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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Chaoyue Li, Shiyu Feng, Lei Shao, Jun Pan and Weihua Liu

This study aims to get the essential data of the solubility and diffusion coefficient of gas in jet fuel for appropriately designing a kind of on-board inert gas generation system.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to get the essential data of the solubility and diffusion coefficient of gas in jet fuel for appropriately designing a kind of on-board inert gas generation system.

Design/methodology/approach

A test apparatus based on pressure–decay method was constructed to measure solubility and diffusion coefficient of gas in liquid. The test apparatus and method were verified via measurement of solubility and diffusion of CO2 in the pure water.

Findings

The solubility of CO2 and O2 in RP-3 jet fuel with the temperature from 253 to 313 K under three various pressures were measured and compared with theoretical value calculated by a relative density method provided in the standard of ASTM D2780-92, and the deviation is within 10 per cent. The diffusion coefficients of CO2 and O2 in RP-3 jet fuel are determined by monitoring the gas pressure in a hermetic cell versus time with the temperature from 253 to 333 K. The measured diffusivity-temperature relation can be well fitted through the Arrhenius equation for engineering applications. The obtained correlation can be used to predict the diffusion coefficient of CO2 and O2 in RP-3 jet fuel under a wide temperature range.

Practical implications

The semi-empirical correlation of solubility and diffusion coefficient in RP-3 jet fuel obtained from the experimental data could be used to support the design of an inert gas generation system.

Originality/value

There are no essential data of solubility and diffusion of CO2 and O2 in RP-3 jet fuel; therefore, it is fatal if the quantity and rate of mass transfer of CO2 and O2 in RP-3 jet fuel must be assessed, e.g. during the design of green on-board inert gas generation system.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

A. Shams-Nateri, E. Dehnavi and E. Zahedi

This work aims to explain the effect of common salt on absorbance spectra and solubility of textile direct dyes, which is important in analysing and reusing wastewater of…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to explain the effect of common salt on absorbance spectra and solubility of textile direct dyes, which is important in analysing and reusing wastewater of dyeing process.

Design/methodology/approach

Several textile dyes such as Direct red 243, Direct yellow 86 and Direct blue 201 solutions with and without NaCl salt were used to study the effect of common salt on solubility of textile direct dyes. Several methods such as derivative spectrophotometry, principal component analysis and colorimetric techniques were used to analyse the absorbance spectra of dye solution.

Findings

The obtained results indicate that the effect of common salt on absorbance spectra and solubility of textile direct dye depends on the chemical structure of dyes. The NaCl salt significantly affects the solubility of Direct red 243 (red dye) and Direct yellow 86 (yellow dye) which have Azo compounds containing four SO3 functional groups. But the NaCl salt does not change the solubility of Direct blue 201 (Blue dye) which has Azo compound containing two SO3 functional groups. Also, the NaCl salt decreases the accuracy of dye concentration prediction.

Practical implications

During reusing wastewater of dyeing process, the amount of dyes has been evaluated via absorbance spectra of dye solution.

Originality/value

This work explains the effect of common salt on solubility of textile direct dyes and the accuracy of dyes concentration prediction.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Sonika Pandey, Amrita Poonia and Suman Rai

To overcome the need of seasonal fruit ber, consumers prefer to use fruits in such a form that can be prepared easily or consumed instantly. By transforming them into…

Abstract

Purpose

To overcome the need of seasonal fruit ber, consumers prefer to use fruits in such a form that can be prepared easily or consumed instantly. By transforming them into powders, they can be effortlessly attained as well as preserved, stored and processed.

Design/methodology/approach

To optimize the spray drying conditions for development of ber fruit powder, response surface methodology was used. The experimental design consisted of 13 runs. The levels of independent variables, i.e. inlet air temperature, varied from 153.79ºC to 196.21ºC and maltodextrin concentration, from 4.17 to 9.83 per cent. The responses were moisture content, bulk density, solubility, vitamin C, ΔE and L value.

Findings

The second-order polynomial model fitted for moisture content, bulk density, solubility, vitamin C, ΔE and L value was highly significant (p < 0.001) for each response. The inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture content, bulk density, solubility and vitamin C, whereas the maltodextrin concentration showed maximum influence on bulk density, solubility, ΔE and L value. The predicted values were attained as moisture 4.90 per cent, bulk density 0.35g/ml, solubility 89.11 per cent, vitamin C 91.06mg/100g, ΔE 31.03 and L 87.78. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 166.64°C and 9.26 per cent, respectively.

Originality/value

Spray drying of the underused Indian fruit ber has enhanced its utility. Ber powder can further be used as an instant beverage, in sweets, as a flavoring agent and in soft drinks.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

V. Valasamudram, S.S. Mohamed Nazirudeen, P. Chandramohan and K.P. Thenmozhi

The main purpose of this paper is to produce high‐nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to produce high‐nitrogen martensitic stainless steels (HNMSS) using a conventional induction furnace with better mechanical properties and to improve the properties by thermo‐mechanical treatment (TMT).

