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1 – 10 of over 3000
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Yusuf Yivlik, Nilgun Kizilcan and Ahmet Akar

Cyclohexanone–formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with isocyanuric acid (ICA) in the presence of hydrochloric acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid by condensation…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyclohexanone–formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with isocyanuric acid (ICA) in the presence of hydrochloric acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid by condensation polymerization. The purpose of this study is to produce isocyanuric acid-modified ketonic resins that have higher melting and decomposition temperature, and to use the produced resin in the production of fire-retardant polyurethane.

Design/methodology/approach

Two methods were used for in situ preparation of ICA-modified CFR in the presence of an acid catalyst. Method I: cyclohexanone, paraformaldehyde and ICA were mixed, and then an acid catalyst was added to form the modified CFR. Method II: ICA and formalin were mixed to produce N, N, N-trihydroxymethyl isocyanurate, and then water was removed under vacuum. The produced N, N, N-trihydroxymethyl isocyanurate solution was mixed with cyclohexanone and paraformaldehyde, then an acid catalyst was slowly added to this mixture to obtain ICA-modified CFR.

Findings

CFR was prepared in the presence of an acid catalyst. The product, CFR, has a dark red colour. The resulting resins have similar physical properties with the resin prepared in the presence of a basic catalyst. The solubility of ICA-modified CFR is much different than CFR in organic solvents.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on obtaining an ICA-modified ketonic resin. Cyanuric acid has the form of an enolic structure under a basic condition; therefore, it cannot give a product with formaldehyde under basic conditions. The modification experiments were carried out in acidic conditions.

Practical implications

This study provides technical information for in situ modification of ketonic resin in the presence of acid catalysts. The resins may also promote the adhesive strength of the coating and provide corrosion inhibition on metal surfaces for a coating. The modified resins may also be used in the field of fire-retardant polyurethane applications.

Social implications

These resins may be used for the preparation of non-toxic fire-retardant polyurethane foam. Polyurethane containing ICA-modified resin may exhibit better fire-retardant performance because of the incorporation of ICA molecule into the polyurethane structure.

Originality/value

ICA-modified CFRs have been synthesized in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the ICA-modified resin was used to produce fire-retardant polyurethane.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Nilgün Kızılcan

The purpose of this paper is to describe how lignosulphonate modified ketone formaldehyde resins containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, phenol, were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how lignosulphonate modified ketone formaldehyde resins containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, phenol, were produced via in situ modification of ketone/formaldehyde resins. Cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde (CF‐R), acetophenone‐formaldehyde (AF‐R) and methyl ethyl ketone‐formaldehyde (MEKFR) resins were in situ modified with lignosulphonate in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The paper reports the synthesis of lignosulphonate‐modified resins with a one step method of in situ modification of ketonic resin. The roles of the types of the ketone, lignosulphonate concentration, the solubility, molecular weight and thermal properties of the product were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Ketone, formalin (37 per cent aqueous solution), lignosulphonate were mixed and 20 per cent aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the resin.

Findings

There was improvement of the properties of the lignosulphonate modified ketonic resins produced from waste black liquor. The lignosulphonate modified ketone‐formaldehyde resins were soluble in common organic solvents.

Research limitations/implications

The reaction mixture must be stirred continuously. Subsequently, 37 per cent formalin was added dropwise in total while refluxing. The amount of aqueous NaOH solution is limited since the formed resin may become insoluble in common organic solvents. The water was removed from MEKFR, successively by evaporating with rotary evaporator.

Practical implications

This study provides the application of ketonic resins. The modified ketonic resins containing lignosulphonate groups may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating. The cell walls of various cell types of plants, for example, wood fibres, vessels, and tracheid, have lignin as an important constituent. It constitutes 20‐30 per cent of the weight of wood.

