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Article

Felix Boteram

This paper seeks to develop a specified typology of various levels of semantic interoperability, designed to provide semantically expressive and functional means to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to develop a specified typology of various levels of semantic interoperability, designed to provide semantically expressive and functional means to interconnect typologically different sub‐systems in an international comprehensive knowledge organization system, supporting advanced information retrieval and exploration strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking the analysis of rudimentary forms of a functional interoperability based on simple pattern matching as a starting‐point, more refined strategies to provide semantic interoperability, which is actually reaching the conceptual and even thematic level, are being developed. The paper also examines the potential benefits and perspectives of the selective transfer of modelling strategies from the field of semantic technologies for the refinement of relational structures of inter‐system and inter‐concept relations as a requirement for expressive and functional indexing languages supporting advanced types of semantic interoperability.

Findings

As the principles and strategies of advanced information retrieval systems largely depend on semantic information, new concepts and strategies to achieve semantic interoperability have to be developed.

Research limitations/implications

The approach has been developed in the functional and structural context of an international comprehensive system integrating several heterogeneous knowledge organization systems and indexing languages by interconnecting them to a central conceptual structure operating as a spine in an overall system designed to support retrieval and exploration of bibliographic records representing complex conceptual entities.

Originality/value

Research and development aimed at providing technical and structural interoperability has to be complemented by a thorough and precise reflection and definition of various degrees and types of interoperability on the semantic level as well. The approach specifies these levels and reflects the implications and their potential for advanced strategies of retrieval and exploration.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article

Getaneh Alemu, Brett Stevens and Penny Ross

With the aim of developing a conceptual framework which aims to facilitate semantic metadata interoperability, this paper explores overarching conceptual issues on how…

Abstract

Purpose

With the aim of developing a conceptual framework which aims to facilitate semantic metadata interoperability, this paper explores overarching conceptual issues on how traditional library information organisation schemes such as online public access catalogues (OPACs), taxonomies, thesauri, and ontologies on the one hand versus Web 2.0 technologies such as social tagging (folksonomies) can be harnessed to provide users with satisfying experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews works in relation to current metadata creation, utilisation and interoperability approaches, focusing on how a social constructivist philosophical perspective can be employed to underpin metadata decisions in digital libraries. Articles are retrieved from databases such as EBSCO host and Emerald and online magazines such as D‐Lib and Ariadne. Books, news articles and blog posts that are deemed relevant are also used to support the arguments put forward in this paper.

Findings

Current metadata approaches are deeply authoritative and metadata deployments in digital libraries tend to favour an objectivist approach with focus on metadata simplicity. It is argued that unless information objects are enriched with metadata generated through a collaborative and user‐driven approach, achieving semantic metadata interoperability in digital libraries will remain difficult.

Practical implications

In this paper, it is indicated that the number of metadata elements (fields) constituting a standard has a direct bearing on metadata richness, which in turn directly affects semantic interoperability. It is expected that this paper will contribute towards a better understanding of harnessing user‐driven metadata.

Originality/value

As suggested in this paper, a conceptual metadata framework underpinned by a social constructivist approach substantially contributes to semantic interoperability in digital libraries.

Details

New Library World, vol. 113 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

Amed Leiva-Mederos, Jose A. Senso, Yusniel Hidalgo-Delgado and Pedro Hipola

Information from Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) is stored in different formats, in platforms that are not compatible, or even in independent networks. It…

Abstract

Purpose

Information from Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) is stored in different formats, in platforms that are not compatible, or even in independent networks. It would be helpful to have a well-defined methodology to allow for management data processing from a single site, so as to take advantage of the capacity to link disperse data found in different systems, platforms, sources and/or formats. Based on functionalities and materials of the VLIR project, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that provides for interoperability by means of semantic alignment techniques and metadata crosswalks, and facilitates the fusion of information stored in diverse sources.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing the state of the art regarding the diverse mechanisms for achieving semantic interoperability, the paper analyzes the following: the specific coverage of the data sets (type of data, thematic coverage and geographic coverage); the technical specifications needed to retrieve and analyze a distribution of the data set (format, protocol, etc.); the conditions of re-utilization (copyright and licenses); and the “dimensions” included in the data set as well as the semantics of these dimensions (the syntax and the taxonomies of reference). The semantic interoperability framework here presented implements semantic alignment and metadata crosswalk to convert information from three different systems (ABCD, Moodle and DSpace) to integrate all the databases in a single RDF file.

