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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

José Miguel Fernández Güell and Javier González López

This paper aims to assess recent foresight exercises applied to cities by evaluating three major issues. Have foresight practitioners understood cities complexity? Have…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess recent foresight exercises applied to cities by evaluating three major issues. Have foresight practitioners understood cities complexity? Have urban planners used adequate tools to generate plausible future visions? Are city policy makers using foresight studies to limit urban uncertainty?

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 city foresight examples were selected which either have international relevance or which constitute good examples of future-oriented initiatives. Case studies were classified into five taxonomies: European Union initiatives; local initiatives; academic initiatives; corporate initiatives; and architectural initiatives. A set of assessment criteria was established: city complexity conceptualization; methodological approach; and study impact.

Findings

Preliminary research outcomes show growing doubts about the appropriateness of the foresight tools used in cities and about the competency of foresight practitioners in understanding the complex and dynamic nature of contemporary cities. Furthermore, policy makers do not seem to grasp the potential of foresight to formulate urban strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the initiatives studied are relatively recent, so impact analysis has been limited by available data. Mostly, secondary documented sources were used to validate cases’ assessment. Research suggests a number of areas in which foresight studies may have a practical application to the urban realm.

Originality/value

The value of the present work lies in the effort for assessing and improving forward-looking activities undertaken at cities through a set of criteria which take into consideration the complexity and diversity of contemporary cities.

Details

foresight, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Luis Fernando Guerrero Baca and Francisco Javier Soria López

The purpose of this paper is to examine the need to go beyond the “monumentalist” vision in restoration of built heritage and embrace principles of sustainability in this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the need to go beyond the “monumentalist” vision in restoration of built heritage and embrace principles of sustainability in this architectural practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies as conceptual reference. Architectural typology.

Findings

The environmental crisis that is currently recognized as one of the most important problems that contemporary society must address urgently is a situation that still has not permeated enough in the practice of monumental restoration, which is still carried out using unlimited resources.

Research limitations/implications

In that sense, the close relationship between the built and the natural environment as an essential ingredient of the vernacular is analysed.

Practical implications

Much of the sustainable principles, that have been put forward as an example to be followed, are elements that have hundreds of years in the constructive tradition.

Social implications

In this context, vernacular architecture has much to contribute in the field of conservation by the enormous accumulated knowledge that its shapes, materials and social use represent.

Originality/value

This experience must be retrieved, but not as an aseptic laboratory experiment, but through its updated application and active implementation to improve the quality of life for inhabitants and contribute to the preservation of our cultural and natural environments.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 18 November 2013

David Güemes Castorena and José Aldo Díaz Prado

Management of technology, technological innovation, business innovation and new product development, innovation, design and strategy, entrepreneurship innovation and…

Abstract

Subject area

Management of technology, technological innovation, business innovation and new product development, innovation, design and strategy, entrepreneurship innovation and leadership strategic planning of technological innovation.

Study level/applicability

MBA.

Case overview

KidZania® is a Mexican company of family entertainment centers, founded in 1996 by Luis Javier Laresgoiti Fernández and fully developed by Xavier López Ancona. An innovative concept inspired in a fusion of nursery and theme park, KidZania®, brings together strong brands as partners to support their own and offer a complete entertainment and educational experience to kids between two and 16 years old. A unique business model, involvement of experts and a committed board of directors has been the key to the innovation of KidZania®. Its managers, by 2011, operate eight centers – two in Mexico, two in Japan and the rest in Indonesia, Portugal, United Arab Emirates and South Korea – and have plans to expand to more countries in Asia, Latin America and Europe in 2011 and finally to the USA. The future of KidZania® seemed bright, and the manager of the company believed that the growth appeared unstoppable because the purpose was to grow on 100 percent. The strategy appeared clear: dominate in the emerging and consolidated markets (big cities) in order to strengthen its competitive position and then, enter the US market with all the muscle and take the lead in the biggest market. But what was the competition going to do about it? What will the moves be for big players like Walt Disney – which had revenues of US$38.06 billion (USSEC, 2010), for example? Will the competitors try to buy the new entrant in order to build it up or to disappear it? Or will they try to imitate KidZania®? What would be the future of this new edutainment business model?