Originality/value

Lignosulphonate modified ketonic resins have been synthesized in the presence of a base catalyst. These resins have higher Tg or Tm values and molecular weight than CFR and AFR alone and also have thermoset property. Environmental and ecological concerns have increased the attention paid by the chemical industry to renewable raw materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Nilgün Kızılcan and Özlem Tamküpeli Koşar

The purpose of this paper is to report the synthesis of resins having conducting and fluorescence properties, with carbazole and oligocarbazole with a one step method of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the synthesis of resins having conducting and fluorescence properties, with carbazole and oligocarbazole with a one step method of in situ modification of ketonic resin. Cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde (CFR), and acetophenone‐formaldehyde (AFR) resins were in situ modified with carbazole in the presence of sodium hydroxide.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbazole modified ketonic resins were synthesised by the condensation reaction of Cz, formaldehyde and ketone. Oligo carbazole was synthesised by redox reaction of carbazole and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). Then, for the in situ modification of oligo carbazole modified ketonic resin, reaction mixture of oligocarbazole carbazole was added to the cyclohexanone/formaldehyde solution.

Findings

The carbazole modified cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde and acetophenone formaldehyde resins have conductivity values of 10−5‐10−6 S/cm and may be considered as semi‐conductive ketonic resins. These new carbazole modified ketonic resins (CCzFR, ACzFR) have fluorescence properties.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on obtaining a conductive and fluorescence resin using a carbazole monomer which is an insulator.

Practical implications

This study provides technical information for the synthesis of fluorescence comonomer.

Originality/value

New CCzFR, ACzFR comonomers were synthesised. These comonomers have higher Tm values than CFR and AFR alone and also have fluorescence property.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Esin Ateş and Nilgün Kızılcan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate in situ modification of cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde resins (CFR) by 4‐vinyl aniline (Van). The roles of the reaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate in situ modification of cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde resins (CFR) by 4‐vinyl aniline (Van). The roles of the reaction temperature, the conductivity, thermal properties, and molecular weight of the product were investigated. CFR was in situ modified with VAn in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Ketonic resin‐bound 4‐vinyl aniline was synthesised with a one‐step method of in situ modification of ketonic resin. The roles of the reaction temperature and the conductivity of the product were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Ketone, formalin (37% aqueous solution), vinyl aniline were mixed and then 20% aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the resin. The solubility, molecular weight and thermal properties of the products were investigated.

Findings

The 4‐vinyl aniline modified cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde resins were found to have conductivity values of 10−4 and 10−2 S/cm and may be considered as conductive ketonic resin. Soluble and processable conductive ketonic resins were developed.

Research limitations/implications

The reaction mixture of CFR must be stirred continuously at low temperature. Subsequently, 37% formalin was added dropwise in equal portions while refluxing. Temperature should be controlled to prevent the thermal polymerisation of vinyl group and higher branching of amino groups. The amount of vinyl aniline used in reaction mixture is limited since the formed resin may become insoluble in common organic solvents.

Practical implications

This study provides technical information for the synthesis of conducting resins. The modified resins contain vinyl groups. The chemical redox or radical system can be used to polymerise these vinyl groups and resins with much higher molecular weight may be produced. The resins may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating and corrosion inhibition to metal surfaces of a coating.

Originality/value

Vinyl aniline modified cyclohexanone formaldehyde resins have been synthesised in the presence of a basice catalyst. These soluble and conductive resins may overcome difficulties in the applications of conducting polymers and open new application areas. Therefore, the vinyl aniline modified resin may find a number of new application areas, as well as existing conducting resin and polymer applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Ahmed Mohamed, Abdelhalim Mustafa, M.S.A. Elgaby, H. Abd El-Wahab, Said Ahmed Abed and A. Kazlauciunas

This paper aims to prepare a new modified poly(ester amide) (PEA) resins and use it as a binder for anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prepare a new modified poly(ester amide) (PEA) resins and use it as a binder for anticorrosive and antimicrobial coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

New modified PEA compositions were prepared based on 4-amino-N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) benzamide (AHEB) as the ingredient source of the polyol used and evaluated as vehicles for surface coating. The structure of the modifier and PEA resin was confirmed by FT-IR, H¹-NMR, MW, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope studies. Coatings of 50±5 µm thickness were applied to the surface of glass panels and mild steel strips by means of a brush. The coating performance of the resins was evaluated using international standard test methods and involved the measurement of phyisco-mechanical properties and chemical resistance.

