectively retain users with different levels of experience.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Giuliana Birindelli, Helen Chiappini and Marco Savioli

This study aims to examine the relationship between female directors and bank risk. In particular, whether such a relationship varies across sound or unsound banks and…

1450

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between female directors and bank risk. In particular, whether such a relationship varies across sound or unsound banks and with or without a critical mass of female directors is tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 215 listed banks from 40 countries over the period 2008–2016, this study carries out panel data analyses and tests all the model specifications on four different measures of risk (common equity ratio, leverage, NPLs ratio and price volatility).

Findings

The findings show that increasing the number of female directors does not reduce bank risk when banks are unsound. When banks are sound, female directors have a significant and positive role in reducing risk, only until reaching a critical mass of women.

Practical implications

This study provides useful corporate governance indications for policymakers and practitioners. Advantages of gender diversity on boards are recognized especially in sound banks, but increasing the number of women directors beyond the critical mass may not lead to lower risk. In fact, ethical or legal pressures aimed at increasing gender diversity on boards (i.e. soft or hard gender quotas) may cause undesired effects on bank risk, especially if female directors are not chosen on merit and skills. Moreover, gender-balanced boards, namely, with a “dual critical mass,” seem to assure more effective decision-making processes.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence on female board members and risk minimization, differentiating between sound or unsound banks. Furthermore, this study contributes to the literature on the critical mass of women on the board of directors by testing this theory for these two categories of banks.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Hong Zhang, Yaobin Lu, Sumeet Gupta and Ping Gao

Sustainable success of group-buying web sites implies that consumers not only accept them initially but also use them continuously. Most group-buying web sites, however…

2415

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable success of group-buying web sites implies that consumers not only accept them initially but also use them continuously. Most group-buying web sites, however, are unable to achieve such sustainable success. Drawing on expectation-confirmation model (ECM), the purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influence group-buying web sites continuance.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 605 valid responses were collected via a survey of a leading group-buying web site in China. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research model. This study also compared the three competing models of continued use behavior, namely, ECM, the research model and the integrated model.

Findings

The results show that perceived web site quality, perceived price advantage and confirmation are important determinants of consumer satisfaction, while perceived web site quality, perceived reputation, satisfaction and perceived critical mass significantly influence consumers’ continuance intention. The research model accounts for more variance in satisfaction and continuance intention than ECM and is the best-fitting model among the competing models.

Originality/value

Drawing on ECM, this research proposes a model by incorporating three online group-buying characteristics (perceived price advantage, perceived reputation and perceived web site quality) and two social influence factors (subjective norm and perceived critical mass). Specially, this study uses these three online group-buying characteristics to represent perceived usefulness in ECM. These constructs are found to influence consumer satisfaction and continuance intention. This study extends ECM and provides a better explanation of consumers’ post-purchase behavior in the online group-buying context.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Michael Johnson

The objective of this paper is to explore and determine a set of factors that are critical to the success of business‐to‐business (B2B) e‐markets in the aerospace and…

3457

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to explore and determine a set of factors that are critical to the success of business‐to‐business (B2B) e‐markets in the aerospace and defence, healthcare, higher education and local government industry sectors, in order to advance our current understanding of what factors facilitate e‐market adoption and success. The paper examines critical success factors (CSFs) for e‐markets from a strategic fit perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a semi‐inductive qualitative approach based on a review of the literature, followed by a pilot study and 58 indepth semi‐structured interviews with senior level executives in buyer, supplier, e‐market and third‐party organisations. Qualitative data analysis software, QSR N6, was used to code and analyse the interview data for citations that corresponded with the candidate e‐market CSFs that had been identified either in the literature, pilot study or during the course of the interviews with respondents. The CSFs for e‐markets were ranked by the frequency of respondents citing a particular CSF.

Findings

The study found eight factors that are critical to e‐market success and four factors (critical mass, integration issues, value proposition, and leadership participation) were found to be conducive to e‐market success in all four industry sectors. Likewise, four factors (industry knowledge, revenue model, branding and reputation, and rich content) were found to be only conducive to e‐market success in three of the four industry sectors.

Practical implications

The paper can help academic researchers, managers, consultants, practitioners and other professionals better understand what factors are critical to the success of e‐markets and other online enterprises operating in the B2B marketspace.

Originality/value

There have been numerous calls for more empirical research on the dynamics of e‐market adoption for more than a decade. To date, research on the CSFs for e‐markets has been largely anecdotal and sporadic with a paucity of studies noting factors that are likely to be favourable to e‐market success. This study addresses the call for more research on e‐markets and imparts empirical evidence on factors that are perceived to be conducive to the success of e‐markets. It contributes to the base of knowledge on e‐markets by relating the concept of CSFs with the theory of strategic fit as, to date, no known study has examined CSFs for e‐markets from a strategic fit perspective. The study also presents the benefits capabilities‐industry participants’ needs fit conceptual model as a precursor for theory building in future studies on B2B e‐markets and informs stakeholders involved in developing e‐markets or other online B2B ventures to better comprehend the conditions and determinants of success.