Expected learning outcomes

This case has been used in executive and MBA courses in creating and sustaining innovation, recognizing disruptive technologies, and in identifying effective methods of marketing a new innovative business model. Instructors can use the case to achieve the following two learning objectives: the KidZania® case helps students to refine their understanding of the model of disruption. They are forced to look closely at the product/service and decide whether it is a disruptive innovation or a sustaining innovation. This close examination becomes a helpful tool as students think about what decisions they would make to secure the success of the KidZania® in the entertainment market. The KidZania® case allows students the opportunity to develop their knowledge and understanding of the model “skating to where the money is”. Based on their analysis of the company and product students, must decide whether the KidZania® is a business that will produce sustained revenue and is worth investing in.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or e-mail support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Javier Lopez, Rolf Oppliger and Günther Pernul

To overview and discuss the technical, economical, legal, and social reasons why public key infrastructures (PKIs) have failed so far, summarizing the lessons learned, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

To overview and discuss the technical, economical, legal, and social reasons why public key infrastructures (PKIs) have failed so far, summarizing the lessons learned, and giving expectations about the future development of the field.

Design/methodology/approach

A detailed analysis of the developments in the PKI field, pointing out the achievements so far and the issues that still remain unsolved.

Findings

The possible reasons for the failure of PKI technology.

Originality/value

Identifies and analyses the problems of PKIs considering the different perspectives, i.e. not only the technical issues but also other issues like the economical, legal, and social issues that have also influenced the failure of PKIs.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Mariemma I. Yagüe, Antonio Maña, Javier López, Ernesto Pimentel and José M. Troya

Distributed systems usually contain objects with heterogeneous security requirements that pose important challenges for the underlying security mechanisms and especially…

Abstract

Distributed systems usually contain objects with heterogeneous security requirements that pose important challenges for the underlying security mechanisms and especially in access control systems. Access control in distributed systems often relies on centralised security administration. Existing solutions for distributed access control do not provide the flexibility and manageability required. This paper presents the XML‐based secure content distribution (XSCD) infrastructure, which is based on the production of protected software objects that convey contents (software or data) and can be distributed without further security measures because they embed the access control enforcement mechanism. It also provides means for integrating privilege management infrastructures (PMIs). Semantic information is used in the dynamic instantiation and semantic validation of policies. XSCD is scalable, facilitates the administration of the access control system, guarantees the secure distribution of the contents, enables semantic integration and interoperability of heterogeneous sources, provides persistent protection and allows actions (such as payment) to be bound to the access to objects.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Rodrigo Roman and Javier Lopez

This paper aims to analyze the security issues that arise when integrating wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the internet. Also, it seeks to review whether existing…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the security issues that arise when integrating wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the internet. Also, it seeks to review whether existing technology mechanisms are suitable and can be applied in this context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers the possible approaches that can be used to connect a WSN with the internet, and analyzes the security of their interactions.

Findings

By providing the services of the network through a front‐end proxy, a sensor network and the internet can interact securely. There are other challenges to be solved if the sensor nodes are integrated into the internet infrastructure, although there exists interesting advances on his matter.

Research limitations/implications

The complete integration of sensor networks and the internet still remains as an open issue.

Practical implications

With the current state of the art, it is possible to develop a secure sensor network that can provide its services to internet hosts with certain security properties.

Originality/value

The paper studies the interactions between sensor networks and the internet from the point of view of security. It identifies both solutions and research challenges.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Vicente Lima Crisóstomo, Félix Javier López Iturriaga and Eleuterio Vallelado González

– The purpose of this paper is to verify the existence of financial constraints for investment in Brazil, an emerging market with growing international visibility.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to verify the existence of financial constraints for investment in Brazil, an emerging market with growing international visibility.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data methodology and generalized method of moments (GMM), the paper estimates dynamic investment models based on the Euler equation and Tobin's q for a panel data set of 199 Brazilian non-financial firms for the time period 1995-2006.

Findings

Results show that Brazilian firms face financial constraints since their investments depend on internally generated funds. Results are robust to different investment models based on the Euler equation, also controlling for growth opportunities. Significant investment-cash flow sensitivity has been found for the whole sample of firms. Subsamples of firms considered as under financial constraints, according to dividend payout and equity issuance policies, have higher investment-cash flow sensitivity. Investment-cash flow sensitivity of financially constrained firms in Brazil is higher than that in the UK and in Romania, a transition economy.

