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1 – 10 of over 33000
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Kristina Voigt, Rainer Brüggemann and Stefan Pudenz

The purpose of this research is to establish that data on chemicals detected in the environment are urgently needed to comply with the future environment and chemicals

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to establish that data on chemicals detected in the environment are urgently needed to comply with the future environment and chemicals policy in the European Union. The availability of data on chemicals can be evaluated by environmetrical and chemometrical methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) which originated in discrete mathematics is applied in this paper. It is a multi‐criteria evaluation method which can be used to measure information quality and is therefore also applicable for decision making. The study evaluated 15 environmental and chemical free internet databases with respect to the existence of data on chemicals in these resources. Two test‐sets were used first, 12 high production volume chemicals and, second 12 pharmaceuticals which are proven to enter the environment in considerable concentrations.

Findings

The evaluation indicates a rather disturbing situation in the data availability on existing chemicals, an especially bad result concerning the data availability on pharmaceuticals and hence an alarming signal concerning the chemicals policy of the EEC.

Originality/value

The information gap, especially for pharmaceuticals entering the environment, is demonstrated with a mathematically recognised method. The Hasse Diagram Technique can be applied to different questions in science when several objects are to be ranked by several criteria at the same time. Concerning the topic of the data availability on chemicals, the gaps are identified and should inspire future research to generate new and valuable data.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

James Douglas

A significant part of many building surveyors′ work is theinvestigation of building defects. In many cases a proper diagnosiscannot be made solely by visual means. Some…

711

Abstract

A significant part of many building surveyors′ work is the investigation of building defects. In many cases a proper diagnosis cannot be made solely by visual means. Some building problems are difficult to assess without the aid of instruments and further tests. Outlines some of the main simple diagnostic chemical tests that building surveyors may wish either to undertake themselves or to instruct specialists to carry out as an aid to their diagnosis of defects. Although such tests are indicative, they are usually sufficient to allow a preliminary diagnosis in many building pathology cases.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

S. Abhijit, Prakash A. Mahanwar and V.A. Bambole

The aim of this paper is to conduct a real time evaluation of polypyrrole as an anti‐corrosive pigment in epoxy polyamide coating.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to conduct a real time evaluation of polypyrrole as an anti‐corrosive pigment in epoxy polyamide coating.

Design/methodology/approach

This study deals with synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) by chemical oxidative polymerisation in laboratory conditions. The synthesised PPy was characterised by employing FT‐IR, XRD, SEM and EDX analysis. Epoxy film of bisphenol type hardened with polyamide based curing agent was used as the binder. PPy was used as anti‐corrosive pigment in concentrations varying from 0 to 5 wt% in the coating. In addition to anti‐corrosive property, mechanical, chemical and weathering properties of the coating containing PPy were studied and compared with epoxy polyamide coating without PPy.

Findings

The result obtained through various tests showed that the coating with 1 and 2% PPy exhibited excellent weathering resistance, mechanical properties and improved chemical resistance.

Research limitations/implications

The anti‐corrosion property of the coating can be tested by means of atmospheric exposure such as Florida test or by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Practical implications

The results find application in anti‐corrosive paints for industrial application.

Originality/value

This research paper presents the results of anti‐corrosion behaviour of PPy in epoxy‐polyamide coating. Based on this result, a highly effective anti‐corrosive coating can be formulated by addition of small percentage of PPy in combination with other conventional pigments, thereby enhancing corrosion protection.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1980

S. Wiktorek

Stress corrosion cracking at the weld areas in the interior of blast furnace stoves has become a world wide problem which has been accentuated by the higher operating…

Abstract

Stress corrosion cracking at the weld areas in the interior of blast furnace stoves has become a world wide problem which has been accentuated by the higher operating temperatures and pressures now used. This paper describes the work carried out to evaluate various protective coatings proposed for application to the interior of the stove shell plates to prevent the stress corrosion. A heat and chemical resistant polyurethane primer‐pitch polyurethane top coat has given superior results to all coatings tested, particularly when applied over a hot sprayed ceramic.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 27 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Andrea Kalendova, Martina Hejdová and David Vesely