Findings

The tests carried out revealed that the modified PEA based on AHEB enhanced both phyisco-mechanical and chemical properties. Also, the resins were incorporated within primer formulations and evaluated as anti-corrosive and antimicrobial single coatings. The results illustrate that the introduction of AHEB, within the resin structure, improved the film performance and enhances the corrosion resistance and antimicrobial activity performance of PEA resins.

Practical implications

The modified PEA compounds can be used as binders in paint formulations to improve the chemical, physical, corrosion resistance and antimicrobial activity properties.

Originality/value

Modified PEA resins are cheaper and can be used to replace other more expensive binders. These modified PEA resins can compensate successfully for the presence of many the anticorrosive and antimicrobial paint formulations, and thus, lower the costs. The main advantage of these binders is that they combine the properties of both polyester and polyamide resins based on nitrogenous compound, are of lower cost and they also overcome the disadvantages of both its counterparts. Also, they can be applied in other industrial applications.

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

M.A. Abd El‐Ghaffar, E.A.M. Youssef, M.M.H. Abo‐Shosa and N.A. Ibrahim

Modifies short and medium alkyd resins using perfluori‐nated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI), and incorporates the modified resins in a set of paint formulations…

Abstract

Modifies short and medium alkyd resins using perfluori‐nated urethane toluene isocyanate (PFUTI), and incorporates the modified resins in a set of paint formulations containing different ratios of zinc phosphate as an inhibitive pigment. Achieves promising results and illustrates corrosion‐protective properties in various paint formulations and also a paint formulation free of the inhibitive pigment. Shows enhancement of the corrosion protection efficiencies by the improvement in the hydrophobicity of alkyd resin modified with PFUTI. In view of these results, minimizes or neglects the most expensive inhibitive pigments from an economical standpoint.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

N. Kizilcan and B. Erson

This paper aims to report the synthesis of resins having fluorescence properties, with the help of phenylacetylene (PhAc) by one-step method of in situ modification of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report the synthesis of resins having fluorescence properties, with the help of phenylacetylene (PhAc) by one-step method of in situ modification of ketonic resin. Cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin (CFR) and acetophenone formaldehyde resin (AFR) were in situ modified with PhAc, in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by condensation polymerisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Ketone, formalin and phenylacetylene were mixed and then 20% aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the phenylacethylene modified ketonic resin. The solubility, molecular weight and thermal properties of the products were investigated.

Findings

These new PhAc-modified ketonic resins (PAc-CFR and PAc-AFR) have fluorescence properties.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on obtaining a fluorescence resin using a cyclohexanone, acetophenone and PhAc monomer which is an insulator.

Practical implications

This study provides technical information for the synthesis of fluorescence comonomers. The modified resins contain acetylene groups. A chemical redox or radical system can be used to polymerise these acetylene groups and resins with much higher molecular weight. The resins may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating and corrosion inhibition to metal surfaces of a coating.

Social implications

The resins will be used for the preparation of AB- and ABA-type block copolymers. These block copolymers may exhibit different properties due to incorporation of monomer into the block copolymer structure.

Originality/value

PAc-CFR and PAc-AFR have been synthesised in the presence of a basic catalyst. Higher solubility and fluorescence intensity of the modified ketonic resins may increase their applications in the field of electroactive polymers and open new areas. These comonomers have fluorescence property.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

V. Shukla

To reduce the cost of epoxy adhesive without affecting the properties of epoxy adhesive in two pack system.

Abstract

Purpose

To reduce the cost of epoxy adhesive without affecting the properties of epoxy adhesive in two pack system.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective toughening, adhesion, chemical resistance, etc. various compositions were made by incorporating flow modified solid epoxy resin. The impact, adhesive strengths and some other properties of the unmodified and modified epoxy networks were characterised.

Findings

The modification of epoxy resin using flow modified solid epoxy resin showed significant enhancement of impact and adhesive strengths and chemical resistance over the unmodified one. The optimum results were obtained at 13.66 parts per hundred parts of epoxy resin (phr) of modifier by replacing 4.33 phr of aerosil.