Originality/value

The results extend empirical evidence of financial constraints in Brazil. The paper contributes to the literature by assessing the firms’ financial constraint status on an annual basis, and by using panel data methodology and GMM to estimate dynamic models of investment that take into account the proposals of the hierarchy of finance theory. In addition, the paper controls for growth opportunities. Capital market imperfections affect firm investment in Brazil and such effects are even stronger for financially constrained firms.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Fidel Edgard Amesquita and Oswaldo Morales

The learning outcomes are as follows: to understand the problem of informality and how it develops, taking advantage of the control flaws of public and private…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes are as follows: to understand the problem of informality and how it develops, taking advantage of the control flaws of public and private institutions and its growth by the legitimacy of society; to analyze the role of the regulatory body in its fight against informality from the area of its influence, which is the energy sector; to analyze the economic and social impact of a solution like the one proposed in the case; to analyze the impact at the level of public policies of solutions such as the one proposed in the case; and to review the strategy of the hand of technology that can achieve the development of original solutions to fight against informality.

Case overview/synopsis

The case study was written on the basis of a real success story that explains the development of a technological solution that allowed the Supervisory Agency of Energy and Mining of Peru to effectively deal with informality in the commercialization of fuels, which became a reference in the region. The story begins by recreating the system that existed for the commercialization of fuels and how the shortcomings of this system itself encouraged the appearance of informal merchants who benefited from the situation. It also explains how the regulatory authority decides to deal with this problem by creating a special unit that confronts this issue and how, after some failures, an original strategy was able to be designed with the help of technology to control informality.

Complexity academic level

Business schools, where different aspects can be analyzed, such as the strategy used in the supply chain of informal or formal commerce. It is also recommended for use in master’s programs in specific sectors, such as public management or energy management. Finally, it can also be used in entrepreneurship, given that informal entrepreneurship is considered as a new line of research in this field.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Mariemma I. Yagüe, Antonio Maña and Javier Lopez

Provide a secure solution for web services (WS). A new interoperable and distributed access control for WS is presented.

1024

Abstract

Purpose

Provide a secure solution for web services (WS). A new interoperable and distributed access control for WS is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the separation of the access control (AC) and authorization function.

Findings

Mechanisms presented allow seamless integration of external authorization entities in the AC system. The Semantic Policy Language (SPL) developed facilitates specification of policies and semantic policy validation. SPL specifications are modular and can be composed without ambiguity. Also addressed was the problem of the association of policies to resources (WS or their operations) in a dynamic, flexible and automated way.

Research limitations/implications

The ACProxy component is currently under development. Ongoing work is focused on achieving a richer “use control” for some types of WS.

Practical implications

Administrators of WS can specify AC policies and validate them to find syntactic and semantic errors. Components for automated validation of policies at different levels are included. This ensures that the AC policies produce the desired effects, facilitating the creation and maintenance of policies. It also provides mechanisms for the use of interoperable authorizations.

Originality/value

A practical system that provides a secure solution to AC for WS. To the best of one's knowledge, no other system provides mechanisms for semantic validation of policies based on external authorization entities. Likewise, the mechanisms for interoperability of external authorization entities are also novel. The system provides content‐based access control and a secure, decentralized and dynamic solution for authorization that facilitates the management of complex systems and enhances the overall security of the AC.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Jianying Zhou, Jose Onieva and Javier Lopez

As a value‐added service to deliver important data over the internet with guaranteed receipt for each successful delivery, certified email has been discussed for years and…

Abstract

Purpose

As a value‐added service to deliver important data over the internet with guaranteed receipt for each successful delivery, certified email has been discussed for years and a number of research papers appeared in the literature. This paper aims to present two optimized multi‐party certified email protocols.

Design/methodology/approach

Reviews two existing email protocols and provides a modified version to overcome their security flaws and weaknesses. Extends the two‐party protocol to a multi‐party scenario.

Findings

Both of the protocols have three major features. A sender could notify multiple recipients of the same information while only those recipients who acknowledged are able to get the information. Both the sender and the recipients can end a protocol run at any time without breach of fairness. The exchange protocols are optimized, each of which has only three steps, and the trusted third party will not be involved unless an exception (e.g. a network failure or a party's misbehavior) occurs.

Originality/value

Provides a focus on a value‐added service – certified email.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

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