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize anticorrosion pigments of the perovskite type, YXO3, where X = Ti, Zr, Mn or Al and Y = Ca, Sr, La or Fe, for coating materials…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize anticorrosion pigments of the perovskite type, YXO3, where X = Ti, Zr, Mn or Al and Y = Ca, Sr, La or Fe, for coating materials intended for corrosion protection of metals. Also, to synthesize pigments containing hexavalent Mo and W (double perovskites).

Design/methodology/approach

The anticorrosion pigments were synthesized from oxides or carbonates by a high-temperature process. The following pigments were synthesized: CaTiO3, SrTiO3, CaZrO3, SrZrO3, LaTiO3, LaMnO3, CaMnO3, SrMnO3, LaFe2O3, SrFe2O3, LaAlO3, Ca2ZnWO6 and Ca2ZnMoO6. The pigments were characterized by the physico-chemical properties of the powders, by X-ray diffraction analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. Epoxy-ester coating materials containing the pigments at a volume concentration PVC = 10 per cent were prepared and subjected to tests examining their physico-mechanical properties and tests in simulated corrosion atmospheres.

Findings

The perovskite structure was identified in the majority of the pigments. The pigments were found to impart good corrosion inhibiting properties to coating materials. The highest calculated anticorrosion efficiency was found for paints containing CaMnO3 or SrMnO3 as the pigments.

Practical implications

The pigments synthesized can be used with advantage in paints intended for corrosion protection of the substrate metals.

Originality/value

The use of the above pigments in anticorrosion coating materials to protect metals is new. Especially beneficial are the uses and procedures for the synthesis of anticorrosion pigments which do not contain heavy metals and are acceptable from the environmental protection aspect.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

42

Abstract

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

D. Veselý and A. Kalendová

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of synthesizing lamellarly‐shaped anticorrosion pigments having a chemically active layer whose core consists of metal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of synthesizing lamellarly‐shaped anticorrosion pigments having a chemically active layer whose core consists of metal aluminium on which a thin spinel film is synthesised.

Design/methodology/approach

Anticorrosion pigments were synthesised by reaction of metal aluminium lamellar particles whose surface was oxidised to Al2O3 during the first stage and by subsequent reaction with ZnO and/or MgO at 800‐1,150°C producing a thin spinel layer that is chemically bonded to the metal core of the pigment particles. Core‐shell pigments including MgAl2O4/Al, Mg0.8Zn0.2Al2O4/Al, Mg0.6Zn0.4Al2O4/Al, Mg0.4Zn0.6Al2O4/Al, Mg0.2Zn0.8Al2O4/Al and ZnAl2O4/Al were synthesised. The prepared pigments were characterised by means of X‐ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesised anticorrosion pigments were used to prepare epoxy coatings that were tested upon application for their anticorrosion properties and resistance against a chemical environment.

Findings

The lamellar shape of the particles, as well as good‐quality coverage with a thin spinel layer, was identified in the prepared pigments. All of the synthesised pigments exhibit good anticorrosion efficiency in epoxy coatings. Compared to lamellar kaolin and metal core of aluminium without coverage, the protective function of the synthesised pigments in coatings is demonstrably better.

Practical implications

The synthesised pigments find convenient applications in coatings protecting metal bases from corrosion.

Originality/value

Synthesis of a spinel layer on the metal core of aluminium is a novel method; so is the application of these substances in coatings designed for the protection of metals from corrosion. Of great benefit is the fact that the synthesised pigments are free of any substances harmful to the environment.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

J.L. Li, C.T. Qu, S.D. Zhu, L. Liu and Z.Q. Gao

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pitting resistance and assess the critical pitting temperature (CPT) of a super martensitic stainless steel, 00Cr13Ni5Mo2…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pitting resistance and assess the critical pitting temperature (CPT) of a super martensitic stainless steel, 00Cr13Ni5Mo2, made in China, considering especially the difference in the pitting corrosion resistance between the domestic super martensitic stainless steel and an imported one.