Design/methodology/approach

Production of two types of HNMSS alloys with Chromium – 8.22 and 15.84 wt% was carried out using a conventional melting furnace. The theoretical nitrogen solubility of the produced alloys was calculated and compared with the actual nitrogen solubility of the alloys. The produced alloys were subjected to TMT, characterized by hardness measurement, tensile testing micro examinations in the as cast, hardened, TMT treated and TMT hardened and tempered conditions.

Findings

The actual nitrogen solubility achieved in the HNMSS specimens was in agreement with the calculated theoretical nitrogen solubility using thermodynamic relationships. Thermo‐mechanically treated specimens exhibited the break‐up and refinement of the original coarse cast structure by repeated recrystallization as fine grain size in the austenitic condition and reduced proportion of residual deformed δ ferrite. Thermo‐mechanically treated, hardened and tempered specimens showed higher hardness up to 525 VHN, with strength and toughness.

Research limitations/limitations

In the conventional melting process, purging nitrogen into the melt and increasing the percentage of nitrogen is the primary limitation and retaining the same into the solution during thermo‐mechanical treatment is the secondary limitation.

Originality/value

Work on melting of nitrogenated steels using controlled atmospheric conditions with special equipment was carried out earlier. This practice cannot be adopted on a commercial basis, where mass production is the prime requirement. Therefore, the uniqueness of this paper lies in communicating the melting practice of HNMSS using a conventional induction furnace followed by the optimum TMT. This takes the production and TMT of HNMSS into the commercial casting industry for mass production.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Appala Naidu Uttaravalli and Srikanta Dinda

The purpose of the present study is first to develop a hydroxyl-functionalized ketonic resin for coating applications and to establish a standard characterization…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is first to develop a hydroxyl-functionalized ketonic resin for coating applications and to establish a standard characterization protocol; second, to quantify the effects of various operating parameters on resin properties and to develop mathematical models to predict the product properties; and third, to carry out the compatibility study between the in-house developed resins and commercially available resins.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-polymerization reactions were conducted in a batch reactor. Effects of reaction time, temperature, catalyst concentration and reactor pressure on product properties have been studied. Hydroxyl value, iodine value, solubility, rheology, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out to characterize the product properties. Mark–Houwink correlation was used to predict molecular weight of the resins.

Findings

The study shows that hydroxyl value and softening temperature (ST) of the product increased with the increase of reaction temperature, duration of reaction and alkali concentration. However, the solubility value of the resins decreased with the increase of temperature, time and alkali concentration. Regression models were developed to predict the optimum conditions for obtaining a desired quality of resin. The number-average molecular weight of the developed resins was in the range of 450-1150. The products are thermally stable up to around 200°C, and adequately soluble in many commercial solvents.

Research limitations/implications

The ketonic resin can be used as a substitute of phenolic resins which are prepared from more hazardous materials monomers such as phenolic and aldehyde compounds.

Practical implications

The resin can be used as a substitute of more hazardous materials such as phenolic and aldehyde compounds.

Originality/value

This paper details the synthesis of ketonic resin from cyclohexanone and its compatibility. It also investigates the optimization of operating parameters to obtain a desire product.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Khaled Mostafa

This paper aims to study previously prepared and fully characterized chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) as a starting substrate and microwave initiation technique for grafting…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study previously prepared and fully characterized chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) as a starting substrate and microwave initiation technique for grafting acrylic acid (AA). This was done to see the influence of both CNPs with respect to well-dispersed nanosized particles, large surface areas, biodegradability, biocompatibility and reactivity and microwave initiation technique with respect to reduction in organic solvents, toxic chemical initiator and exposer time on exploiting the graft yield % and enhancing water solubility and antibacterial properties.

Design/methodology/approach

For evaluating the best accurate standard metrological method for calculating the graft yield %, the grafting parameters were stated in terms of graft yield percent and measured gravimetrically (based on dry weight method) and titrimetrically (based on carboxyl content). Microwave power, AA and CNPs concentrations and reaction duration were shown to be the most important parameters influencing the grafting process.

Findings

The optimum reaction conditions were obtained when CNPs 1.5 g, AA 150 bows, microwave irradiation power 500 W and reaction duration 120 s were used. Various analytical methods were used to characterize CNPs and poly(AA)–CNPs graft copolymers. According to the findings, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy examination determines the attachment of carboxyl groups to CNPs chains. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the copolymers were more thermally stable than CNPs counterparts. Furthermore, the resulting copolymers were shown to have greater water solubility biodegradability resistance and antibacterial properties than CNPs counterpart. Finally, a preliminary mechanism demonstrating all occasions that occur during the polymerization reaction has been proposed.