Research limitations/implications

The modifier, 7004 FM, used in the present context was high molecular weight flow modified epoxy resin. Besides, these results could be obtained from other grades of flow modified high molecular weight epoxy resin. In addition, the efficiency of modification of epoxy resin using this could also be studied.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to removing the costly aerosil without affecting properties such as toughness, adhesive strength and chemical resistance of the cured epoxy.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing toughness, adhesive strength and chemical resistance of cured epoxy was novel and could find numerous applications in surface coating and adhesive.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

E. Ateş and N. Kızılcan

Cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde resins (CF‐Rs) were in situ modified with aniline, 4‐aminodiphenylamine, and NN′‐diphenyl‐1,4‐phenylene diamine in presence of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyclohexanone‐formaldehyde resins (CF‐Rs) were in situ modified with aniline, 4‐aminodiphenylamine, and NN′‐diphenyl‐1,4‐phenylene diamine in presence of sodium hydroxide. The purpose of this paper is to report the synthesis of conducting resins with aniline, dimer and trimer aniline, with a one‐step method of in situ modification of ketonic resin. The roles of ketone, aniline concentration, the conductivity of the product are investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Ketone, formalin (37 per cent aqueous solution), aniline or oligoaniline were mixed and 20 per cent aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the resin.

Findings

The aniline‐modified (CF‐Rs) were found to have conductivity values of 10−3‐10−5 S/cm and may be considered as conductive ketonic resin.

Research limitations/implications

The reaction mixture must be stirred continuously. Amount of aniline and oligoaniline is limited. Subsequently, 37 per cent formalin was added dropwise in total while refluxing. The amount of aniline is limited since the formed resin may become insoluble in common organic solvents.

Practical implications

This work provides the application of conducting resins. The modified resins containing aniline groups may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating and corrosion inhibition to metal surfaces.

Originality/value

Aniline formaldehyde, NN′‐diphenyl‐1,4‐phenylenediamine‐formaldehyde, aniline‐ and oligoaniline‐modified (CF‐Rs) have been synthesised in the presence of a base catalyst. These resins are conductive resins and the ketonic resins formed have physical properties of both aniline‐formaldehyde resins such as conductivity.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Buqin Xu, Guilong Xu, Hui Qiao, Yun Liang, Jin Yang and Jian Hu

The flammability of poly-acrylate (PA) resin is a major disadvantage in applications that require flame resistance. It has been reported that a flame-retardant PA resin

Abstract

Purpose

The flammability of poly-acrylate (PA) resin is a major disadvantage in applications that require flame resistance. It has been reported that a flame-retardant PA resin could be prepared by covalent incorporate phosphorous containing monomer with vinyl group via free radical polymerization, and the prepared modified PA resin is expected to exhibit better flame resistance than those by an additive approach. However, the phosphorus-containing monomers reported previously are made from expensive or toxic materials, and the production procedure is tedious and under harsh reaction conditions, which are not feasible for industrial application. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is the preparation of flame-retardant PA resin modified by epoxy resin phosphorous acid (EPPA) and the study of its flame retardancy.

Design/methodology/approach

EPPA is first prepared by epoxy resin E-51 and phosphorous acid and then used to prepare phosphorous containing PA resin by free radical polymerization. The flame retardancy of the prepared EPPA-modified PA (EPPA-PA) resin is studied.

Findings

The results show that EPPA can graft onto the PA polymer chain by free radical polymerization, the flame retardancy of the EPPA-PA resin increases as the EPPA content increasing. The flame retardancy of EPPA-PA resin prepared reaches 27.8% and can pass the V-0 rating in the UL-94 test when EPPA content is 30.0%. SEM and EDS results indicate that phosphorous element in the EPPA-PA resin shows a condensed-phase flame retardant effect.

Research limitations/implications

The grafting degree of EPPA cannot be accurately tested.

Practical implications

It is expected that the large-scale production of this epoxy resin phosphoric acid modified PA resin will enable practical industrial applications.

Originality/value

This method for synthesis of epoxy resin phosphoric acid modified PA resin is newfrangled.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000