Findings

The paper also includes an evaluation based on the comparison – by means of calculations of recall and precision – of the proposed model and identical consultations made on Open Archives Initiative and SQL, in order to estimate its efficiency. The results have been satisfactory enough, due to the fact that the semantic interoperability facilitates the exact retrieval of information.

Originality/value

The proposed model enhances management of the syntactic and semantic interoperability of the CRIS system designed. In a real setting of use it achieves very positive results.

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Article

Hind Lamharhar, Dalila Chiadmi and Laila Benhlima

In e-government domain, an efficient semantic interoperability of services is a big challenge. In this context, semantic technologies play a fundamental role in numerous…

Abstract

Purpose

In e-government domain, an efficient semantic interoperability of services is a big challenge. In this context, semantic technologies play a fundamental role in numerous e-government programs. Indeed, these technologies enable enriching the public service description provided by different public administrations with additional semantic information, which allows automatic services processing and information exchange between involved members in comprehensive and interpretable manner, thus facilitating service integration and cooperation. The most frequently used technologies in this area are semantic web services (SWS) technology and ontology. Thus, for modelling efficiently public services, the authors have exploring, studying and analyzing some of e-government researches and projects that applied semantic technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors address how semantic technologies transform the e-government domain through exploring and studying the use of SWS and ontology in numerous researches and projects applying these technologies in this area. Then, the authors have compared them through a set of criteria defined according to e-government requirements such as the SWS modelling approach for describing semantically public services, ontologies for representing governmental specific features (e.g. regulation and organizational structures) and developed portal for supporting user ' s perspectives. Based on this study, the authors have identified the appropriate standards, frameworks, and models for developing the framework.

Findings

The authors have developed a framework for public services which enhances existing approaches with additional aspects. Thus, the approach comparing to other works improves the service ontology with a cognitive semantic approach to support the multiple usage contexts and situations of services. This semantic is developed in form of a Sit/Ctx ontology developed based on CSs model represented through conceptual graphs theory. The authors have used this model besides OWL-S, improving thus the level of automation of discovery and composition process of public services, which become more efficient with taken into consideration their interrelations and situations.

Originality/value

The approach comparing to other works improves the service ontology with a cognitive semantic approach to support the multiple usage contexts and situations of public services, providing thus the end-users (people and enterprises) a better orientation in discovery process.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article

Dibakar Ray, Umesh Gulla, Shefali S. Dash and M.P. Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to present such an analytical framework for analyzing Government Interoperability Frameworks (GIFs) and to do a comparative analysis of a set…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present such an analytical framework for analyzing Government Interoperability Frameworks (GIFs) and to do a comparative analysis of a set of GIFs using the analytical framework. Based on the comparative analysis, the paper presents a set of recommendations useful for new GIF initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on literature and personal knowledge and experience, an analytical framework is proposed for qualitative comparison of GIFs. The analytical framework is based on three core areas of interoperability frameworks – context, content, and process. A total of 21 GIFs are analyzed and evaluated against the framework. The primary sources of information for the study are the interoperability framework documents. In some cases, published articles, brochures, etc. are used as additional sources of information.

Findings

The comparative analysis shows that the analytical framework adequately covers all the features of the GIFs. Comparative analysis also shows that most of the GIFs concentrate mainly on technical and syntactical aspects only. Organizational and semantic issues are covered only by a handful of GIFs. At the policy level, most common interoperability policies are found to be: the universal adoption of common specifications used on the internet and world wide web, use of XML for data integration and data management, and use of open standards for all public sector information systems. Regarding management of GIF, it is found that German, Greek and New Zealand GIFs document the process of standards life cycle management in a much better way, whereas UK e‐GIFs' coverage of management and compliance mechanism of GIF is excellent. Overall, it is found that the UK e‐GIF is one of the most mature and exhaustive on all counts. German – Standards und Architekturen f¨r eGovernment‐Anwendungen on the other hand is found to be a unique effort. It incorporates features of both an enterprise architecture and those of an interoperability framework.

