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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Nur Khairlida Muhamad Khair, Khai Ern Lee, Mazlin Mokhtar, Choo Ta Goh, Harminder Singh and Pek Wan Chan

The Responsible Care programme was first introduced in Canada in 1985 and now is implemented worldwide as one of the chemical industries' commitments to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Responsible Care programme was first introduced in Canada in 1985 and now is implemented worldwide as one of the chemical industries' commitments to improve the industries' public image as well as their performance in health, safety and environmental aspects. In Malaysia, the Responsible Care programme has been implemented since 1994 with a current total of 148 companies pledged to implement it in their company; however, the effectiveness of the programme remains unknown. Hence, this paper aims to assess the effectiveness of the Responsible Care programme in improving performance in the environment, health and safety in terms of documentation, training, selection processes and stakeholders' engagement for the sustainability of chemical industries.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to the Responsible Care signatory companies in Malaysia. Of these, a total of 132 member companies either produced or provided services related to chemical products.

Findings

The majority of signatory companies agreed that the Responsible Care programme did improve their performance in the environment, health and safety. Besides that, the signatory companies were also keeping up their commitment to ensuring documentation, training, selection process and stakeholders' engagement run smoothly in line with Responsible Care's mission.

Originality/value

After more than two decades of implementation in Malaysia, it is important to assess the Responsible Care programme's effectiveness. As an increasing number of chemical firms, without good management, it will possibly pose a danger to the environment and human health and safety. Through assessment, advances in Responsible Care management practices will considerably increase programme effectiveness in terms of environmental health and safety.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Xiaoheng Zhang and Xiaohua Yu

Overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is a major policy concern for many countries. Chinese government has adopted many technologies and management practices to…

Abstract

Purpose

Overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is a major policy concern for many countries. Chinese government has adopted many technologies and management practices to reduce their use. However, little is known about the effects of social-economic method such as short supply chain (SSC) participation. SSC is an important organizational innovation in fresh food supply chains aiming at directly connecting farmers and consumers. Closer relationships between farmers and consumers may result in production behavioral changes. Thus the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of SSC participation on agrochemicals application.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the household level data collected from Jiangsu province in China, this paper employs an instrumental variable (IV) method to address the self-selection bias when we evaluate the effects of SSC participation on use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. In addition, this paper also distinguishes between growth inputs and facilitating inputs in the production function when we calculate the marginal production values of chemical fertilizer and pesticides.

Findings

The empirical results show that SSC participation significantly reduces chemical fertilizer use by 351 kg and pesticides costs by 1659 Yuan (RMB) per hectare, accounting for 43.4% of the average chemical fertilizer use and 49.4% of the average pesticide costs, respectively for Chinese vegetable farms. However, SSC participation still cannot improve the use efficiency of agrochemicals.

Originality/value

This paper uses both application quantities and allocation efficiencies of chemical fertilizer and pesticides to comprehensively evaluate the effects of SSC participations. The results will reveal the core role of SSC played in promoting sustainable development of Chinese agricultural sector dominated by small-scale farmers.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

A. Ben Wagner

Three commercially available chemical substructure databases are reviewed: Chemical Abstracts, Index Chemicus, and the SANSS file (Chemical Information System). Coverage…

Abstract

Three commercially available chemical substructure databases are reviewed: Chemical Abstracts, Index Chemicus, and the SANSS file (Chemical Information System). Coverage and overlap of Chemical Abstracts and Index Chemicus are studied, as well as differences between Chemical Abstracts as mounted by two different vendors (STN International and Questel). Guidelines for determining the database/system of choice are given.

Details

Online Review, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Shu‐Hao Chuang and Zuu‐Chang Hong

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on aturbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, arepresented. The calculated results…

Abstract

Solutions of the twin plane jets HF chemical laser flow based on a turbulent kinetic theory, due to a modified Green’s function method, are presented. The calculated results of probability density function (PDF) of various chemical species in velocity space, and mass fraction concentration distributions of various reactants and products in the flow field, are revealed and discussed in this analysis. The transport phenomena of different pumping rate, collisional deactivation rate, and radiative deactivation rate in the interaction between the twin plane jets HF chemical laser show that the properties of species mass fraction concentrations, collisional reaction rate, and radiative incident intensity are the dominant factors. The present study provides the fundamentals for theoretical understanding of twin plane jets HF chemical laser and further application to multiple‐jet HF chemical laser analysis.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Kate Geraghty

Focuses on, and provides a background of, the REACH Regulation, a new system of registration, evaluation and authorisation for chemicals.

Abstract

Purpose

Focuses on, and provides a background of, the REACH Regulation, a new system of registration, evaluation and authorisation for chemicals.

Design/methodology/application

In October 2003 The European Commission presented to the European parliament and the Council of the European Union (EU), a proposal for a Regulation that will radically reform Europe's existing chemical policy. The so‐called REACH Regulation will introduce a new system of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation for Chemicals introduced on the EU market in volumes over 1 tonne per manufacturer per year. It will also establish a central Chemicals Agency to oversee the efficient operation of the new regulatory system. The implications of the draft Regulation on Europe's chemical manufacturers, importers, formulators and those sectors that either use or process chemicals, such as the electronics industry, will be manifold.