Originality/value

The advancement addressed here is undertaken using previously prepared and fully characterized CNPs as a green bio-nanocompatible polymer and microwave initiation technique as green and efficient tool with respect to reduction in organic solvents toxic chemical initiator and exposer time for grafting AA.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2022

Veeramani Rajasekar, Paramasivan Karthickumar, Ashokkumar Hozen Richhie Rose, Nagarajan Manimmehalai and Dharmaraj Subhasri

The purpose of this study was carried out to explore the potential use of carrageenan extracted from marine red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) collected from Munaikadu…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was carried out to explore the potential use of carrageenan extracted from marine red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) collected from Munaikadu, Mandapam region, Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu.

Design/methodology/approach

Biodegradable film was developed by using carrageenan extracted by using alcohol extraction method. To improve the mechanical properties of the film, rice starch was incorporated. The biodegradable films were made by phase inversion method with varied carrageenan concentration of 1%, 1.5% and 2% (w/v) and rice starch with concentration of 0%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% (w/v). Physical properties, optical properties, mechanical properties and other properties such as biodegradability, solubility and water vapor permeability of the developed biodegradable films were characterized. The results were analyzed in design expert software using Box–Behnken design.

Findings

Results show that the biodegradable film’s mechanical and water vapor permeability increases with an increase in carrageenan and rice starch concentration. The optimized film structure was obtained with carrageenan and rice starch composition of 1.5% and 2%, respectively.

Originality/value

The results shown a broad spectrum of commercial applications and future rice starch possibilities incorporated in the carrageenan-based biodegradable film.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Richard D. Sudduth

This paper attempted to show the potential relationship between five different interaction coefficients relating solvents and polymers. This review addressed primarily a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempted to show the potential relationship between five different interaction coefficients relating solvents and polymers. This review addressed primarily a comparison between the polymer-solvent interaction coefficients obtained from two different types of models. These two primary polymer-solvent interaction coefficients included the Flory-Huggins interaction coefficient developed from thermodynamic colligative properties and the polymer-solvent Sudduth interaction coefficient obtained from the generalized viscosity equation. The other three interaction coefficients included Hildebrand solubility parameter and the interaction coefficients or constants for the Huggins and Kraemers models that are normally generated from viscosity measurements. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

These five different interaction coefficients were compared from theoretical considerations as well as on the basis of available experimental data.

Findings

Remarkably the polymer-solvent interaction coefficients for both Flory-Huggins interaction coefficient and the Sudduth interaction coefficient were found to be dimensionless and approximately of the same value. In addition, when both interaction coefficients are negative then both describe solvents. In addition, both interaction coefficients describe a plasticizer when they are in the range of 0 to ½. Finally both interaction coefficients describe a non-solvent or a suspension when both are greater than 1. The Hildebrand solubility parameter was found to be directly related to the Flory-Huggins interaction coefficient. The viscosity constants for the Huggins and Kraemers models were found to be included as subsets of the Sudduth generalized viscosity model.

Research limitations/implications

The strong apparent relationship between these five different interaction coefficients to predict the interaction between polymers and solvents is strongly indicated based on the results from this study. However, approximately half of these interaction coefficients have been derived to be evaluated from colligative properties and half were derived to be evaluated from viscosity measurements.

Practical implications

In general, it is much easier to obtain viscosity measurements compared to the evaluation of the colligative properties. Therefore, if a direct relationship can be shown between these five different interaction coefficients, then it would appear to be much easier to evaluate polymer-solvent interactions from the interaction coefficients obtained from viscosity measurements.

Originality/value

This is the first time that these five interaction coefficients have been compared in such a way that shows their direct relationship even though half of these interaction coefficients have been derived to be evaluated from colligative properties and half were derived to be evaluated from viscosity measurements.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

S.Y. Cheng, C.W.M. Yuen, C.W. Kan and K.K.L. Cheuk

This paper investigates the effect of three different treatments, namely (i) sunlight exposures, (ii) bleaching and (iii) perming on the damage of the keratin fibres (with…

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of three different treatments, namely (i) sunlight exposures, (ii) bleaching and (iii) perming on the damage of the keratin fibres (with the use of human hair). Scanning electron microscopy was applied to examine the surface morphology of the samples. Hair samples appeared to be rougher and their scales diminished after the treatments. The degree of colour change of samples was measured using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. All three different treatments caused a certain degree of colour change on the samples. Urea bisulphite solubility test was also employed to investigate the alkaline damage of samples.