Originality/value

The contribution of the study is substantial for academia and practitioners. For academics, this framework can be used in future research as a tool to benchmark and grade GIFs. The practitioners, on the other hand, can use the study, to identify various essential features of a GIF which can be very useful for new GIF initiatives. The six‐layered e‐government technical architecture discussed here can be used to check the current status of technical interoperability in an organization and to identify gaps in the technology coverage.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article

Dunia Llanes-Padrón and Juan-Antonio Pastor-Sánchez

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Records in Contexts proposal of a conceptual model (RiC-CM) from the International Council on Archives’ (ICA) archival…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the Records in Contexts proposal of a conceptual model (RiC-CM) from the International Council on Archives’ (ICA) archival description and to propose an OWL ontology for its implementation in the semantic web.

Design/methodology/approach

The various elements of the model are studied and are related to earlier norms in order to understand their structure and the modeling of the ontology.

Findings

The analysis reveals the integrating nature of RiC-CM and the possibilities it offers for greater interoperability of data from archival descriptions. Two versions of an OWL ontology were developed to represent the conceptual model. The first makes a direct transposition of the conceptual model; the second optimizes the properties and relations in order to simplify the use and maintenance of the ontology.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed ontology will follow the considerations of the final version of the ICA’s RiC-CM.

Practical implications

The analysis affords an understanding of the role of RiC-CM in publishing online archival data sets, while the ontology is an initial approach to the semantic web technologies involved.

Originality/value

This paper offers an overview of Records in Contexts with respect to the advantages in the field of semantic interoperability, and supposes the first proposal of an ontology based on the conceptual model.

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Article

George Macgregor and Fraser Nicolaides

Detail research undertaken to determine the key differences in the performance of certain centralised (physical) and distributed (virtual) bibliographic catalogue…

Abstract

Purpose

Detail research undertaken to determine the key differences in the performance of certain centralised (physical) and distributed (virtual) bibliographic catalogue services, and to suggest strategies for improving interoperability and performance in, and between, physical and virtual models.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodically defined searches of a centralised catalogue service and selected distributed catalogues were conducted using the Z39.50 information retrieval protocol, allowing search types to be semantically defined. The methodology also entailed the use of two workshops comprising systems librarians and cataloguers to inform suggested strategies for improving performance and interoperability within both environments.

Findings

Technical interoperability was permitted easily between centralised and distributed models, however, the various individual configurations permitted only limited semantic interoperability. Significant prescription in cataloguing and indexing guidelines, greater participation in the program for collaborative cataloguing, consideration of future functional requirements for bibliographic records migration, and greater disclosure to end users are some of the suggested strategies to improve performance and semantic interoperability.

Practical implications

This paper not only informs the library and information science research community and union catalogue administrators, but also has numerous practical implications for those establishing distributed systems based on Z39.50 and search/retrieve web services as well as those establishing centralised systems.

Originality/value

The paper moves the discussion of Z39.50‐based systems away from anecdotal evidence and provides recommendations based on testing, and is intimately informed by the UK cataloguing and systems librarian community.

Details

Program, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article

Ebrahim Karan, Javier Irizarry and John Haymaker

This paper aims to develop a framework to represent semantic web query results as Industry Foundation Class (IFC) building models. The subject of interoperability has…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework to represent semantic web query results as Industry Foundation Class (IFC) building models. The subject of interoperability has received considerable attention in the construction literature in recent years. Given the distributed, semantically heterogeneous data sources, the problem is to retrieve information accurately and with minimal human intervention by considering their semantic descriptions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a framework to translate semantic web query results into the XML representations of IFC schema and data. Using the concepts and relationships in an IFC schema, the authors first develop an ontology to specify an equivalent IFC entity in the query results. Then, a mapping structure is defined and used to translate and fill all query results into an ifcXML document. For query processing, the proposed framework implements a set of predefined query mappings between the source schema and a corresponding IFC output schema. The resulting ifcXML document is validated with an XML schema validating parser and then loaded into a building information modeling (BIM) authoring tool.