Findings

Despite a number of concessions granted to the chemical industry following an internet consultation, there remain serious doubts over the workability of the system, as well as concerns over substantial product losses and fears over the competitiveness of Europe's chemical industry.

Originality/value

This paper sets out to provide a background to the proposed reforms and an outline of the main components of the REACH system as well as a summary of some of the likely key impacts on the PCB industry.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Yu Naiyan, Li Zhong, Chen Zhuo, Luo Lixin and Liu Min

The Chemical Integrated Information Service Network (Chl2Net) is a comprehensive information service system which includes chemical, technical, economic, market, news and…

Abstract

The Chemical Integrated Information Service Network (Chl2Net) is a comprehensive information service system which includes chemical, technical, economic, market, news and management information based on computer and modern communication technology, and built by the China National Chemical Information Centre (CNCIC). This system provides varied services for users both at home and abroad through an online service, a hotline call service, a consulting service and publishing service.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Kate Geraghty

The European Commission (EC) has drafted a proposal for reforming the European Union's (EU) chemicals policy. The chemical industry has welcomed the broad political…

Abstract

The European Commission (EC) has drafted a proposal for reforming the European Union's (EU) chemicals policy. The chemical industry has welcomed the broad political objectives of this policy, particularly those of increased protection of human health and the environment. The chemical industry also agrees that the existing process for chemicals regulation in the EU has proven to be slow and inefficient. However, it has reacted strongly to many of the finer details of the proposal, and there is a growing consensus that if the EC implements the strategy as currently outlined in the White Paper on the “Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy” it will have very serious implications on the competitiveness of Europe's chemical industry and related sectors.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Boris N. Filatov, Valentina V. Klauchek, Nikolay G. Britanov and Sergei V. Klauchek

The world community has long striven for the liquidation of chemical weapons of mass destruction. The 1925 Geneva treaty “On the Prohibition of the Use in War of…

Abstract

The world community has long striven for the liquidation of chemical weapons of mass destruction. The 1925 Geneva treaty “On the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacterial Methods of Warfare” was the first international accord on chemical weapons prohibition. Signed by 125 countries, the USSR ratified the treaty in December 1927. The later development of the “Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and their Destruction” (henceforth “the Convention”) followed this early step and was undertaken with Russia's active participation. The Convention was signed by the Russian Federation in January 1993 and ratified by the State Duma in November 1997 with the decision to end chemical weapons stockpiling by 2007. As a signatory, Russia accepted international responsibilities for solving many interrelated problems, paramount among them was the protection of people and the environment (The Convention…, 1994, item 4).

Details

Cultures of Contamination
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1371-6

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

Jeffrey T. Macher and David C. Mowery

We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of…

Abstract

We examine the evolution of vertical specialization in three industries: chemicals, computers, and semiconductors. Vertical specialization is the restructuring of industry-wide value chains, such that different stages are controlled by different firms, rather than being vertically integrated within the boundaries of individual firms. In some cases, vertical specialization may span international boundaries and is associated with complex international production networks. After decades of vertical specialization, firms in the chemical industry are re-integrating stages of the value chain. By contrast, the semiconductor and computer industries have experienced significant vertical specialization during the past ten years. We examine how and why these contrasting trends in vertical specialization have co-evolved with industry maturation and decline, and underscore the importance and role of both industry factors and business strategies necessary for industries to become more specialized. We also consider the effects of vertical specialization on the sources of innovation and the geographic redistribution of production and other activities. We conclude that the evolution of vertical specialization in these three industries has both reflected and influenced the strategies of leading firms, while also displays industry-specific characteristics that are rooted in different technological and market characteristics.

Details

Business Strategy over the Industry Lifecycle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-135-4

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Zhihai Yang, Ning Yin, Amin William Mugera and Yumeng Wang

This paper analysed survey data of 715 rice-producing households in China to assess the determinants of adoption of five mutually exclusive soil conservation practices…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analysed survey data of 715 rice-producing households in China to assess the determinants of adoption of five mutually exclusive soil conservation practices (SCPs) and their impact on rice yield and chemical fertiliser use.

Design/methodology/approach

The multinomial endogenous treatment effects model was used to account for selection bias and endogeneity arising from both observed and unobserved heterogeneity.

Findings

Farms that adopted SCPs as a package experienced an increase in rice yield and decrease in chemical fertiliser use. Adoption of SCPs as a package led to a 12.0% increase in yield and 15.2% decrease in chemical fertiliser use; these results have policy implications for the non-point source pollution control in the agricultural sector. In contrast, adoption of straw retention only significantly reduced yield by 4.9% and increased chemical fertiliser use by 18.1%.

Originality/value

The authors evaluate and compare multi-type of SCPs, such as straw retention, deep tillage and use of organic fertiliser, separately or in combination, and their impacts on smallholder farmers’ rice yield and chemical fertiliser usage.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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