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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Leonardo Lezcano, Salvador Sánchez‐Alonso and Antonio J. Roa‐Valverde

The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web.

Design/methodology/approach

Research papers published since 1990 on the use of various formats, standards, frameworks and methods to exchange linguistic information were divided into two main categories: those proposing specific schemas and syntaxes to suit the requirements of a given type of linguistic data (these are referred to as offline approaches), and those adopting the linked data (LD) initiative and the semantic web technologies to support the interoperability of heterogeneous linguistic resources. For each paper, the type of linguistic resource exchanged, the framework/format used, the interoperability approach taken and the related projects were identified.

Findings

The information gathered in the survey reflects an increase in recent years in approaches adopting the LD initiative. This is due to the fact that the structural and syntactic issues which arise when addressing the interoperability of linguistic resources can be solved by applying semantic web technologies. What remains an open issue in the field of computational linguistics is the development of knowledge artefacts and mechanisms to support the alignment of the different aspects of linguistic resources in order to guarantee semantic and conceptual interoperability in the linked open data (LOD) cloud. Ontologies have proved to be of great use in achieving this goal.

Research limitations/implications

The research presented here is by no means a comprehensive or all‐inclusive survey of all existing approaches to the exchange of linguistic resources. Rather, the aim was to highlight, analyze and categorize the most significant advances in the field.

Practical implications

This survey has practical implications for computational linguists and for every application requiring new developments in natural language processing. In addition, multilingual issues can be better addressed when semantic interoperability of heterogeneous linguistic resources is achieved.

Originality/value

The paper provides a survey of past and present research and developments addressing the interoperability of linguistic resources, including those where the linked data initiative has been adopted.

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

María‐Dolores Olvera‐Lobo and Juncal Gutierrez‐Artacho

In the field of information retrieval, some multi‐lingual tools are being created to help the users to overcome the language barriers. Nevertheless, these tools are not…

Abstract

Purpose

In the field of information retrieval, some multi‐lingual tools are being created to help the users to overcome the language barriers. Nevertheless, these tools are not developed completely and it is necessary to investigate more for their improvement and application. One of their main problems is the choice of the linguistic resources to offer better coverage and to solve the translation problems in the context of the multi‐lingual information retrieval. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is focused on the analysis of resources used by the multi‐lingual question‐answering systems, which respond to users' queries with short answers, rather than just offering a list of documents related to the search. An analysis of the main publications about the multi‐lingual QA systems was carried out, with the aim of identifying the typology, the advantages and disadvantages, and the real use and trend of each of the linguistic resources and tools used in this new kind of system.

Findings

Five of the resources most used in the cross‐languages QA systems were identified and studied: databases, dictionaries, corpora, ontologies and thesauri. The three most popular traditional resources (automatic translators, dictionaries, and corpora) are gradually leaving a widening gap for others – such as ontologies and the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia.

Originality/value

The perspective offered by the translation discipline can improve the effectiveness of QA systems.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2014

David Schwarzer and Mary Fuchs

This chapter is based on a self-study of teacher education practices (S-STEP) project that explored the pedagogical practices of a teacher educator and the impact of such…

Abstract

This chapter is based on a self-study of teacher education practices (S-STEP) project that explored the pedagogical practices of a teacher educator and the impact of such practices on a teacher candidate engaged in the process of becoming a translingual teacher. This S-STEP study includes David, a professor in a teacher education program in the greater New York City metropolitan area, and Mary, a teacher candidate enrolled in the program. The purpose of the study was to discover how different class activities influenced the philosophical and pedagogical views of one teacher candidate in the program. The following are the two research questions of the study:

  1. How did the class experiences that a teacher education professor, David, designed help teacher candidates conceptualize translingual approach to language and literacy development?

  2. How did a monolingual teacher candidate, Mary, develop her role as a translingual English teacher through the completion of these experiences?

How did the class experiences that a teacher education professor, David, designed help teacher candidates conceptualize translingual approach to language and literacy development?

How did a monolingual teacher candidate, Mary, develop her role as a translingual English teacher through the completion of these experiences?

The findings of this S-STEP project demonstrate that the Sociocultural Reflection, the Community Study, and the Linguistic Landscape fostered a translingual approach to language and literacy in the classroom. Moreover, the findings suggest that upon the completion of the projects, one teacher education candidate was able to better define translingualism as a phenomenon of study, ideology, and pedagogy.

Since this investigation is based on a S-STEP project of a single teacher educator and a single teacher candidate, more research with larger populations is needed. Practical implications for teacher educators and teacher candidates in other settings are explored.

Details

Research on Preparing Preservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-265-4

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 20 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Iolo Madoc-Jones, Dawn Jones, Odette Parry and Sarah Dubberley

Drawing on the approach of Bourdieu (1977, 1986), and using language as an exemplar, the purpose of this paper is to engage in a “dangerous conversation” to explore how…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the approach of Bourdieu (1977, 1986), and using language as an exemplar, the purpose of this paper is to engage in a “dangerous conversation” to explore how and why issues of diversity were mobilised, ignored and leveraged in one particular service context.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research exploring the language choices of 25 service users who had been processed through the criminal Justice System in Wales in the last five years.

Findings

The argument is made that in some service contexts, a habitus obtains that renders reflexivity about diversity issues problematic and predicates against the critical reflection necessary to promote anti-oppressive practice.

Research limitations/implications

Small sample size, not generalisable.

Practical implications

The authors intend the paper to encourage greater reflection on instances when diversity issues are raised and to render simplistic any attempt to invalidate claims of discrimination.

Social implications

Encourage dialogue about claims of discrimination and greater reflection by service providers about the legitimacy of such claims.