Findings

The research findings indicate that semantic web technology can be used, accurately and with minimal human intervention, to maintain semantic-level information when transforming information between web-based and BIM formats. The developed framework for representing IFC-compatible outputs allows BIM users to query and access building data at any time over the web from data providers.

Originality/value

Currently, the results of semantic web queries are not supported by BIM authoring tools. Thus, the proposed framework utilizes the capabilities of semantic web and query technologies to transform the query results to an XML representation of IFC data.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article

Rajesh Sharma and Prabin Kumar Panigrahi

The purpose of this paper is to propose a tool in the form of a roadmap for planning and implementation of interoperability capabilities. The issue of interoperability is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a tool in the form of a roadmap for planning and implementation of interoperability capabilities. The issue of interoperability is gaining importance for offering services as “one-stop shop” due to rapid developments in the field of e-government in recent times. Several complexities are associated with this important dimension, and there is an urgent need for developing a tool to facilitate rollout of e-government projects with interoperability capabilities. The proposed roadmap can enable knowledge sharing among key stakeholders for building a common vision and contribute to planning and implementation of interoperability features of e-government.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an exploratory study using the phenomenographic interpretive approach. The literature review identifies the facets and the issues that are crucial for facilitating interoperability. The status of interoperability in some of the developed countries is reviewed where e-government is in a relatively mature stage. Based on the review, this paper identifies an initial set of issues that can guide semi-structured interviews with policymakers, partners and the government agencies implementing e-government projects. The views of these key stakeholders are then analyzed and used for developing the roadmap for implementation of interoperability of e-government services. The findings are then mapped in India’s context for triangulation purpose.

Findings

The paper provides insights into various planning and implementation issues that have to be addressed for building interoperability capability. A roadmap is proposed encompassing the essential legal, regulatory, organizational and technical aspects that are deemed essential for successful planning and implementation of interoperability capability.

Research limitations/implications

The study has the limitation that the exploratory part of the study is based on inputs from key actors in the Indian context only. It needs to be validated by empirical studies in various contexts.

Practical implications

The roadmap proposed will be useful for the policymakers, as it can guide them for planning and implementing e-government systems with interoperability capabilities. It can be used as a knowledge-sharing tool for spreading awareness of steps required for designing and implementing interoperability capabilities.

Originality/value

The paper contributes by providing a tool in the form of a roadmap that can be used by the policymakers and implementers to take a holistic view of requirements for development of interoperability capabilities. The paper can form the basis for future research in specific issues of interoperability.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article

Yevgen Biletskiy, Harold Boley, Girish R. Ranganathan and Harold Boley

The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to describe an approach for building the Semantic Web rules for interoperation between heterogeneous learning objects, namely course outlines from different universities, and one of the rule uses: identifying (in)compatibilities between course descriptions.

Design/methodology/approach

As proof of concept, a rule set is implemented using the rule markup language (RuleML), a member of XML‐based languages. This representation in RuleML allows the rule base to be platform‐independent, flexibly extensible and executable.

Findings

The RuleML source representation is easily converted to other XML‐based languages (such as RDF, OWL and XMI) as well as incorporated into, and extracted from, existing XML‐based repositories (such as IEEE LOM and CanLOM) using XSL Transformations (XSLT).

Practical implications

The RuleML facts and rules represented in the positional slotted language are used by the OO jDREW reasoning engine to detect and map between semantically equivalent components of course outlines as the key step in their interoperation. In particular, this will enable the precise delivery of learning objects (e.g. course outlines) from repositories to a specific learner's context.

Originality/value

Although the particular scenario is discussed in the present paper, the proposed approach can be applied to other tasks related to enabling semantic interoperability.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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