Design/methodology/approach

Potentiodynamic sweep tests were applied to investigate the effects of four NaCl concentrations (weight per cent) of 1, 3.5, 9 and 17, and four testing temperatures of 30, 50, 75 and 90°C on the pitting resistance of the domestic super martensitic stainless steel in the presence of CO2. Potentiostatic sweep tests were utilized to determine the CPT. Furthermore, chemical immersion exposures, implemented according to the appropriate standard were used to evaluate the difference in the pitting corrosion resistance between the domestic super martensitic stainless steel and an imported one. In addition, the morphology of pits was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

Finding

The pitting potential of the domestic super martensitic stainless steel decreased with an increase in NaCl concentration and temperature in the presence of CO2. The CPT of the domestic super martensitic stainless steel measured by potentiostatic polarization was 41.16°C. Two types of typical corrosion pits, closed pits formed at 35°C and open pits formed at 50°C, were observed. Furthermore, compared to the super martensitic stainless steel made in Japan, the domestic one was better in terms of pitting potential, corrosion rate and the density of the pits, but worse in terms of the depth of the pits, which may result in a risk of corrosion perforation of tubing and casings.

Originality/value

The paper highlights that chloride ions, temperature and the presence of CO2 play an important role on the pitting resistance of super martensitic stainless steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

B F.D.

A problem exists with electroless nickel/immersion gold (E.Ni/I.Au) board surface finish on some pads, on some boards, that causes the solder joint to separate from the…

Abstract

A problem exists with electroless nickel/immersion gold (E.Ni/I.Au) board surface finish on some pads, on some boards, that causes the solder joint to separate from the nickel surface, causing an open circuit. The solder joint cracks and separates when put under stress or when it experiences a shock. An ITRI (Interconnect Technology Research Institute) project to investigate this E.Ni/I.Au problem was initiated about a year‐and‐a‐half ago. Since the electroless nickel/immersion gold board finish performs satisfactorily most of the time, a 24 variable experiment was developed to investigate which parts of the chemical matrix are satisfactory to use and which need to be avoided. This paper describes some of the activities that have occurred on the ITRI consortium, from the design of the test vehicle to building hundreds of BGA assemblies, then pulling those BGA assemblies apart and inspecting the results.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2020

Marzia Hoque Tania, M. Shamim Kaiser, Kamal Abu-Hassan and M. A. Hossain

The gradual increase in geriatric issues and global imbalance of the ratio between patients and healthcare professionals have created a demand for intelligent systems with…

Abstract

Purpose

The gradual increase in geriatric issues and global imbalance of the ratio between patients and healthcare professionals have created a demand for intelligent systems with the least error-prone diagnosis results to be used by less medically trained persons and save clinical time. This paper aims at investigating the development of image-based colourimetric analysis. The purpose of recognising such tests is to support wider users to begin a colourimetric test to be used at homecare settings, telepathology and so on.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of an automatic colourimetric assay detection is delivered by utilising two cases. Training deep learning (DL) models on thousands of images of these tests using transfer learning, this paper (1) classifies the type of the assay and (2) classifies the colourimetric results.

Findings

This paper demonstrated that the assay type can be recognised using DL techniques with 100% accuracy within a fraction of a second. Some of the advantages of the pre-trained model over the calibration-based approach are robustness, readiness and suitability to deploy for similar applications within a shorter period of time.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to provide colourimetric assay type classification (CATC) using DL. Humans are capable to learn thousands of visual classifications in their life. Object recognition may be a trivial task for humans, due to photometric and geometric variabilities along with the high degree of intra-class variabilities, it can be a challenging task for machines. However, transforming visual knowledge into machines, as proposed, can support non-experts to better manage their health and reduce some of the burdens on experts.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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