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Michael Johnson

The objective of this paper is to explore and determine a set of factors that are critical to the success of business-to-business (B2B) e-markets in the aerospace and…

2544

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to explore and determine a set of factors that are critical to the success of business-to-business (B2B) e-markets in the aerospace and defence, healthcare, higher education and local government industry sectors, in order to advance our current understanding of what factors facilitate e-market adoption and success. The paper examines critical success factors (CSFs) for e-markets from a strategic fit perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a semi-inductive qualitative approach based on a review of the literature, followed by a pilot study and 58 indepth semi-structured interviews with senior level executives in buyer, supplier, e-market and third-party organisations. Qualitative data analysis software, QSR N6, was used to code and analyse the interview data for citations that corresponded with the candidate e-market CSFs that had been identified either in the literature, pilot study or during the course of the interviews with respondents. The CSFs for e-markets were ranked by the frequency of respondents citing a particular CSF.

Findings

The study found eight factors that are critical to e-market success and four factors (critical mass, integration issues, value proposition, and leadership participation) were found to be conducive to e-market success in all four industry sectors. Likewise, four factors (industry knowledge, revenue model, branding and reputation, and rich content) were found to be only conducive to e-market success in three of the four industry sectors.

Practical implications

The paper can help academic researchers, managers, consultants, practitioners and other professionals better understand what factors are critical to the success of e-markets and other online enterprises operating in the B2B marketspace.

Originality/value

There have been numerous calls for more empirical research on the dynamics of e-market adoption for more than a decade. To date, research on the CSFs for e-markets has been largely anecdotal and sporadic with a paucity of studies noting factors that are likely to be favourable to e-market success. This study addresses the call for more research on e-markets and imparts empirical evidence on factors that are perceived to be conducive to the success of e-markets. It contributes to the base of knowledge on e-markets by relating the concept of CSFs with the theory of strategic fit as, to date, no known study has examined CSFs for e-markets from a strategic fit perspective. The study also presents the benefits capabilities-industry participants’ needs fit conceptual model as a precursor for theory building in future studies on B2B e-markets and informs stakeholders involved in developing e-markets or other online B2B ventures to better comprehend the conditions and determinants of success.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Matt Holland

This review aims to provide an overview of the ideas, theories and research relating to the diffusion of innovations. It seeks to place the relationship between librarians…

2044

Abstract

This review aims to provide an overview of the ideas, theories and research relating to the diffusion of innovations. It seeks to place the relationship between librarians and the Internet and related networked information within the context of diffusion research. It includes a brief background to diffusion research and a description of the basic model proposed by Everett M. Rogers. The theory of change agents and change agencies is discussed with the role of weak ties in the diffusion of ideas through communication networks. The implications of the need to achieve a critical mass in some applications of networked communication are outlined together with theories about critical mass. The review identifies the characteristics that make these technologies unique and discusses the implications for future research. Finally, the relevance of diffusion theory to librarians seeking to introduce new communication‐based technologies into academic departments is discussed.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Yan Li, Desheng Zhang and Fuhai Duan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate dynamic characteristics of opposed-conical gas-dynamic bearings considering five degree-of-freedom motion, including…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate dynamic characteristics of opposed-conical gas-dynamic bearings considering five degree-of-freedom motion, including translation and tilt.

Design/methodology/approach

The steady-state Reynolds equation and perturbed Reynolds equations are solved on the surface of conical bearings, and both stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated. A formula for quickly calculating critical mass is deduced to discriminate the stability of the rotor considering the five degree-of-freedom motion.

Findings

Results show that the stability of the rotor is mainly determined by translation rather than tilt. The formula of critical mass is validated by comparing the results with traditional Routh–Hurwitz criterion.

Originality/value

The formula proposed in this paper greatly simplifies the solution of critical mass, which facilitates the rotor stability design. It is applicable for opposed-conical bearings, opposed-hemispherical bearings and spherical bearings. The results provide theoretical guidance for the design of gas-dynamic bearings.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Thipa Mahakittikun, Sid Suntrayuth and Veera Bhatiasevi

This study aims to identify the impact of mobile payment on firm performance by developing a model based on the technology, organization and environment framework (TOE…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the impact of mobile payment on firm performance by developing a model based on the technology, organization and environment framework (TOE framework) including relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, innovativeness, mobile payment knowledge, critical mass, competitive pressure and external support.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from the retail and service firms in Bangkok, Thailand (n = 387). Multiple regression analysis was applied to test the proposed model and carried out in SPSS version 25.

Findings

The results indicated that the TOE factors, including relative advantage, innovativeness, mobile payment knowledge, critical mass, competitive pressures and external supports, can predict firm performance. While innovativeness is the strongest predictor of positive firm performance, on the other hand, critical mass is found to be negatively significant on firm performance.

Practical implications

This research suggests that firms that accept mobile payment can identify the positive impact on firm performance and it is important for payment service providers and the government to work closely with firms.

Originality/value

As some merchants still refuse to implement mobile payment services in their business, this current study seeks to understand the impact of mobile payment. However, not many studies are reported its impact in Southeast Asia. This study is probably the first in Thailand to examine the impact of mobile payment on firm performance in the retail and service firms.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 44000