Originality/value

Anti-oppressive theorising has, for the most part, constructed minority group members as passive victims within hierarchical power relationships. While acknowledging how power is unequally distributed, the paper challenges hierarchical models which designate minority group members as bereft of power.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Wenxian Zhang

The Internet is full of resources on China and Chinese studies. However, many new users are often overwhelmed by the vast amount of information on the Web. This paper is…

Abstract

The Internet is full of resources on China and Chinese studies. However, many new users are often overwhelmed by the vast amount of information on the Web. This paper is to offer a starting point for inexperienced users interested in finding information over the Internet on Chinese culture, art, language, literature, history, philosophy and current affairs, etc. It focuses on the World Wide Web resources only, and choices of entry are selective rather than exhaustive.

Details

Asian Libraries, vol. 8 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1017-6748

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Mari Vállez, Rafael Pedraza-Jiménez, Lluís Codina, Saúl Blanco and Cristòfol Rovira

Controlled vocabularies play an important role in information retrieval. Numerous studies have shown that conceptual searches based on vocabularies are more effective than…

Abstract

Purpose

Controlled vocabularies play an important role in information retrieval. Numerous studies have shown that conceptual searches based on vocabularies are more effective than keyword searches, at least in certain contexts. Consequently, new ways must be found to improve controlled vocabularies. The purpose of this paper is to present a semi-automatic model for updating controlled vocabularies through the use of a text corpus and the analysis of query logs.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental development is presented in which, first, the suitability of a controlled vocabulary to a text corpus is examined. The keywords entered by users to access the text corpus are then compared with the descriptors used to index it. Finally, both the query logs and text corpus are processed to obtain a set of candidate terms to update the controlled vocabulary.

Findings

This paper describes a model applicable both in the context of the text corpus of an online academic journal and to repositories and intranets. The model is able to: first, identify the queries that led users from a search engine to a relevant document; and second, process these queries to identify candidate terms for inclusion in a controlled vocabulary.

Research limitations/implications

Ideally, the model should be used in controlled web environments, such as repositories, intranets or academic journals.

Social implications

The proposed model directly improves the indexing process by facilitating the maintenance and updating of controlled vocabularies. It so doing, it helps to optimise access to information.

Originality/value

The proposed model takes into account the perspective of users by mining queries in order to propose candidate terms for inclusion in a controlled vocabulary.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2014

Erik Borglund and Tove Engvall

The aim of the article is to investigate what characterizes the information constructs that the archival discourse and the open data discourse communicate in text, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the article is to investigate what characterizes the information constructs that the archival discourse and the open data discourse communicate in text, and what their similarities and differences are. This article proposes that it is possible to see the open data initiative and modern archival practice as two discourses that have used different terminology to express and communicate their messages in the literature. In this article, we have applied a hypothesis-like assumption that the information constructs used in open data are actually nothing other than records, as they are in the archival discourse.

Design/methodology/approach

This article is based on a mixed method approach. A quantitative text analysis (word count) was carried out in a large set of documents representing the open data discourse and in the archival discourse. This was followed by a qualitative text analysis.

Findings

It was found that both discourses did focus on records. However, the opendata discourse very seldom used the term record, but used information and data much more frequently. The archival discourse used the term information almost as often as record. A possible adaption of communication strategies can be identified, targeting a much wider audience through a user-centered approach. This could be an indication of a change in the archival discourse, which seems to be moving from a discourse that is very much regulated by law toward a discourse that is more focused on benefit and usability.

Originality/value

This research indicates that it is possible to interpret both the open data and the archival discourse as one united discourse, an effect derived from working with e-government. There is an ongoing harmonization of the words used, and in the studied archival discourse, a more user- and business-oriented focus can be seen.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Hanne Tange and Jakob Lauring

This paper aims to identify communicative practices emerging from the management decision to implement English as a corporate language, assessing their implications for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify communicative practices emerging from the management decision to implement English as a corporate language, assessing their implications for social interaction and relationships within the multilingual workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study based on qualitative research interviews was used.

Findings

The analysis highlights the discrepancy between a general openness to the use of English as a corporate language in Danish organisations and language users' communicative practice. This leads to the identification of language clustering and thin communication as characteristic behaviours within the multilingual workplace.

Research limitations/implications

The interviews were performed in Danish organisations alone. New research is required in order to apply the findings to other linguistic or national settings.

Practical implications

The research identifies two barriers to employee interaction within the multilingual workplace. This is relevant in relation to language planning as well as diversity management.

Originality/value

The paper is original in its application of a sociolinguistic perspective to employees' linguistic practice. This points to the importance of language as a social resource and the possible limitations of corporate language policies.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Siân Alsop, Virginia King, Genie Giaimo and Xiaoyu Xu

In this chapter, we explore uses of corpus linguistics within higher education research. Corpus linguistic approaches enable examination of large bodies of language data…

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore uses of corpus linguistics within higher education research. Corpus linguistic approaches enable examination of large bodies of language data based on computing power. These bodies of data, or corpora, facilitate investigation of the meaning of words in context. The semiautomated nature of such investigation helps researchers to identify and interpret language patterns that might otherwise be inaccessible through manual analysis. We illustrate potential uses of corpus linguistic approaches through four short case studies by higher education researchers, spanning educational contexts, disciplines and genres. These case studies are underpinned by discussion of the development of corpus linguistics as a field of investigation, including existing open corpora and corpus analysis tools. We give a flavour of how corpus linguistic techniques, in isolation or as part of a wider research approach, can be particularly helpful to higher education researchers who wish to investigate language data and its context.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-321-2

Keywords

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