The results illustrated that the urea bisulphite solubility of samples conformably decreased when they were subject to these three types of treatments. With respect to the tensile strength property, the results indicate that the breaking load of treated samples decreased dramatically after undergoing three different types of treatments. On evaluating the test results, it was concluded that the bleaching process imparted the most severe damages to hair. The results of the different test methods were evaluated and discussed.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1946

In these times—aptly described as the age of dehydration—few food products appear to have aroused as much technical interest as has dried egg. Upon this point we have the…

Abstract

In these times—aptly described as the age of dehydration—few food products appear to have aroused as much technical interest as has dried egg. Upon this point we have the criterion of the galaxy of papers and communications in the various trade and scientific journals. Admittedly, much of the interest is doubtless due to the painfully rare appearance of the goods in the form delivered by the hen. However, there is little doubt that some of the developments in our knowledge and usage of a convenient form of an otherwise highly perishable commodity may have wide repercussions in food‐preparation in the future, both in industry and in the household. It would appear that the attaining and maintaining of hygienic conditions in the dehydrating plants has received the attention it warrants. Naturally, unless reasonable care in the storage or usage of the finished product is exercised, conditions will occur under which rapid contamination with and multiplication of bacteria will occur. The intention of the Dried Egg (Control of Use) Order, 1945 (S.R. & O. No. 627), which forbids the use of dried egg in certain foods and in materials sold in the wet state, is to provide against such conditions. Of the desirable properties which a dehydrated product should possess, ease of reconstitution is one of the most important. In the bakery and allied trades the difficulty, or, more correctly, the variability, of solubility of various deliveries of dried egg has occasioned some complaint. It is interesting to note that, with a view to assisting wetting, and hence reconstitution, addition of surface‐active agents, either to the egg pulp before dehydration, or to the dried product, has been the subject of several patents. As regards keeping properties, dried egg offers no exception to the general rule that the rate of deterioration on storage decreases progressively with reduction in the moisture content. It is reported that a product containing as little as 2 per cent. of moisture is being manufactured in U.S.A. Apparently, the only satisfactory packing for such a highly‐dehydrated product is a sealed metal container. The deterioration of dried egg powder, with the production of the peculiar and characteristic off‐flavour, has been shown to be connected with a small amount of glucose originally present. This decreases during storage, and the development of unpalatability may be correlated with the amount of glucose remaining. At the same time, the solubility of the powder decreases, rendering reconstitution more difficult, and the whipping or beating properties, so vital in the making of cakes, become impaired. Initial removal of the glucose, such as De‐controlled fermentation, markedly improves the stability of the product; re‐addition of glucose to an egg pulp from which the natural carbohydrate has been removed yields on dehydration a powder showing the same effects of deterioration as ordinary dried egg. Addition of reducing monosaecharoses other than glucose has a similar effect. Recently‐published reports of work carried out at the Cambridge Low Temperature Research Station provide strong evidence that the reaction mechanism resulting in the loss in solubility of dried egg powder is a two‐stage process. In the first stage, which does not in itself result in a decrease in solubility, the reducing group of the glucose molecule condenses with the free amino groups of the protein components; a further reaction then occurs which causes the protein to become insoluble. It had been previously discovered that addition to the egg pulp before drying of a simple amino‐acid such as glycine or alanine retarded the loss of solubility, although other forms of deterioration, such as the darkening of the colour of the powder, were not inhibited. Presumably, the glucose reacts preferentially with the added amino‐acid, instead of attacking the egg‐proteins. Another method of overcoming the loss of solubility is by the addition of substantial amounts of sucrose (or lactose) to the egg pulp before drying. How the protective action operates does not appear to be known, and it is peculiar that lactose, itself a reducing sugar, does not cause loss in solubility in the same manner as glucose. The “sugar‐dried egg” obtained on dehydration is readily soluble, and, since it possesses all, or nearly all, of the aerating properties of fresh egg, is claimed to be as good as frozen egg, or even shell egg, for cake‐making. Allocations of sugar‐dried egg are now being made to the bakery trade, and, should no difficulty be encountered in large‐scale production, it is to be presumed that in due course its use will become much more general. In the form now being supplied, sugar‐dried egg has an egg solids to sugar ratio of 2 to 1, thus allowing existing trade recipes to be rebalanced without recourse to awkward calculations. When reconstituted, 3 pounds of liquid egg contain approximately 5 ounces of sugar; this high sugar content of course restricts the use of this product to food preparations of a sweet nature. The mixture aerates rapidly, and, since it possesses a good oven spring, underbeating rather than full development of the batter gives the most satisfactory result. Additionally, the use of sugar‐dried egg lowers the amount of baking powder required; in some mixes baking powder may be omitted altogether. Sponges and similar goods of superior texture, flavour and keeping qualities may thus be made. Obviously, developments in other forms of dried egg and allied products are to be expected. Thus the previously‐mentioned protective action of lactose suggests the preparation of dehydrated mixtures of egg and milk or milk products, and in fact interesting experiments have been carried out involving the use of whey powder as a protective agent.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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